0412-ROLE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF A MURABBI (PART II)
Presentation at the Islamic Enhancement Program (IEP 2004)
of the Kulliyah of Economics and Management Sciences held at the Swiss Garden Hotel in Kuantan on 3rd December 2004 by Prof Dr Omar Hasan Kasule, Sr.
8.0 ISLAMIZATION OF ECONMOMICS and MANAGEMENT
Leadership and management are growing
disciplines; there is a lot of practical and technical experience. The theoretical background is however not yet fully developed.
This program does not tackle the theories of leadership and management. The main thrust of the program is practical skills.
Field experience has already shown this to be very effective and to respond to an actual felt need. Islamic management sciences
are still in their infancy; they did not develop much after the basic fundamentals and rudimentary structures were set up
in the first century of the Hijri calendar. There is a new movement to Islamize various disciplines of knowledge. This is
an attempt to recast them in such a way that they reflect the Islamic world-view and the Muslim cultural and intellectual
heritage. Some tentative work has been done; a lot remains to be completed. Many aspect of management are universal and reflect
what is common in human experience across cultures, geographical areas, and historical eras. Some concepts of leadership and
the paradigms of management science as well as the research tools reflect the European or American world-view that is different
in many aspects from the Islamic ones. European of American concepts that are based on objective research that is not culturally-biased
are accepted by Muslims and have been used in this manual. Some Euro-American concepts are not acceptable altogether because
they contradict Islamic teachings and world-view. Many concepts and methods can become acceptable when modified and framed
in a proper and moral context. A lot of the available leadership and management literature is not a series of theoretical
formulations but an empirical description of actual practical experience. Muslims can benefit a lot from such descriptions
provided they are careful to adapt them to their particular temporo-spatial circumstances. There are many aspects of leadership
and management that non-Muslim scholarship has not delved in adequately and Muslims can make original contributions in them
that all humanity will be eager to listen to. These fields include: understanding human motivation, building endurance in
the worker etc. The need to develop Islamic management sciences is still a challenge that Muslim scholars must face.
THE TAUHIDI PARADIGM IN LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT
The tauhidi paradigm in Islam can
help address the issue of integration in organizations. Modern organizations are experiencing problems due to lack of a holistic
context in which they operate. The solution to one problem may create other problems elsewhere. Too much specialization in
functional areas has reduced the ability of leaders to see the whole picture. Islam and its paradigm of tauhid has much to
contribute to solving the dilemmas of today's management. Tauhid provides a center of gravity, a source, and a unity that
can help rebuild the holistic picture. This is because tauhid provides an intellectual framework for understanding the unity
of creation and existence. It teaches that everything has the same source and therefore in a natural state, harmony must reign.
9.0 LEADERSHIP CHARACTERISTICS OF THE IDEAL MURABBI
LEADERSHIP IN QUR’AN and SUNNAT
Qur’an reported that Ibrahim was given leadership after undergoing trial[i]. A good leader wants good followers[ii]. Leaders must be accessible but must be given some privacy[iii]. The Qur’an reported about cruel leaders such as Pharaoh[iv], Nimrod[v], and Dhu Nuwas[vi]. Pharaoh was arrogant[vii]. It is necessary and obligatory to have leaders[viii]. Knowledge is the basis for selection of leaders[ix]. Personal ambition for leadership is discouraged[x]. A leader has responsibility[xi]. Everybody exercises leadership responsibility[xii]. Incompetent leaders are condemned[xiii]. Leadership authority in incompetent hands is a sign of doom[xiv]. One of the signs of the approach of the Last Day will be the disappearance of honesty
and when authority is given to those who do not deserve it[xv]. Leadership power is necessary for success for example Sulaiman was a powerful leader[xvi]. The leader must be gradual in obtaining compliance[xvii]. Allah's gives guidance to good leaders[xviii].
objectivity, and honesty are needed in Leadership[xix]. The personality of the leader must have strength and patience[xx]. Musa was very patient with the children of Israil[xxi]. The leader must avoid any appearance of impropriety[xxii]. The leader must have empathy and respect for followers[xxiii]. He must have leniency, good treatment, and forgiveness[xxiv]. The leader must have consideration for the followers[xxv]. The leader is a protector[xxvi]. The leader comforts followers in times of despair[xxvii]. The leader must maintain public moral standards[xxviii]. The leader should not be cruel[xxix]. Leaders learn from mistakes and do not repeat them[xxx]. Good leaders admit ignorance and accept
leader must be liked by followers[xxxii]. Love by people is indication leader is good[xxxiii]. The leader must be accessible[xxxiv]. However the leader must be given some privacy[xxxv].
