0412-ROLE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF A MURABBI (PART I)
Presentation at the Islamic Enhancement Program (IEP 2004)
of the Kulliyah of Economics and Management Sciences held at the Swiss Garden Hotel in Kuantan on 3rd December 2004 by Prof Dr Omar Hasan Kasule, Sr.
1.0 BASIC CONCEPTS ON TARBIYAT
1.1 OBJECTIVES OF TARBIYAT
SPIRITUAL DEVELOPMENT: The essence
of personal development is purification of the soul. The Prophet said that if the soul is good the rest of the body becomes
good, idha salaha al qalb salaha al jasad kullihi[i]. There are 4 types of qalb, al quluub arbaat[ii]. Professionals may be so engrossed in their work that they forget themselves until
they find themselves in spiritual crises that in turn have adverse effects on their professional work. That is why we have
spiritual development modules for physicians and medical students. That is why we must have a program of spiritual development
for physicians and medical students.
KNOWLEDGE: Knowledge is needed for
spiritual development. Spirituality based on a flawed knowledge base will soon be diverted by shaitan. Knowledge is needed
to distinguish correct aqidat from the incorrect one. Knowledge is also needed for proper performance of aadaat and ibaadaat.
A Muslim must therefore have a basic corpus of knowledge that he cannot do without. The jurists use the term what is known
in religion by necessity, al ma’aluum fi al ddiin bi al dharuurat.
1.2 MODELS OF TARBIYAT
THE DAR AL ARQAM MODEL: The best
model of tarbiyat is the study circle (also called halaqah or usra). The prophet (PBUH) was able to train the best generation
of Muslims in Makka in Dar al Arqam. It was integrated training involving teaching by word and by example. The graduates of
the system built the Islamic civilization that we are proud of. The dynamics of the start of the Islamic state were related
to the dar al arqam experience. The prophet aimed at training a sufficient number of persons to carry the responsibility and
as soon as he had that number he had to migrate to Madina. The hijra was not fleeing from danger but was a strategical move.
The prophet used to tell his companions not to be hasty, wala kinnakum tasta’ijuluun, because he knew that no civilization
could be build without trained men.
HUMAN MESSENGERS AS MODELS: All messengers
were human[iii]. They were humans who lived like other humans and undertook human activities like riding
donkeys or milking goats[iv]. As a sign of their humility they all reared sheep[v]. Allah could have conveyed His message to humans in several ways. He however chose to
send human messengers because they would convey the message in addition to living exemplary lives that would be a model for
1.3 TRAINING, EDUCATION, and DEVELOPMENT
To put training in perspective, you
should be able to distinguish it from 2 related concepts: education and development. Training in essentially learning on the
job. It aims at equipping the worker with practical skills that are usable immediately on the job. Training in this sense
differs from education and development. Education is acquisition of general knowledge. It is academic and may not necessarily
be usable in a practical work situation. Development is general improvement in knowledge and skills that occurs passively
as an individual belongs to a certain group and stays in it.
Training is superior to education and development
in that it imparts paracrical skiils neded in life. The prophet taught his companions everything big or small including toilet
etiquette[vii]. The story of Adam indicates that human civilization started with training[viii]. Musa went to Khidhr to learn practical lessons in life[ix]. Training can be by example, qudwat[x]. Stories can be used to teach[xi]. The Qur’an uses the question and answer technique in teaching[xii]. Jibril used the question and answer technique to teach the companions the fundamentals
of the ddiin[xiii]. Practical aspects like salat are best taught by demonstration[xiv]. Jibril taught the prophet the times of salat by practical demonstration, he came to
him at the start and end of each salat[xv]. Jibril taught the prophet wudhu and salat by practical demonstration[xvi]. The prophet taught times of salat by practical demonstration[xvii]. The prophet taught the manner of adhan by practical demonstration[xviii]. Companions taught others about wudhu by practical demonstration[xix]. Companions taught salat by practical demonstration[xx]. The prophet demonstrated the permission to break the fast on a journey by breaking his
own fast[xxi]. The prophet demonstrated the importance of working by working with his own hands at
Khandaq[xxii]. Training should start from the simple to the more complex[xxiii]. New ideas and concepts should be introduced in a phased way[xxiv]. Examples were used extensively in the Qur’an for teaching. ALLAH gives examples[xxv]. the examples are of all sorts[xxvi]. the the knowledgeable understand examples[xxvii]. examples are a guide[xxviii]. the qur’an gave examples of the following: munafiqin[xxix], giving by unbelievers[xxx], the dog[xxxi], life on earth[xxxii], comparison of good and bad group[xxxiii], allah’s nur[xxxiv], the house of the spider[xxxv], a village[xxxvi], companions of muhammad[xxxvii], good and bad words[xxxviii], good and bad giving[xxxix], good and bad women[xl], resurrection[xli], resurrection and embrological development[xlii], those who eat riba[xliii], and misleading examples[xliv].
