The end of time, akhir al zaman[i]
Ramadhan is a time of reflection about the individual and ummatic situation
in this period that is towards akhir al zaman. The prophet said that his mission
came near the last day[ii].
Many of the conditions that the prophet described as coming at the end of time are already here. Some of the conditions
relate to social deterioration, munafiraat; and some are glad tidings of good things
to happen, mubashiraat.
The end of time will be characterized by ignorance of the religion, spread of zina,
drinking of intoxicants, imbalance in the women to men ratio until there are 50 women for 1 man[iii].
Scholars will pass away and ignorant persons will become leaders who will be asked and will answer from ignorance[iv].
People will say ‘la ilaaha illa al llaah’ because they found
their forefathers saying it but do not know what it means[v].
Sexual immorality will become so wide-spread that men and women will no longer have shame of coitus on a public road[vi] and will behave like donkeys[vii].
Killing will become common[viii].
People will kill their neighbors, brothers, uncles, and sons of his uncle. The companions asked the prophet what would
have happened to people’s minds? The prophet answered that Allah will take away the minds of the people and leave them
people who seem to be after something when they are after nothing’[ix].
Iman will become unstable. A man will up a believer and becomes a non-believer
in the evening and a believer in the evening will become a non-believer by the next morning selling his iman for goods of the duniya[x].
Public immorality will become extreme such that the liar is believed, the truthful is disbelieved, the dishonest is
trusted, the trustworthy will be considered dishonest, and the stupid will be the spokesmen[xi].
Muslims will blindly follow the Yahud and Nasara like lizards follow one another into the lizard hole[xii].
Muslims will be attacked and humiliated by their enemies. When the companions asked whether that will be due to Muslims
being few, he replied that the Muslims will be many but will be weak because of their love of the duniya and fear of death[xiii].
Greed, materialism, competition, and mutual jealousy will increase[xiv]
Excessive luxury, taraf, will occur with people eating choicy foods and
wearing choicy clothes[xv].
Allah warned that when the duniya is at the height of luxury Allah will
send His command and all will be destroyed[xvi].
Reflections of Ramadhan are not only about the negative things. There are also events in the akhir zaman that bring cheer to Muslims. Islam will spread far and wide[xvii].
Islam will become dominant even if the mushrikiin do not want[xviii].
The prophet predicted Muslim conquest of Constantinolople before Rome[xix] and it happened at the hands of Sultan Muhammad al Fatih in 1453M.
The prophet also predicted that the Roman territories (modern Europe)
will become Muslims[xx].
The prophet also predicted that the Muslims will fight and defeat the Yahud until they cannot find a stone or tree
to conceal them[xxi].
The prophet predicted return of the khilafat
rashidah when he said that the ummat will go through various political stages: nubuwwat, khilafat rashidat, mulk ‘aadh,
mulk jabriyy, and finally khilafat rashidat[xxii].
Also awaited is the Mahdi and the descent of Isa (PBUH) when peace and justice will prevail
in the world under the shari’at of Islam.
[i] The information on munaffiraat and mubasshiraat is adapted from an article by al rabi’e
bin Ibrahim Maliihi titled ‘Aakhir al Zaman baina al Mubashiraat wa al munafiraat’ published in the Al Bayan Magazine
Volume 17 No 182 Shawal 1423/December 2002
[ii] ‘bu’ithtu fi nismi al saa’at’ silsilat al ahadiith al sahiihat 2:467
[iii] Inna min ashraat al saa’at an yurufa’u al ‘ilm, wa yadhharu al jahal, wa yafshu al zina, wa
yushrabu al khamr, wa yadhihabu al rijaalu wa yabqa al nisa hatta yakuuna li kahmissina imra’at qayyiman waahidan’
[iv] Mukhtasar Sahih Muslim Hadith No. 1858 Kitaab al ‘Ilm
[v] silsilat al ahadiith al sahiihat 1:127 No 87
[vi] ‘ wa allathi nafsi bi yadihi, la tafni hadhihi al ummat hatta yaquuma al rajul ila al mar at fayaftarishuha fi al tariiq fayakuun khiyaaruhum
yawmaidhin man yaquul law waarayitaha khalfa hadha al hait. (silsilat al ahadiith al sahiihat 1:789)
[vii] Sahih Muslim 8:197-198
[viii] Bukhari 9:87 Fitan
[ix] hatta yaqtula al rajul jaarahu. Wa yaqtul akhaahu, wa yaqtula ‘ammahu, wa yaqtula ibn
‘ammihi. Qaaluu ya rasuula al llaah wa ma’ana ‘uquulana? Qaala: innahu layanzi’u ‘uquul ahl
dhaalik wa yakhluf lahum habaaan min al naas yahsabu aktharuhum annahum ‘ala shay wa laisu ‘ala shay’ silsilat
al ahadith al sahiiha: 4:248.