For success of leadership, the followers must have certain qualities. Bad followers lead to bad leadership. Good followers
lead to good leadership. "kama takuunu yuwalla alaikum".
The duties of followers include obedience of the leaders[xxxvi]. Followers must give sincere advice to the leaders[xxxvii] Good advisors help a leader succeed[xxxviii]. A good leader encourages followers to correct him[xxxix]. Followers may be disobedient as were the children of Israil with Musa[xl]. Respect for authority is necessary for success of society[xli]. Leaders must be obeyed[xlii]. There are however limits to this obedience. Leaders can not be obeyed if they violate the Law[xliii].
may suffer from certain diseases and weaknesses. Ignorant leaders misguide[xliv]. Oppression and petty-mindedness are condemned[xlv]. Oppressors will be finally punished[xlvi]. Bad leaders deceive their followers[xlvii]. They may spend time searching for follower faults[xlviii]. They torment followers for no genuine reason[xlix]. The Qur’an described some cruel leaders such as Pharaoh[l] and Dhu Nuwas[li]. Pharaoh was arrogant[lii]. Taking bribes[liii].
C. GOOD and BAD LEADERSHIP
True leadership is more service than
domination. The leader is the servant (sayyid al qawm khadimuhum). Good and effective
leadership is a source of greatness (ab'qariyyah). Great movements and changes
in history are always associated with great leaders. Intended here is real, genuine, moral, and competent leadership based
on character and integrity and not the phoney leadership that thrives on propaganda, deceit, and manipulation. Bad leaders
are motivated by power alone. They just like the exercise of power. Good leaders have higher motivation. They want to use
leadership power to improve and make a change.
Good leadership is empowering followers. There is no leadership without followership. The quality of the followers
determines the quality of the leaders. A good leader may fail with bad followers. An average leader may succeed if he has
good followers. In the long run it is follower quality that determines the nature of a particular leadership situation. "The
way you are is the way of your leaders". Followers get the leaders they deserve. Incongruence between followers and leaders
is usually temporary and hardly exceeds a generation. Successful leadership requires that followers obey the leader. There
are, however, limitations and conditions for that obedience as will be discussed later. Good leaders teach leadership, they
pull and do not push. Good leadership involves empowering followers by coaching them and then sharing leadership power with
them through delegation. Followers must be given real authority, information and resources but must be held accountable for
what they do. Empowered followers have heightened self-efficacy and self-confidence. They will have higher performance, exhibit
more cooperation, achieve higher personal growth, and in the end all ensure the survival of the organization.
A. THE CONCEPT OF IMAAM IN THE QUR’AN
Qur’an used the term imaam to refer to leaders. Ibrahim prayed that leaders be appointed from his progeny[liv]. Even the suppressed can become leaders, al mustadhi’afiin aimmat[lv]. Each group of people will be identified by their leader, kullu unaas bi imaamihim[lvi]. Good leaders prefer leading righteous people, imaam al muttaqiin[lvii]. The Qur’an described good leaders as the guided ones, aimmat mahdiyiin[lviii]. Bad leaders call people towards evil and hell, aimmat yadi’uuna ila al naar[lix]. Effective leadership is achieved after trials[lx].
B. EVERYBODY UNDERTAKES LEADERSHIP
Leadership is a function exercised by almost
everybody each in his or her own sphere; you are at least leaders of yourself or leader of your family. The prophet taught
that everybody is responsible and that everybody is accountable, kullukum raai wa kullu raa’I mas’uulu ‘an
ra’iyatihi[lxi]. Leadership can be in the community, the work place, and in public organizations.