1.4 THE LECTURER AS A MURABBI
The concept of a murabbi is an integrated
one. The murabbi should teach concepts, skills, bnehavior etc. This seems a heavy burden but there is no way around it.
2.0 TARBIYAT IN THE CLASSROOM
2.1 THE TEACHER’S ETIQUETTE: Teachers
should take their task very seriously. The education process, involving giving and receiving knowledge is noble[xlv]. Teachers should have the humility to know that their knowledge is limited and that they
can always learn more. Arrogance because of knowledge is condemned[xlvi]. Teachers must make the learning process interesting and avoid boredom[xlvii]. They should make the atmosphere and circumstances of learning easy for the students[xlviii]. Teachers must be careful in their actions, attitudes, and words at all times because
being models and leaders they are seen and are emulated. They must be aware that sometimes they can teach using body language
without saying anything[xlix]; they have to be careful about their public dispositions They should be ready to carry
out their function at all times and at any opportunity[l]. They should have an appropriate emotional expression. They can raise the voice to emphasize
an important point[li]. They can show anger or displeasure when a mistake is committed[lii]. Asking students questions to ascertain their level of knowledge is part of the teaching
process and is not in any way a humiliation for them[liii]. Teachers should make sure that the students understand by constant repetition[liv]. Teachers should strive to pass on to the students as much knowledge as they can. Hiding
knowledge is a cause of punishment, uqubat man katama ‘ilma[lv].
2.2 THE STUDENT'S ETIQUETTE:
The Islamic etiquette of the relation between
the student and the teacher should be followed. In general the student should respect the teacher. This is respect to knowledge
and not the individual. The prophet taught admiration and emulation of the knowledgeable[lvi]. Students should be quiet and respectfully listen to the teacher all the time[lvii]. Students should cooperage such that one who attends a teaching session will inform the
others of what was learned[lviii]. Students can learn a lot from one another. The student who hears a fact from a colleague
who attended the lecture may even understand and benefit more[lix]. Students should ask questions to clarify points that they did not understand or which
seem to contradict previous knowledge and experience[lx]. Taking notes helps understanding and retention of facts[lxi]. Study of medicine is a full-time occupation; students should endeavour to stay around
the hospital and their teachers all the time so that they may learn more and all the time. They should avoid being involved
in many other activities outside their studies[lxii].
3.0 TARBIYAT OUTSIDE THE CLASSROOM
3.1 DUTIES OF BROTHERHOOD
BASIC DUTIES AND RIGHTS OF BROTHERHOOD:
The following are basic rights of brotherhood that all members of the health care team owe to one another: returning greetings,
following the funeral procession, accepting invitations, visiting the sick, and responding to sneezer. Brotherhood is so important
that it is not abolished by homicide[lxiii].
ADDITIONAL DUTIES and RIGHTS OF BROTHERHOOD: The following are additional duties: tolerance, forgiveness, helping
the oppressed, solving problems, fulfilling needs, compassion and kindness, gratefulness, protecting the honor of others,
fulfilling promises and commitments, respect, sincere advice or nasiiha. It is
part of the duties of brotherhood to avoid underrating and humiliating others. It is considered part of good behavior to remove
any annoyance from the public places, imatat al adha an al tariiq[lxiv]. In general, everybody must behave with the best of manners, husn al khulq[lxv].
