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ISLAMIC MEDICAL EDUCATION RESOURCES 04

0512-ISLAMIZATION OF THE CURRICULUM: THE IIMC AT THE KULLIYAH OF MEDICINE

Paper written for the International Islamic Charity Foundation Kuwait 21st December 2005 by Professor Omar Hasan Kasule

INTRODUCTION TO THE ISLAMIC INPUT CURRICULUM

The main motive of IIMC is to resolve the crisis of duality or dichotomy manifesting as teaching Islamic sciences separately from medical disciplines by different teachers and in different institutions. IIMC resolves the crisis of duality by insisting that Islamic concepts should be taught by the same people who teach medical disciplines. All lecturers in the Kulliyah of Medicine go through a Diploma in Islamic Studies (DIS) whose modules are exactly the same as the modules of IIMC. This prepares them to be effective teachers of IIMC.

 

The teaching material of IIMC has been prepared and tested over the past 7 years. Synopses of all lectures for years 1 -5 are available at http://omarkasule.tripod.com.

 

Since the start of the Kulliyah in 1997, we have worked towards integrating Islamic values and concepts in the teaching and examination of basic and clinical medical sciences. The expectation is that our graduates will be able to integrate Islamic moral and legal values in their practice of medicine because they went through an integrated education system.

 

IIMC follows the Islamic paradigm of reading 2 books, the book of revelation, kitaab al wahy, and the book of empirical science, kitaab al kawn. Both books contain signs of Allah, ayaat al llaah, and must be read together. It is a mistake to read one of the books and neglect the other. The solution to the crisis of duality in the ummah starts from joint reading of the 2 books, al jam ‘u baina al qira atain. Thus medical scientists who are involved in IIMC read the signs in both books.

 

The vision of IIC has two separate but closely related components: Islamization and legal medicine. Islamisation deals with putting medicine in an Islamic context in terms of epistemology, values, and attitudes. Legal medicine deals with issues of application of the Law (fiqh) from a medical perspective.

 

IIMC has 5 main objectives: (a) introduction of Islamic paradigms and concepts in general as they relate to medicine, mafahiim Islamiyat fi al Tibb. (b) strengthening faith, iman, through study of Allah’s sign in the human body (c) appreciating and understanding the juridical, fiqh, aspects of health and disease, al fiqh al tibbi. (d) understanding the social issues in medical practice and research and (e) Professional etiquette, adab al tabiib, from the Islamic perspective.

 

We feel that IIC helps the future physician prepare for the heavy trust, the amanat of being professionally competent. He must be highly motivated. He must have personal, professional, intellectual, and spiritual development programs. He must know the proper etiquette of dealing with patients and colleagues. He also must know and avoid professional malpractice. He needs to be equipped with leadership and managerial skills to be able to function properly as a head of a medical team.

 

DERIVATION OF MEDICAL ETHICS FROM THE MAQASID AL SHARI’AT

In my view the most significant aspect of IIMC is the derivation of medical ethics from Islamic sources as al alternative to western sources. The full impact of this will be appreciated in due course when these ideas become widely adopted.

 

Secularized European law denied moral considerations associated with ‘religion’ and therefore failed to solve issues in modern medicine requiring moral considerations. This led to the birth of the discipline of medical ethics that is neither law enforceable by government nor morality enforceable by conscience. On the other hand, Islamic Law is comprehensive and encompasses moral principles directly applicable to medicine.

 

The theory of medical ethics in Islam should be based on the 5 purposes of the Law, maqasid al shari’at, that are also considered the 5 purposes of medicine, maqasid al tibb. The 5 purposes are preservation of religion and morality, hifdh al ddiin; preservation of life and health, hifdh al nafs; preservation of progeny, hifdh al nasl; preservation of intellect, hifdh al ‘aql; and preservation of wealth, hifdh al maal. Any medical action must fulfill one of the above purposes if it is to be considered ethical. If any medical procedure violates any of the 5 purposes it is deemed unethical.