Since everybody has some leadership roles, each one can become a more effective leader by formal training or gaining experience
on the job. Not everyone wants to be a public leader. There are many people who are just not prepared to invest the energy
necessary to shoulder the responsibilities of public leadership. Leadership involves the following specific functions: setting
and communicating visions, goals, and objectives; representing followers; directing, coordinating, and integrating; influencing,
mobilizing, motivating, creating enthusiasm and optimism; providing services and making a difference.
leaders want good followers[lxii]. The leader is a public figure but must be given some privacy[lxiii]. Abubakar was a special person called al siddiq by the Qur’an[lxiv]. The Qur’an described cruel leaders such as Pharaoh[lxv], Nimrod[lxvi] and Dhu Nuwas[lxvii].
DUTIES OF FOLLOWERS TOWARD THE LEADER
Leaders must be obeyed otherwise there
is no point in leadership. It is better to replace a leader than to disobey his commands. Obedicnce of leaders and those in
authroty is enjoined by the Law, wujuub taa;at al imaam[lxviii], taa’at uulu al amr[lxix]. Obedience extends to officials who work under the leader[lxx]. Each leader is obeyed in his or her own way: obedience of the prophet, taa’art
al rasuul[lxxi], obedience by the wife, taa’at al zawjat[lxxii], and obedience of the parents, taa’at al waalidayn[lxxiii].
There are limits and conditions to the
obedience. Obedience is enjoined as long as there is no disobedience of Allah, al samau wa al taa’at fi ghayr ma’asiyat[lxxiv]. The leader can not compel followers to do evil. The followers can not withhold
obedience to a just order just because they have a different opinion.
leader must be shown respect because his person represents the group. If the leader is not respected, the whole group loses
respect and dignity. Respect for leaders on earth is a reason for getting respect in the hereafter[lxxv].
ADVICE AND CORRECTION:
Followers must advise and correct the leader,
munasahat al imaam[lxxvi]. It is incumbent on the leader to listen and accept advice. Advice from followers
is facilitated by creating an atmosphere devoid of fear. The leader must give the followers license to question. This enhances
Saying the word of truth infront of a unjust
ruler, kalimat haqq inda sultaan jaair, is considered one of the greatest religious duties[lxxvii].
Good, genuine and continuous feed-back
is required of both leaders and followers. The following are characteristics of good effective feed-back: direct, specific,
Feed-back should include both the negative and the positive. Neither the leader or the follower should use feed-back for blaming
or embarassing others.
Follower loyalty is very important
for success of leadership. This is loyalty to the position and not the person of the leader. The leader must reciprocate this
loyalty by being committed to the followers and not abandoning them or exposing them to danger.
D. RELIANCE ON FOLLOWERS:
Leader must rely on and use staff
work. The staff must know they are trusted and that their work is valued.
E. PRAISE AND PERSONALITY CULT:
Followers may make false praise.
A good leader sees through this and avoids it. He discourages praise and development of a personality cult.
FAILURE OF LEADERSHIP
A leader fails due to several often
inter-related causes: refusal to admit mistakes; feeling indispensable; dictatorship; fear for position and not developing
replacements; disloyalty to superiors, peers, followers and the organization; lack of creativity; lack of common sense; lack
of human skills; failure to produce results; following the crowd and not leading; condoning or tolerating incompetence; failure
to recognize and reward good work, and hatred by the followers. A leader is hated for impersonal behavior, not listening to
followers, self importance, wrong decisions, claiming credit for followers' work, blaming followers for his mistakes, secretiveness,
withholding information, not protecting followers from external attacks and criticizing them in public, not consulting followers,
and over-working followers, being arrogant and feeling indispensable, putting people down, mistrust and disloyalty, inaccessibility,
poor human relations, and following the crowd. A leader hated by followers should resign in the interests of the organization.
HUMAN SKILLS of LEADERS
A. RESPECTING AND UNDERSTANDING FOLLOWERS:
Good leaders show concern, respect,
and consideration for followers. Followers reciprocate by showing loyalty. Good and mutually-beneficial leader-follower relationships
can not be sustained without loyalty. Good leaders have well developed human skills. They understands those below him as unique
individuals and not in a generic sense. They will deal with each person in an individualized and unique way. The great secret
of leadership is to be able to tap into the potential of each individual and make him a peak performer, each in his individual
and unique way. They realize that individuals are unique and have God-given talents and potentials to make them productive
and useful contributors to the organization. They respect followers each in his uniqueness. Good and effective leaders have
a firm belief in people.