3.2 ETIQUETTE OF INTER-PERSONAL INTERACTION:
Greeting is necessary whenever members
meet again even after a short separation. A small group will initiate greeting the larger group[lxvi]. The walking person initiates greeting the one sitting down[lxvii]. Everybody must be greeted whether known or not known[lxviii]. Those in an assembly must make room for any new comer[lxix]. Two individuals should not engage in secret conversation in the presence of others[lxx] because that may create an impression of backbiting and suspicion. It is forbidden to
prostrate for seniors. Curtsying for seniors is allowed but it becomes haram if done for purposes of seeking favors from them.
It is also not permitted if done under coercion.Standing up when a person enters
is a sign of respect[lxxi]. You should not force a sitting person from his seat[lxxii]. When a person goes away for a temporary period, he has the right to reclaim his seat[lxxiii].
3.3 POSITIVE BEHAVIORS and ATTITUDES
The following positive behaviors and attributes
should be encouraged in the team: mutual love, tawadud, and empathetic caring for
one another, rahmat & hilm[lxxiv]; leniency, rifq, in everything[lxxv]; co-operation and mutual support, ta'awun[lxxvi]; generosity, karam[lxxvii]; truthfulness, sidq[lxxviii]; patience, sabr[lxxix]; modesty, haya[lxxx]; cheerful disposition, imbisaat[lxxxi]; calling people by their favourite names, ahabb al asma[lxxxii]; recognising the rights and the position of those older than you, irfan haqq al
kabir[lxxxiii]; and self control in anger, malk al nafs inda al ghadhab[lxxxiv].
3.4 NEGATIVE BEHAVIORS and ATTITUDES
The following negative attributes should
be avoided: harshness in speech[lxxxv], rumour mongering, namiimat[lxxxvi], excessive praise of others in their presence, al ghulw fi al thana[lxxxvii], mutual jealousy and turning away from other, tahasud & taba'ud, &
tadabur[lxxxviii], avoiding interaction with a colleague, hijrat, for more than 3 days following
a misunderstanding[lxxxix]; anger, ghadhab[xc]; spying on the privacy of others, tatabu'u awrat al nas[xci];You should avoid repeating the same mistake twice[xcii]. It is required not to volunteer information about your personal weaknesses, al satr ala al nafs[xciii], unless it involves correcting a mistake related to the general medical work
4.0 CHARACTER DEVELOPMENT
4.1 WHAT IS CHARACTER?
Character, determined by personality,
is internal. Its outward manifestation is behavior, good or bad. Consistent observation of behavior over a long time reveals
true character. The following are some of the components of a positive character: Piety, generosity, charity, chastity, trust,
humility, balance, moderation, patience, endurance, cooperation, forgiving, ignoring stupid company, reconciliation, honor
and dignity, shyness, modesty, integrity, courage, and wisdom. These traits are best manifested in an atmosphere of positive
attitudes, optimism, and behavior. Positive behavior includes: controlling appetites (eating little, fasting, sexual self-control),
fulfilling needs of others, mercy, good words and acts; and good deeds which wipe out bad ones.
Self-improvement requires commitment,
effort and action to achieve goals, taking responsibility, learning from previous experiences (positive and negative), interdependence,
pursing real needs and not mere wants, a positive attitude, a futuristic outlook, assertiveness, self-confidence, and self
reliance, and contentment.
4.3 TAKING CHARGE
Being assertive is learning to take
control. A person who has self-control can stand up to the temptations of shaitan.
The following are ingredients of self control: self-confidence, self-esteem, self-reliance, self-discipline, and self-development.