 

In practical detailed situations, legal axioms called Principles of the Law or qawa’id al shari’at need to be used to resolve mostly situations of apparent conflict between maqasid or to assist logical reasoning. Principles of the Law, qawa’id al shari’at, when applied to the medical area can also be referred to as Ethical Principles of Medicine, qawa’id al tibb. The basic ethical principles of Islam relevant to medical practice be derived from the 5 principles of the Law, qawa’id al shari’at, that are: intention, qasd; certainty, yaqeen; injury, dharar; hardship, mashaqqat; and custom or precedent, ‘aadat. The maqasid and qawa’id are used in a synergistic way. The basic purpose of qawa’id is to provide robust rules for resolving situations of conflict between or among different maqasid.

 

The challenge before Muslim physicians is to liberate themselves from confusing and inconsistent European ethical theories and principles and instead to work hard to develop specific regulations for various medical interventions, dhawaabit al tibaabat, by a renewal of ijtihad. This ijtihad will be based on primary sources of the Law (Qur’an and sunnat), secondary sources of the Law based on transmission, masaadir naqliyyat (ijma and qiyaas); secondary sources of the Law based on reason, masaadir ‘aqliyyat (istishaab, istihsaan, & istilaah); the purposes of the Law, maqasid al shari’at; principles of the Law, qawa’id al fiqh; as well as regulations of the Law, dhawaabit al fiqh.

 

In the early period of medical jurisprudence (0-1400 H) most issues could be resolved by direct reference to the primary sources. In the middle period (1401 – 1420 H) issues were resolved by using ijma, qiyaas, istishaab, istihsaan, & istilaah. In the modern period (1420 - ) medical technology is creating so many issues whose resolution will require a broad bird’s eye-view approach that can only be found in the theory of maqasid al shari’at.

 

 

APPENDIX #1: TOPICS OF IIMC IN 2004/2005

YEAR 1

YEAR 2

YEAR 3

YEAR 4

YEAR 5

 BLK 1: ‘AQIIDAT

BLK 1: LIFE & HEALTH 

BLK 1a: ELEM CLINIC

BLK 1: MED TECHN

BLK 1: FORMATION

Intro to Islamic Input

Life, al hayaat,

History Taking

Assisted Reproduction

The study circle

Islam, Iman, & Ihsan:

Death, al mawt

Physical Exam & Investi

Contraception

Self study of Qur’an,

Tauhid

Health, al sihhat

Adab: Patient & Families

Reproductive cloning:

Motivation in Islam

Risalat

Disease, al maradh

Adab Health Care Team

Abortion

Medical Education

Akhirat

Disease treatment, al tibaabat

Adab: with the Dying:

Artificial Life Support

Personal Development

Qadar

al tasawwur al Islami

 

Euthanasia

Skill Develop Program

‘Ubudiyyat

 

BLK 1b:LAW/ ETHICS

Organ Transplant

Quality Culture

Tazkiyat al Nafs

BLK 2: GROWTH

Over-view

Stem cell transplant

 

Ithm & Ghufran

Intra-uterine Life, :

Sources of the Law

Cosmetic Surgery

BLK 2a: LEADERSHI

Kufr & Shirk

Infancy & Childhood:

Purposes and Principles

Animal Research

Basic characteristics:

Al Milal wa al adyaan

Youth

Purposes & Princip of Med

Human Research

Attributes and functions

Concept of cUbudiyyah:

Middle Age

Medical Procedures:

Research Practice

Diseases of leaders

 

Old Age

Research Procedures:

BLK 2a: TRANSAC T

Communication

BLK 2: ‘ILM

 

Physician Conduct:

Medical malpractice:

Negotiation

Nature of Knowledge

 

Professional Misconduct:

Marriage

Value-based Leadership:

Crisis of Knowledge:

BLK 3: BIO MIRACLE

 

Divorce & annulment:

BLK 2b: LEADERS

Method  of Knowledge

Perfection in Anatomy

 

Inheritance

The Prophet

Classical Islam Sciences

Perfection in Physiology

BLK 2:FIQH ‘IBADAT

Sales

The righteous khulafa

History of Med Sciences:

Perfection in Biochemistry

Taharat:

Personal Loans

Political leaders

Islamization of Med Science

Control & Homeostasis

Rulings on Salat

Investments

Social role models

Islamization: Other Disciplin

Interaction with  the Environ

Physical Acts of Salat

Endowments

Scholars and reformers

Islamic Educ in SE Asia

Epidemiology & Statistics:

Special Types of Salat:

BLK 2b: CRIMES

Multicultural society

 

Modernization:

Salat in Difficulties

Crimes

BLK 3a: MGMT

 

 

Saum

Legal competence:

Principles and concepts

BLK 3: TARIKH

BLK 4: STRU & FUNC

Zakat

Pleas, & evidence

Strategy

Creation of the Universe I

Alimentary System

Hajj

Judgment, conviction,

Planning & implementat

Creation of the Universe II:

Locomotor System

 

BLK 3: SOC INSTITU

Control and evaluation

Creation of the Human I:

Protective Systems

BLK 3: NORM CONDIT

Family 1: Gender

Decisions & Problems

Creation of the Human II:

Genito-urinary System

Menstruation

Family 2: Marital Rel

BLK 3b: RES MGMT

Khilafat I:

Cardio-respiratory System

Human Sexuality

Family 3:rels & Child

Time Management

Khilafat II:

Sensory System

Pregnancy and Delivery:

The Masjid

Financial management

Taskhiir

Nervous System

Breast feeding

Takaful

Information Management

Imarat al Ardh

Globalization

Hygiene

Shuura

Orgn management

Era of Risaalat:

 

Foods & Drinks

Maal

Personnel management

Era of Khilafat Raashidat,

 

Activity, Rest, and Sleep:

BLK 4a: COM PROB

 

Islam in the Malay World:

 

 

Lifestyle

 

 

 

BLK 4: PATH CONDITI

Sexual perversions

 

BLK 4: CIVILIZATION

 

Uro-genital system

Addictions

 

Concepts of Civilization:

 

Cardio-respiratory system:

Poverty

 

Ancient Civilizations

 

Connective tissue system:

Violence

 

Cycle of Civilization

 

Alimentary system: Dr

BLK 4b: SOC ACTS

 

Umayyad Era:

 

Sensory systems:

Dawa:

 

Abassid Era:

 

Gen systemic conditions:

Amr & Nahy

 

Osmanli Era:

 

Psychiatric conditions

Social Change

 

Other Muslim Civilizations:

 

Neurological conditions:

Professional orgs

 

Achiev of Islamic Civilizatio

 

Age-related conditions:

Welfare and Disaster

 

Tajdid & Islah

 

 

 

 

A Common Civilizatization

 

 

 

 

 

NB: Teaching material can be accessed at http://omarkasule.tripod.com

 


APPENDIX #2

CURRICULUM FOR YEAR 1

THEME I: ‘AQIIDAT

MODULE 1.0: USUUL AL DDIIN

1.1 Islam, Iman, & Ihsan

1.2 Tauhid

1.3 Risaalat

1.4 Aakhirat

1.5 Qadar

 

MODULE 2.0: ASPECTS OF ‘AQIIDAT

2.1 Ubuudiyyat

2.2 Tazkiyat al nafs

2.3 Ithm & Ghufran

2.4 Kufr & Shirk

2.5 Milal

 

THEME II: ‘ILM & MA’ARIFAT (Knowledge)

MODULE 3.0: THEORY OF KNOWLEDGE, nadhariyyat al ma’arifat

3.1 Nature of Knowledge, tabi’at al ma’arifa’at

3.2 Crisis of Knowledge, azmat al ma’arifat

3.3 Methodology of Knowledge, manhajiyat al ma’arifat

3.4 Classical Islamic Sciences, al ‘uluum al islamiyyat al taqliidiyyat

3.5 Problem-based Learning in the Qur’an, asbaab al nuzuul fi al qur’an

 

MODULE 4.0: ISLAMIZATION OF KNOWLEDGE, islamiyyat al ma’arifat

4.1 Concept of Islamization, mafhuum islamiyyat al ma’arifat

4.2 Islamization of Medical Sciences, islamiyat al ‘uluum al tibiyyat

 

THEME III: KHALQ (Creation) [0.85 MB, 126pp]