B. HUMANE BEHAVIOUR.
Good leaders have compassion and
empathy. They have high consideration for others. They have no pride and are like their followers not seeking to be different
from or superior to them. They are lenient and forgiving. They treat their followers well. They protect the followers from
both physical and emotional hurt
C. REPRESENTING FOLLOWERS:
Representing followers and their
interests infront of others takes a lot of the leader’s time. It is however a mistake for the leader to consider himself
a mouthpiece for the followers just transmitting their messages without checking and making sure that the message is appropriate.
The leader must lead and help the followers articulate their interests and then represent them. In a symbolic way a leader
represents followers and has to be careful about his image and behavior because all these reflect on the followers.
D. LOVE BY FOLLOWERS:
A leader will succeed if loved by the followers. Love by followers
is like an emotional savings account. The better the leader treats followers, the more the deposit into the account. Sometimes
the leader may make mistakes or things may not work out well. That is when the savings account comes into use. Withdrawals
can be made from it to cover the defect. If the account is big, a big withdrawal will not lead to immediate bankruptcy. A
small account will be overdrawn quickly exposing both the leader and followers to an ugly confrontation. In most cases love
by followers indicates good leadership. In exceptional cases bad leaders who do not set standards may be loved by lazy followers
who just want to be left alone.
[lxi] (KS45 Bukhari K93 B1, Bukhari K93 B8, Muslim K33 H20, Muslim K33 H44, Abudaud K19 B1, Tirmidhi
K21 B27, Zaid H876, Ahmad 2:5, Ahmad 2:54, Ahmad 2:111, Ahmad 2:121, Ahmad 2:297, Ahmad 2:419, Ahmad 2:424, Ahmad 6:65)
[lxviii] (KS44 Muslim K15 B312, Muslim K33 H31, Muslim K33 H34, Muslim K33 H35, Muslim K33 H35, Muslim
K33 H36, Muslim K33 H37, Muslim K33 H44, Muslim K33 H45, Abudaud K39 B5, Nisai K39 B37, Ibn Sa’ad J4 Q1 p166, Ahmad
1:384, Ahmad 1:386, Ahmad 2:93, Ahmad 2:244, Ahmad 2:252, Ahmad 2:270, Ahmad 2:297, Ahmad 2:306, Ahmad 2:313, Ahmad 2:342,
Ahmad 2:360, Ahmad 2:381, Ahmad 2:386, Ahmad 2:416, Ahmad 2:467, Ahmad 2:471, Ahmad 2:488, Ahmad 2:511, Ahmad 3:114, Ahmad
3:171, Ahmad 4:69, Ahmad 4:70, Ahmad 4:126, Ahmad 4:202, Ahmad 5:144, Ahmad 5:156, Ahmad 5:161, Ahmad 5:171, Ahmad 5:178,
Ahmad 5:381, Ahmad 5:403, Ahmad 6:19, Tayalisi H297, Tayalisi H452, Tayalisi H660, Tayalisi H1019, Tayalisi H2087, Tayalisi
H2432, Tayalisi H2577)
[lxxiv] (KS45 Bukhari K56 B108, Bukhari K56 B109, Bukhari K56 B111, Bukhari K64 B59, Bukhari K93 B4,
Bukhari K95 B1, Muslim K33 H38, Muslim K33 H39, Muslim K33 H30, Abudaud K15 B87, Abudaud K34 B1, Tirmidhi K21 B28, Tirmidhi
K21 B29, Tirmidhi K31 B47, Nisai K39 B35, Ibn Majah K24 B39, Ibn Majah K24 B 40, Darimi K20 B78, Ahmad 1:82, Ahmad 1:94, Ahmad
1:124, Ahmad 1:129, Ahmad 1:310, Ahmad 1:399, Ahmad 1:409, Ahmad 2:17, Ahmad 2:142, Ahmad 2:191, Ahmad 3:67, Ahmad 3:213,
Ahmad 4:69, Ahmad 4:70, Ahmad 4:426, Ahmad 4:427, Ahmad 4:432, Ahmad 4:436, Ahmad 5:66, Ahmad 5:67, Ahmad 5:70, Ahmad 5:325,
Ahmad 5:329, Ahmad 5:381, Ahmad 6:24, Ahmad 6:28, Ahmad 6:402, Ahmad 6:403, Tayalisi H109, Tayalisi H850, Tayalisi H856, Tayalisi