Self-confidence is to know yourself, your strengths and weaknesses, to be comfortable with what you are, and to be psychologically
secure. Psychological security raises self-esteem. Self-help and self-improvement are in essence taking charge of your life,
relying on yourself in solving problems, and taking the initiative to improve. Self discipline is needed for success and consists
of control of whims and emotions, sticking to goals, acting according to long-term and not short-term interests, avoiding
impulsive acts, following the head and not the emotions, and trusting your instincts. An entrepreneurial attitude requires
initiative, optimism, self-confidence, creativity, taking calculated risks, looking for and exploiting opportunities, perseverance
4.5 SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
Social development starts with selection
of a spouse and starting a family. It involves learning to develop social networks and taking social responsibilities in the
4.6 PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
The factors behind professional success
are a good basic education, postgraduate training, apprenticeship to a good mentor, setting goals and a time frame to achieve
them, adopting a growth strategy, delivering quality results in the work and not seeking cheap publicity. Professional networking
involves identification of strategic partners for mutual benefit and not manipulating or exploitation. The networking starts
within Muslim circles and extends to the wider professional and social circles. Nurturing contacts is very important otherwise
they get lost. Economic empowerment should have the objective of eventual self-employment.A long-term development plan must be made. Putting side some of the monthly earnings for asset accumulation and investment
ensures financial stability and expansion of the Muslim economic base.
5. 0 INCULCATION OF CONTEMPLATION
5.1 DEFINITION: Contemplation is
meditation about Allah’s creations and signs with deliberation. It is a spiritual and not an intellectual exercise.
It requires concentration therefore it is often undertaken at times and places where environmental sensory distractions are
minimum. Contemplation of the nature of Allah is forbidden. Contemplation is possible only on signs and creations of Allah.
5.2 CONTEMPLATION DURING I’ITIKAAF,
SALAT, and DHIKR: Contemplation can be carried out in the mosque or in other places isolated from the daily routines of life
(open desert, forest, oceon etc). Spending time in the mosque for purposes of contemplation and ibadat is called I’itikaaf
or ‘ukuuf fi al masjid[xciv]. When one is in isolation, khalwat, he has special spiritual experiences. There
is a feeling of being liberated from the daily concerns of the duniya. There is also a sweet feeling of being alone with Allah,
al kahlwat ma’a al llaah. Contemplation is best undertaken at night due to the serenity and lack of interruption. Salat
is also a unique opportunity for contemplation. Dhikr is a form of contemplation. Contemplation can also be carried out during
5.3 CONTEMPLATION BY OBSERVING THE ENVIRONMENT:
There are several methods of achieving the purposes of contemplation. Contemplation can be by looking at nature, al tafakkur
bi al nadhar fi al aafaaq[xcv]. Contemplation can be by looking at the self, al tafakkur bi al nadhar fi an anfus[xcvi]. Contemplation cn be on the wonders of Allah’s creation, al tafakkur fi khalq al
5.4 CONTEMPLATION BY THINKING: Contemplation
can also be by thoughts. One can contemplate Allah’s signs, al tafakkur fi ayaat al llaah[xcviii]. One can contemplate the past, al tafakkur fi al maadhi. One can contemplate the
future especially hell and paradise. Daily events of life in the individual and the community can be objects of contemplation.
5.5 CONTEMPLATION OF THE QUR’AN:
One can contemplate the Qur’an, al tafakur fi al Qur’an[xcix].
6.0 MOTIVATION OF IKHLAAS & NIYYAT
Commitment, ikhlaas, was described
in the Qur’an in several verses[c]. Ikhlaas is expressed in the intention, Ikhlaas al niyyat[ci]. Work is the consequence of the intention. Every work is rewarded according to the intention behind it, innama al
a’amaal bi al niyaat[cii]. Every person is rewarded according to his/her niyyat, li kulli imri ma nawa[ciii]. The amount of reward is commensurate with the intention, iqaau al ajr ;ala qadr al niyyat[civ]. The reward is given for the niyyat even if the work is not performed. The Prophet Muhammad
(PBUH) said that if a person intends to do a good and but fails to carry out his intention, he gets the reward for one act.
If on the other hand he manages to do only part of the work he gets the reward for the whole work. On the day of resurrection
people will be resurrected with their intentions, yukhsharu al naas ‘ala niyyatihim[cv]. Any work without niyyat is not recognized[cvi].