MODULE 5.0: CREATION OF THE UNIVERSE, khalq al kawn

5.1 Nature, tabi’at al kaun

5.2 The Ultimate Questions, al as ilat al nihaa iyyat

5.3 Signs of Allah In The Universe, aayaat al llaah fi al kawn

5.4 Allah’s Will, iraadat al allah

5.5 Order, Change and Permanence

 

MODULE 6.0: CREATION OF THE HUMAN, khalq al insan

6.1 Creation of the Human Being, Khalq Al Insan

6.2 Nature of the Human, Tabi'at Al Insaan

6.3 Superiority of Humans, Afdhaliyyat Al Insaan

6.4 Mission of Humans on Earth, Risalat Al Insan Fi Al Ardh

6.5 Diversity of Humans, Tafaawut Al Bashar

 

THEME IV & V: TAARIIKH

MODULE 7.0: Khilafa, Taskhiir,  ‘Imarat al ardh

MODULE 8.0: CYCLE OF CIVILIZATIONS, dawrat al hadhaaraat

MODULE 9.0: THE GOLDEN ERA, ‘ahad al risaalat & ‘ahad al khilafat

MODULE 10.0: ERA OF DYNASTIES, ‘ahad al muluuk

10.5 Achievements of Muslim Civilization, injaazaat al hadharat al islamiyyat

 

 

CURRICULUM FOR YEAR 2

THEME VI: HAYAT, SIHHAT, & NUMUW (Life, Health, & Growth) MODULE 11.0: LIFE and HEALTH, al hayat wa al sihhat

11.1 Life, hayaat

11.2 Death, mamaat

11.3 Health, sihhat & ‘aafiyat

11.4 Disease, maradh

11.5 Treatment of Disease, tatbiib

 

MODULE 12.0: GROWTH AND SENESCENCE, numuw wa al shaykhuukhat

12.1 Intrauterine period, fi al rahim

12.2 Infancy and Childhood, tufuulat

12.3 Youth, shabaab

12.4 Middle Age,

12.5 Old Age, shaykhuukhat

 

THEME VII: JISM al INSAN (The Organism: Structure & Function)

MODULE 13.0: THE BIOLOGICAL MIRACLE, mu’ujizat al jism al insani

13.1 Perfection, Optimality, Incomparability, kamaaa al khalq

13.2 Control and communication,

13.3 Homeostasis, ‘I’itidal

13.4 Interaction with the Environment

13.5 Pathological Processes: Repair & Restoration of Equilibrium

 

MODULE 14.0: HUMAN ORGAN SYSTEMS

14.1 Alimentary system, ma idat

14.2 Locomotor Systems and Protective Systems, harakat al jism wa himayatuhu

14.3 Genito-urinary and cardio-respiratory systems, al qalb & tanaffus

14.4 Sensory system, al hawaas

14.5 Nervous Systems, al jihaaz al ‘asabi

 

CURRICULUM FOR YEAR 3

THEME VIII: USUUL al SHARI’AT (Foundations Of The Law)

MODULE 15.0: SOURCES, PURPOSES, PRINCIPLES OF THE LAW

15.1 Over-view

15.2 Sources of the Law, masadir al shari’at

15.3 Purposes of the Law, maqasid al shari’at

15.4 Principles of the Law, qawa’id al shari’at

15.5 Regulations of the Law, dhawaabit al shari’at

 

MODULE 16.0: THE OTHMANI LAW GAZETTE, majallat al ahkaam al adliyyat

 

THEME IX: AKHLAAQ al TIBB (Ethics of Medicine)

MODULE 17.0: PURPOSES, PRINCIPLES, and REGULATIONS OF MEDICINE

17.1 Purposes and Principles of Medicine

17.2 Regulations of Medical Procedures, dhawaabit al tatbiib

17.3 Regulations of Research Procedures, dhawaabit al bahath

17.4 Regulations of Physician Conduct, dhawaabit al tabiib

17.5 Regulations about Professional Misconduct, dhawaabit al inhiraaf al mihani

 

MODULE 18.0: ETIQUETTE OF THE PHYSICIAN, adab al tabiib

18.1 Etiquette with Patients and Families, adab al tabiib ma’a al mariidh

18.2 Etiquette with the Dying, adab al tabiib inda al ikhtidhaar

18.3 Etiquette with the Health Care Team, al adab fi al fariiq al tibbi

18.4 Etiquette of Research on Animals, adab al bahth ‘ala alhayawaan

18.5 Etiquette of Research on Humans, adab al bahath ‘ala al bashar

 

