Home

ISLAMIC MEDICAL EDUCATION RESOURCES 04

0500-PREVENTIVE MEDICINE, (TIBB WIQAI)

By Professor Omar Hasan Kasule Sr.

Learning Objectives

Concepts of disease prevention

Prevention and pre-determination, qadar

Types of disease prevention

 

Key Words and Key Terms

Preventive medicine, tibb wiqa’i:

Concept of prevention in the qur’an

Prevention and qadar

Primary prevention

Secondary prevention

Tertiary prevention

 

UNIT OUTLINE

1.0 CONCEPT OF PREVENTION IN THE QUR’AN

2.0 PREVENTION AND QADAR

3.0 PRIMARY PREVENTION

4.0 SECONDARY PREVENTION

5.0 TERTIARY PREVENTION

 

UNIT SYNOPSIS

1.0 CONCEPT OF PREVENTION IN THE QUR’AN

The Qur’an has used the concept of wiqaya in many situations to refer to taking preventive action against entering hell-fire, wiqaya min al naar, against punishment, wiqaya min al adhaab[i], against evil, wiqaya min al sharr[ii], against greed, wiqaya min al shuhhu[iii], against bad acts, wiqayat min al sayi’at[iv], against injury/harm, wiqayat min al adha[v], against jealousy, wiqayat min al hasad, against oppressive rulers, wiqaya min al taghoot[vi], against annoyance, wiqayat min al adha[vii],  and against heat, wiqayat min al harr[viii]. Prevention is therefore one of the fixed laws of Allah in the universe, sunan llah fi alkawn. Its application to medicine therefore becomes most obvious.

 

2.0 PREVENTION AND QADAR

Disease could be prevented before occurrence or could be treated after occurrence. The concept of prevention, wiqayat, does not involve claiming to know the future or the unseen, ghaib, or even trying to reverse qadar. The human using limited human knowledge attempts to extrapolate from the present situation and anticipates certain disease conditions for which preventive measures can be taken. Only Allah knows for sure whether the diseases will occur or not. The human uses knowledge of risk factors for particular diseases established empirically to predict disease risk. Preventive action usually involves alleviation or reversal of those risk factors. For example stopping cigarette smoking can prevent lung cancer and ischemic heart disease. Obeying fire regulations can prevent fire accidents. Careful driving prevents road traffic accidents and trauma. Immunization prevents viral and bacterial infections.

 

3.0 PRIMARY PREVENTION

The concept of prevention can be understood at three levels. Primary prevention aims at making sure the disease does not occur at all. Prevention also involves avoiding any act that can hurt good health or destroy life, halaak[ix]. There are activities that promote good health and are part of preventive medicine because they put the body in the best possible status to be able to fight and overcome any disease that occurs. Examples of such activities are: physical exercise, rest and recreation, diet, dhikr llah, happy marriage and good family life.

 

4.0 SECONDARY PREVENTION

Secondary prevention aims at limiting the impact of the disease once it has occurred; this is usually by attempting to detect the disease early and instituting necessary treatment.

 

5.0 TERTIARY PREVENTION

Tertiary prevention aims at mitigating the long-term sequelae and complications of a disease.


[i] (2:201, 3:16, 3:191, 3:34, 13:37, 40:7, 40:9, 40:21, 44:56, 52:18, 52:27, 70:11)

[ii] (86:11)

[iii] (59:9, 64:16)

[iv] (40:9, 40:45)

[v] (16:81)

[vi] (3:28)

[vii] (16:81)

[viii] (16:81)

[ix] (4:176, 67:28)

Professor Omar Hasan Kasule Sr. 2005