The niyyat must be constant and consistent
throughout the whole period of performance until completion. Start must be early and serious, baadiru bi al ‘amal[cvii]. Work is best judged by its last stages, al ‘amal bi al khawatiim[cviii]. The best of work is that which is consistent and continuous, khayr al ‘amal adwamuha[cix]. In all performance, the human performs that which he is capable of even if the niyyat
envisaged more[cx]. Al Fadhail bin ‘Iyaadh said that work for the sake of humans is shirk and also
no working for fear of people is riyaa, Ikhlaas is when Allah saves you from shirk and riyaa[cxi]. Work is a test for the human, ibtilaau al insane bi al ‘amal[cxii].
Work is responsibility[cxiii]. The Qur’an emphasizes the importance of work, al hath ‘ala al ‘amal[cxiv]. There is reward, good or bad, for work done, jazaau al ‘amal[cxv]. Humans have freedom to choice in the work that they do, hurriyat al insaan fi al ‘amal[cxvi]. Work can be good, ‘amal hasan[cxvii]. Work can also be bad, ‘amal sayyi[cxviii]. Bad work can be decorated to make it appear good, tazyiin al ‘amal al sayyi[cxix]. Bad work is condemned, dhammu al ‘amal al sayyi[cxx]. The reward for bad work is a bad one, jazau al ‘amal al sayyi[cxxi]. Humans must repent from bad work, al taubat min al ‘amal al sayyi[cxxii].
Good work reflects underlying faith, al
‘amal al saalih min al imaan[cxxiii]. Al tafadhul fi al ‘amal al saalih[cxxiv]. Good work is rewarded in the hereafter, thawaab al ‘amal al saalih al ukhrawi[cxxv]. It is also rewarded on earth, thawab al ‘amal al saalih fi al duniya[cxxvi].
Work must be performed with the purest
of intentions. Everything including the various organs of the body bear testimony to good work, shahaadat al a’adha
‘ala al ‘amal[cxxvii]. Allah knows all the work done[cxxviii]. Any form of showing off must be avoided. Riyaa is a type of minor shirk[cxxix]. Working for the purposes of showing off, riyaa, is frowned upon[cxxx].The Qur’an condemns those who want
to be praised for work they did not do[cxxxi].
7.0 INCULCATING RESEARCH AS IJTIHAD
7.1 BASIS FOR RESEARCH IN ISLAM
SEARCH FOR KNOWLEDGE, talab al ‘ilm:
Islam puts emphasis on seeking knowledge, al wusaat bi talab al ‘ilm[cxxxii]. The search for knowledge is a difficult but necessary process as we learn from the story
of Musa and the righteous man[cxxxiii]. Islam calls for benefiting and using knowledge, al intifa’u bi al ‘ilm
wa al ‘amal bihi[cxxxiv]. There is no consideration for knowledge not accompanied by practical application, la ‘ilm bighayr ‘amal[cxxxv].
CONSIDERATION OF INFORMATION, al tadabbur: Tadabbur involves critical observation and consideration of information. Tadabbur
involves critical consideration of information. Humans are encouraged to derive empirical knowledge from observation of the
earth and their own bodies. The observation referred to is serious and deliberative, al nadhar bi al tadabbur. Tadabbir is
required even with the holy text of the Qur’an, tadabbur al Qur’an[cxxxvi].
C. THINKING BASED ON OBSERVATION, tafakkur bi
Thought can be based on empirical
observation, al tafakkur bi al nadhar[cxxxvii]. The observation can be of the earth, al tafkkur bi al nadhar fi al aafaaq[cxxxviii]. It can also be by observation of the human body, al tafakkur bi al nadhar fi al anfus[cxxxix].
INTELLECTUAL EFFORT, ijtihad
Islam encourages active intellectual
effort in looking for knowledge. The process of ijtihad is exertion of maximum intellectual effort to discover the truth or
understand the relation between truths. Ijtihad is also used to discover and identify falsehoods. There are parallels between
the tools of ijtihad used by classical Muslim scholars and the processes of reaching conclusions in modern scientific research.
The process of inductive logic used in medical research is the same as qiyaas usuuli used by scholars of the methodology
of the Law, ulamaa usul al fiqh. The process of reaching a scientific consensus is similar to the process of scholarly
consensus, ijma al ‘ulama.