THEME X: FIQH al ‘IBAADAAT (Physical Acts of Worship)

MODULE 19.0: TAHARAT & SALAT

19.1 Taharat

19.2 Rulings of salat, ahkaam al salat

19.3 Physical Acts of salat

19.4 Special Types of salat

19.5 Salat in difficult circumstances, salaat ahl al a’adhaar

 

MODULE 20.0: PHYSICAL ‘IBADAT

20.1 Saum

20.2 Zakat

20.3 Hajj

20.4 Tilaawat al Qur’an

20.5 Jihad

 

THEME XI FIQH al MU’AMALAAT (Transactions)

MODULE 21.0: CIVIL TRANSACTIONS, mu’amalaat madaniyyat

21.1 Marriage, fiqh al munakahaat

21.2 Divorce & annulment, fiqh al talaaq & fasakh

21.3 Inheritance, fiqh al mawariith

21.4 Agency, wakalah

21.5 Competitions, sibaaq

 

MODULE 22.0: FINANCIAL TRANSACTIONS, mu’amalaat maaliyyat

22.1 Sales, buyuu’u

22.1 Personal Loans, Quruudh

22.2 Investments

22.4 Endowments & gifts, awqaaf & hibat

22.5 Other transactions

 

THEME XII FIQH AL ‘AADAAT (Physiological Conditions)

MODULE 23.0 REPRODUCTION, izdiyaad

23.1 Menstruation, al haidh

23.2 Human Sexuality, shahwat al jins

23.3 Pregnancy, al haml

23.4 Delivery, wadhau al haml

23.5 Breast-Feeding, ridha’a

 

MODULE 24.0 ACTIVITIES OF NORMAL LIVING, ‘aadaat al ma’ishat

24.1 Hygiene, al nadhaafat

24.2 Foods, at 'Imat

24.3 Drinks, ashribat

24.4 Activity, nashaat

24.5 Sleep and Rest, nawm & raahat

 

THEME XIII FIQH AL AMRAADH (Pathological Conditions)

MODULE 25.0 CONDITIONS OF ORGAN SYSTEMS

25.1 Uro-Genital System, jihaaz bawli & jihaaz tanaasuli

25.2 Cardio-Respiratory System, qalb & jihaaz al tanaffus

25.3 Connective Tissue System,

25.4 Alimentary System, jihaaz al ma idat

25.5 Sensory Systems, al hawaas

 

MODULE 26.0 OTHER DISEASE CONDITIONS

26.1 Patho-physiological Disturbances

26.2 General Systemic Conditions

26.3 Psychiatric conditions, amraadh nafsiyyat

26.4 Neurological conditions, amraadh al a’asaab

26.5 Age-Related Conditions, amraadh al ‘umr

 

CURRICULUM FOR YEAR 4

THEME XIV: FIQH MUSTAJIDDAAT al TIBB (Modern Medicine)

MODULE 27: REPRODUCTIVE & GENETIC TECHNOLOGY

27.1 Assisted Reproduction, taqniyat al injaab

27.2 Contraception, mani’u al haml

27.3 Reproductive Cloning, al istinsaakh

27.4 Abortion, isqaat al haml

27.5 Other Technologies

 

MODULE 28.0: MEDICAL and SURGICAL TECHNOLOGIES

28.1 Artificial Life Support, ajhizat al in’aash

28.2 Euthanasia, qatl al rahmat

28.3 Solid Organ Transplantation, naql al a’adha

28.4 Stem Cell Transplantation, naql al khalaayat

28.5 Change of Fitra, taghyiir al fitrat

 

THEME XV: FIQH AL MUHAAKAMAAT (Judgments)

MODULE 29.0:  CIVIL AND CRIMINAL CASES

29.1 Crimes Jinaayaat

29.2 Legal Competence, ahliyyat

29.3 Etiquette of the Judge, adab al qadhi

29.4 Pleas & Evidence, da'wa & shahadat

29.5 Judgment, Conviction, and Punishment, qadha & ‘uquubat

 