[x] ‘baadiru bi al a’amaal fitnan ka qita’I al lail al mudhlim yasbahu al rajul muminan wa yamsi
kaafiran wa yumisi mumuminan wa yasibahu kaafiran yabii’u diinahu bi ‘aradhi min al duniya’
[xi] silsilat al ahadith al sahihat: 4:508 No 1881
[xii] Latatiba’anna sunan man kaana qablakum shibran bi shibri wa dhiraa’an bi dhiraa’in hatta lay
dakhaluu juhra dhabbi lataba’atumuuhum. Qulna ya rasul al llaah al yahuud wa al nasaara! Qaala faman?
[xiii] Yuushaku al umam al tatadaa’a ‘alaikum kama tatadaa’a al aklat ila qas’atiha faqaala qailu amin qillatin nahnu yawmaifhin? Qaala
la bal antum yawmaidhin kathiir wa lakinnakum ghuthaau ka ghuthaai al sail wa liyanza’anna al llaahu min suduri ;aduwwikum
al mahaabat minkum wa liyaqdhifanna fi quluubikum al wahan qiila wa ma al wahan? Hubb al duniya wa karaahiyat al mawt’
[xiv] Silsilat al ahadiith al sahiihat 4:248
[xv] Inna min shiraar ummati alladhiina ghadhu bi al na’im, alladhiina yatlibuuna alwaana al ta’an wa alwana
al thiyaab yatashaddaquun bi al kalaam’ silsilat al ahadiith al sahihat 4:512 No 1891
[xvii] layablughanna hadha al amr ma balagha al layl wa al nahar wamla yaturuku al llaah bayt mudar wa la wabar illa
adkhalahu al llaahu hadha al ddiin bi ‘izzi ‘aziiz aw bi dhulli dhaliil ‘izzan yu’izzu bihi al llaah
al islam wa dhilla yadhillu bihi al kufr’ silsilat al ahaadiith al sahiihat 1:7
[xix] Abu Qubail reported from Amre bin al Aas: ‘su ila ayyi al madinatain yuftahu awaalan qusantiina aw ruumiyyat?
Faqaala madinat hirqal ya’ani qusantiina. silsilat al ahadith al sahiihat 1:8. It was also reported from Abuhuraira
that a Muslim army will conquer qusantiina’ Mukhtasar Muslim Bab fi fath qusantiina. Also reported from Abuhuraira ;
sami’itum bi madiinat jaanibu minha fi al barr wa jaanibu minha fi al bahr? Qaalu na’am ya rasul al llaah. Qaala
rasul al llaah: ‘la taquum al sa’at hatta yanzila al ruum bi al a’imaaq aw bidaabiq fayakhruj lahum jaishu
min al madinat…. Fayaftahuuna qusantiina. Mukhtasar Muslim kitaab al fitan.
[xx] It was reported from Abuhiraira that the The prophet said ‘taquum al saa’at wa al ruum akthar al naas
.. inna fiihim khisaala arba’a: innahum la arham al naas ‘inda fitnat, wa asra’uhum ifaaqat ‘inda
musiibat, wa awshakuhum karat ba’ada farrat, wa kahiruhum li miskin wa yatiim wa dhaif wa jhamisat hasanat jamiilat:
wa aman’uhum min dhul al muluuk’ Mukhtasat sahiih Muslim li al mundhiri hadiith No 2026. The ‘ulama interpreted
this to mean that the Romans (Europeans) will then have become Muslims because these characteristics are found only in Muslims.
[xxi] la taquum al saa’at hatta yuqaatila al muslimuun al yahuud fayaqtukuhum al muslimuun hatta yakhtabi al yahuudi
min waraai al hajar wa al shajar fayaquul al hajar wa al shajar ya muslim ya ‘abda al llaah hadha yahuudi khalfi ta’ala
faqtuluhu illa al gharqad finahu shajar al yahuud.
[xxii] Silsilat al ahaddith al sahiihat 1:8