7.2 SHIFT FROM ‘CONSUMPTION’ TO ‘PRODUCTION’ OF KNOWLEDGE: The physician of the future
will have to change easily between three inter-related roles: research, teaching, and care delivery. The research called for
is not a full-time occupation and will normally be carried out as a multi-disciplinary effort. The need for research cability
is motivated by the fact that the undergraduate curriculum cannot provide all the knowledge that a physician will need. There
is thus a need to acquire new knowedge on a continous basis by reading and research. Medical graduates are not prepared to
be researchers. They lack curiosity and initiative. They have underdeveloped ability to observe and interprete phenomena.
The medical curriculum should aim
at preparing the student to be a researcher, mujtahid, who will extend the frontiers
of medical knowledge. The paradigm shift involved here is to change the student and future physician from a consumer to a
producer of knowledge. The physician must be trained to be a life-long learner. Research is the best way to learn and stay
on the frontiers of knowledge because it is learning by doing and being the midwife of new knowledge. In practical terms,
preparation for research means increasing time devoted to subjects on basic research methodological tools and decreasing the
amount of biomedical scientific information that is either forgotten or becomes obsolete by the time of graduation. Student
research projects are a good introduction to life-long curiosity in science and discovery.
[lv] (KS390 Abudaud K24 B9, Tirmidhi K39 B3, Ibn Majah Intr B24, Ibn Sa’ad J4 Q2 p56, Ahmad
2:263, Ahmad 2:296, Ahmad 2:305, Ahmad 2:344, Ahmad 2:352, Ahmad 2:495, Ahmad 2:499, Ahmad 2:508, Tayalisi H2534)
[lxiv] (KS69 Bukhari K10 B32, Bukhari K56 B128, Muslim K1 H58, Muslim K12 H54, Muslim K12 H56, Muslim
K45 H128, Muslim K45 H129, Muslim K45 H130, Muslim K45 H131, Muslim K45 H132, Tirmidhi K25 B36, Tirmidhi K25 B38, Tirmidhi
K38 B6, Ahmad 2:343)
[lxv] (KS69 Tirmidhi K25 B55, Tirmidhi K25 B62, Tirmidhi K25 B71, Ibn Majah K37 B28, Darimi K20 B74,
Zaid H934, Ahmad 2:177, Ahmad 2:185, Ahmad 2:193, Ahmad 2:217, Ahmad 2:250, Ahmad 2:291, Ahmad 2:369, Ahmad 2:392, Ahmad 2:403,
Ahmad 2:442, Ahmad 2:466, Ahmad 2:469, Ahmad 2:472, Ahmad 2:481, Ahmad 2:527, Ahmad 3:501, Ahmad 4:182, Ahmad 4:193, Ahmad
4:194, Ahmad 4:385, Ahmad 5:89, Ahmad 5:99, Ahmad 5:228, Ahmad 5:236, Ahmad 6:47, Ahmad 6:64, Ahmad 6:68, Ahmad 6:85, Ahmad
6:90, Ahmad 6:99, Ahmad 6:133, Ahmad 6:155, Ahmad 6:159, Ahmad 6:187, Ahmad 6:442, Ahmad 6:446, Ahmad 6:448, Ahmad 6:451,