MODULE 30.0:  LEGAL MEDICINE, tibb shara’e

30.1 Forensic Evidence in Transactions

30.2 Forensic Evidence in Homicide

30.2 Forensic Evidence in Body Injury

30.4 Forensic Evidence in Sexual Crimes

30.5 Medical Malpractice

 

THEME XVI ARKAAN al JAMA’AT (Pillars of the Community)

MODULE 31.0: THE FAMILY INSTITUTION, al bayt

31.1 Gender

31.2 Family as a Natural Social Unit

31.3 Marriage

31.4 Parents and Relatives

31.5 Children

 

MODULE 32.0: COMMUNITY INSTITUTIONS, muassasaat al jama’at

32.1 Masjid

32.2 Ukhuwwat

32.3 Takaful

32.4 Shuura

32.5 Maal

 

THEME XVII HUMUUM al JAMA’AT (Community Concerns) [0.91 MB, 139 pp]

MODULE 33.0: COMMUNITY PROBLEMS, mashaakil al jama’at

33.1 Life-Style. namt al hayaat

33.2 Sexual Perversions, inhiraaf jinsi

33.3 Addiction, idmaan

33.4 Poverty, faqr

33.5 Violence, ‘unf

 

MODULE 34.0:  COMMUNITY ACTION, al ‘amal al ijtima’e

34.1 Dawa

34.2 Enjoining the good and forbidding the bad, amr & nahy

34.3 Social change, taghyiir ijtima’e

34.4 Professional and Occupational Organizations, munadhamaat mihniyyat

34.5 Social Welfare and Disaster Relief Organizations, ‘awn ijtima’e & ighaathat

 

CURRICULUM FOR YEAR 5

THEME XVIII TAKWIIN al TABIIB (Formation of the Physician)

MODULE 35.0: BASIC ISLAMIC EDUCATION

35.1 The Study Circle

35.2 Qur’an Study

35.3 Hadith Study

35.4 Ma’athuurat Study

35.5 Fiqh Study

 

MODULE 36.0: MOTIVATION, EDUCATION, AND DEVELOPMENT

36.1 Concept and methods of motivation in Islam, al tahfiiz fi al islam

36.2 Medical education, al ta’aliim al tibbi

36.3 Personal Development, al tanmiyat al shakhsiyyat

36.4 Skill Development, tanmiyat al mahaaraat7

 

THEME XIX: QIYADAT (Leadership)

MODULE 37.0: LEADERSHIP SKILLS, mahaaraat al qiyadat

37.1 Leadership: Basic Characteristics, sifaat al qiyadat

37.2 Attributes and functions of leaders, sifaat wa masuliyaat al qaid

37.3 Disease of Leaders and Followers, amraadh al qiyaadat

37.4 Communication in leadership, fan al ittisaal fi al qiyaadat

37.5 Negotiation in leadership, fan al hiwaar fi al qiyadat

 

MODULE 38: MODEL LEADERS

38.1 The Prophet, al rasuul

38.2 Righteous Khulafa, khulafa raashiduun

38.3 Political and Military Leaders, qiyadaat siyasiyyat wa ‘askariyyat

38.4 Social Role Models, qiyadaat ijtima’iyyat

38.5 Scholars and Reformers, ‘ulama wa muslihiin

 

THEME XX: IDAARAT (Management)

MODULE 39.0: MANAGEMENT SKILLS, mahaaraat al qiyaadat

39.1 Principles and Concepts of Management,

39.2 Strategy, al istratiijiyat

39.3 Planning and implementation, takhtiit wa tanfiidh al masharii’e

39.4 Control and Evaluation, al muraaqabat wa al taqwiim

39.5 Decision-making and problem-solving, al qaraaraat wa al mashaakil

 

MODULE 40.0: RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

40.1 Time Management, idaarat al waqt

40.2 Financial Management, idaaral maal

40.3 Information Management, idaarat al ma’alumat   

40.4 Organizational Management, idaarat al munadhamat

40.5 Personnel Management, idaarat al bashar

Professor Omar Hasan Kasule, Sr. December 2005