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ISLAMIC MEDICAL EDUCATION RESOURCES 04

0604-OVER-VIEW OF EPIDEMIOLOGY

By Professor Omar Hasan Kasule Sr.

1.0 DEFINITION, SCOPE, and CLASSIFICATION

1.1 Definition: study of distribution and determinants of disease

 

1.2 Classification of Epidemiology: observational and experimental

 

1.4 Sub-disciplines of epidemiology: environmental, nutritional, clinical, pharmaco, occupational, public health etc

 

2.0 IMPORTANCE OF EPIDEMIOLOGY:

2.1 Clinical Medicine

 

2.2 Public Health:

 

3.0 EPIDEMIOLOGIC METHODOLOGY:

3.1 The Scientific Method

 

3.2 Hypotheses: null and alternative

 

3.3 Sources of Epidemiological Data: primary and secondary

 

3.4 Basic characteristics of methodology: Empiricism, Induction, Refutation

 

3.5 Balance of Strength (cheap data) and Weaknesses (confounding)

 

4.0 HISTORICAL EVOLUTION OF EPIDEMIOLOGIC KNOWLEDGE

4.1 Ancient Times -  1500 CE

 

4.2 1500-1750 CE:

 

4.3 1750 - 1870 CE:

 

4.4 1870- 1945 CE: Communicable diseases

 

4.5 1945 – Today: Non-communicable diseases

 

5.0 FIELD EPIDEMIOLOGY

5.1 Sample Size Determination

 

5.2 Sources of Secondary Data

 

5.3 Primary Data Collection by Questionnaire

 

5.4 Physical Primary Data Collection

 

5.5 Data Management

 

5.6 Data Analysis: summarization, association (χ , t, F) and effect (OR, RR)

 

6.0 CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

6.1 Definition

 

6.2 Design and Data Collection

 

6.3 Ecologic Design

 

6.4 Health Surveys

 

7.0 CASE-CONTROL DESIGN

7.1 Definition                  

7.2 Design and Data Collection

7.3 Strengths and Weaknesses

 

8.0 FOLLOW-UP DESIGN

8.1 Definition

 

8.2 Design and Data Collection

 

8.3 Strengths and Weaknesses

 

9.0 RANDOMIZED DESIGN: COMMUNITY TRIALS

9.1 Definition

 

9.2 Design of a Community Intervention Study

 

9.3 Community Trials: Strengths and Weaknesses

 

10.0 RANDOMIZED DESIGN: CLINICAL TRIALS

10.1 Study Design for Phase 3 Randomized Clinical Trials

 

10.2 Data Collection

 

10.3 Analysis and Interpretation

 

11.0 BIAS IN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDIES

11.1 Selection Bias

 

11.2 Misclassification Bias

 

11.3 Confounding Bias

Professor Omar Hasan Kasule, Sr. April 2006 BHSc Yr1 Sem2