Tayalisi H374, Tayalisi H1233, Tayalisi H2246)
[lxxii] (KS67 Bukhari K79 B31, Bukhari K79 B32, Muslim K39 H27, Muslim K39 H28, Muslim K39 H29, Abudaud
K40 B15, Tirmidhi K41 B9, Darimi K19 B27, Ahmad 2:6, Ahmad 2:22, Ahmad 2:45, Ahmad 2:89, Ahmad 2:102, Ahmad 2:121, Ahmad 2:124,
Ahmad 2:126, Ahmad 2:149, Ahmad 2:338, Ahmad 2:483, Ahmad 2:523, Ahmad 5:44, Ahmad 5:48, Tayalisi H871, Tayalisi H195)
[lxxiii] (KS67 Muslim K39 H31, Abudaud K40 B25, Tirmidhi K41 B10, Ibn Majah K33 B22, Darimi K19 B28,
Ahmad 2:32, Ahmad 2:84, Ahmad 2:263, Ahmad 2:283, Ahmad 2:342, Ahmad 2:389, Ahmad 2:446, Ahmad 2:447, Ahmad 2:483, Ahmad 2:527,
Ahmad 2:537, Ahmad 3:32, Ahmad 3:422)
[lxxiv] (MB2018 Bukhari 8:40, KS68 Tirmidhi K25 B16, Ahmad 2:241, 269, 442, 461, 514, 539, Ahmad 3:
40. Ahmad 4:358, 366)
[lxxxiii] (KS68 Tirmidhi K25 B15, Ahmad 2:185, Ahmad 2:207, Ahmad 2:222)
[lxxxiv] (KS68 Bukhari K78 B53, Muslim K45 H106, Muslim K45 H107, Muslim K45 H108, Abudaud K40 B3, Ibn
Majah K37 B18, Muwatta K47 H12, Ahmad 2:236, Ahmad 2:268, Ahmad 2:362, Ahmad 2:517, Ahmad 3:438, Ahmad 2:440, Tayalisi H2525)
[lxxxvii](MB2033 Bukhari 8:87, KS68 Abudaud K40 B9, Ibn
Majah K33 B36, Ahmad 2:94, Ahmad 6:5)
[lxxxviii](MB2034 Bukhari 8:91 & MB2035 Bukhari
8:90, KS68 Bukhari K78 B57, Bukhari K78 B58, Muslim K45 B23, Muslim K45 B24, Muslim K45 B28, Muslim K45 B32, Muslim K45 B70,
Abudaud K40 B44, Abudaud K40 B47, Tirmidhi K25 B23, Tirmidhi K25 B24, Tirmidhi K25 B25, Tirmidhi K35 B56, Ibn Majah K37 B22,
Muwatta K37 B22, Ahmad 1:405, Ahmad 2:176, Ahmad 2:222, Ahmad 2:230, Ahmad 2:277, Ahmad 2:287, Ahmad 2:288, Ahmad 2:303, Ahmad
2:312, Ahmad 2:341, Ahmad 2:360, Ahmad 2:389, Ahmad 2:393, Ahmad 2:394, Ahmad 2:446, Ahmad 2:465, Ahmad 2:469, Ahmad 2:470,
Ahmad 2:480, Ahmad 2:491, Ahmad 2:501, Ahmad 2:512, Ahmad 2:517, Ahmad 2:539, Ahmad 3:110, Ahmad 3:165, Ahmad 3:199, Ahmad
3:209, Ahmad 3:225, Ahmad 3:277, Ahmad 3:483, Ahmad 4:227, Tayalisi H193, Tayalisi H2091, Tayalisi H2533)
[cii] (K552 Bukhari K1 B1, Bukhari K1 B41, Bukhari K49 B6, Bukhari K63 B45, Bukhari K67 B5, Bukhari
K83 B23, Bukhari K89 intro, Bukhari K90 B1, Muslim K33 H155, Abudaud K13 B10, Tirmidhi K20 B16, Nisai K1 B59, Nisai K25 B23,
Nisai K27 B24, Nisai K35 B19, Ibn Majah K37 B26, Darimi K16 B23, Ahmad 1:25, Ahmad 1:43, Ahmad 2:321, Ahmad 2:373, Ahmad 2:380,
Ahmad 5:134, Ahmad 5:183, Ahmad 5:315, Ahmad 5:320, Ahmad 5:329, Ahmad 5:446, Ahmad 6:72)
[ciii](KS552 Bukhari K1 B1, Bukhari K1 B41, Bukhari K49
B6, Bukhari K63 B45, Bukhari K67 B5, Bukhari K83 B23, Bukhari K89 intro, Bukhari K90 B1, Muslim K33 H155, Abudaud K13 B10,
Tirmidhi K20 B16, Nisai K1 B59, Nisai K25 B23, Nisai K27 B24, Nisai K35 B19, Ibn Majah K37 B26, Darimi K16 B23, Ahmad 1:25,
Ahmad 1:43, Ahmad 2:321, Ahmad 2:373, Ahmad 2:380, Ahmad 5:134, Ahmad 5:183, Ahmad 5:315, Ahmad 5:320, Ahmad 5:329, Ahmad
5:446, Ahmad 6:72)
[civ](KS552 Bukhari K24 B15, Abudaud K20 B1, 10, Abudaud
K40 B82, Tirmidhi K38 B14, Nisai K21 H14, Muwatta K16 H36, Ahmad 1:279, Ahmad 1:310, Ahmad 1:360, Ahmad 1:428, Ahmad 2:234,
Ahmad 2:315, 411, Ahmad 3:148)
[cvii] (KS93 Muslim K1 H186) (KS93 Muslim K1 H186)
[cviii] (K93 Bukhari K81 B33, Bukhari K82 B5, Muslim K46 H11, Abudaud K39 B16, Tirmidhi K30 B4, Ahmad
2:167, Ahmad 2:278, Ahmad 2:484, Ahmad 3:120, Ahmad 3:223, Ahmad 3:230, Ahmad 3:257, Ahmad 4:135, Ahmad 4:146, Ahmad 4:200,
Ahmad 6:19, Ahmad 6:20)
[cix] (KS94 Bukhari K2 B32, Bukhari K19 B7, Bukjari K30 B52, 64, Muslim K77 B43, Muslim K81 B18, Abudaud
K5 B27, Tirmidhi K41 B73, Nisai K9 B13, Nisai K20 B8, Ibn Majah K37 B28, Muwatta K9 H90, Ibn Sa’ad J1 Q2 p103, Ahmad
2:350, Ahmad 6:32, Ahmad 6:46, Ahmad 6:51, Ahmad 6:61, Ahmad 6:84, Ahmad 6:94, Ahmad 6:113, Ahmad 6:125, Ahmad 6:128, Ahmad
6:147, Ahmad 6:165, Ahmad 6:176, Ahmad 6:180, Ahmad 6:189, Ahmad 6:199, Ahmad 6:203, Ahmad 6:231, Ahmad 6:233, Ahmad 6:241,
Ahmad 6:244, Ahmad 6:249, Ahmad 6:250, Ahmad 6:267, Ahmad 6:273, Ahmad 6:289, Ahmad 6:304, Ahmad 6:305, Ahmad 6:319, Ahmad
6:320, Ahmad 6:321, Ahmad 6:322, Tayalisi H1398, Tayalisi H 1407, Tayalisi H 1479, Tayalisi H 1609)
[cx] (KS94 Bukhari K19 B18, 20, Bukhari K30 B20, Bukhari K30 B48, Bukhari K30 B49, Bukhari K30 B50,
Bukhari K30 B51, Bukhari K30 B55, Bukhari K30 B56, Bukhari K30 B57, Muslim K6 H219, Muslim K6 H220, Muslim K6 H221, Muslim
K6 H222, Muslim K6 H223, Muslim K13 H181, Muslim K13 H182, Abudaud K5 B29, Abudaud K14 B54, Nisai K9 B13, Nisai K22 B76, Nisai
K2277, Nisai K2278, Muwatta K7 H4, Ahmad 2: Ahmad 2:165, Ahmad 2:173, Ahmad 2:188, Ahmad 2:350, Ahmad 6:40, Ahmad 6:51, Ahmad
6:61, Ahmad 6:84, Ahmad 6:94, Ahmad 6:122, Ahmad 6:128, Ahmad 6:176, Ahmad 6:180, Ahmad 6:189, Ahmad 6:199, Ahmad 6:212, Ahmad
6:231, Ahmad 6:241, Ahmad 6:244, Ahmad 6:247, Ahmad 6:249, Tayalisi H1480, 1497, 2351)
[cxi] (Al Durur al Sunniyyat fi al Ajwibat al Najdiyyat Vol 4 page 376)
[cxxx](KS93 Ahmad 2:162, Ahmad 2:195, Ahmad 2:212, Ahmad
4:123, Ahmad 4:125, Ahmad 4:398, Tayalisi H2430; KS256 Bukhari K81 B36, Muslim K53 H47, Tirmidhi K34 B48, Ibn Majah K37 B21,
Darimi K20 B35, Ahmad 4:313, Ahmad 5:45, Ahmad 5:270, Tayalisi H1120)