Objectives of evaluation

Benefits/uses of evaluation

Basis for evaluation in the Qur'an and sunnah:

Types of evaluation:

Research design and analysis

Methods of collecting data for evaluation:

Project final report:

Self evaluation

Criteria for project success

Evaluation of individual workers: (move to con/mgm-personnel)

Limitations of evaluation



Every action however small will be accounted for

Everyone is personally accountable

Evaluation of uhud:

Condemning those who claim credit for things they did not do:

Evaluation too late for corrective action:

Self evaluation:

Judge by what you see; the inside in unknown:

The last actions determine how good job is:

Outcome evaluation: ghazwat uhud: Qur'an account

Uhud: the archers' fault:

Outcome evaluation: ghazwat uhud in the seerah:

Outcome evaluation: the ghazwat of Hunayn:

Process evaluation: ghazwat of mu'tah:

Evaluation of jisr debacle:



Evaluation of events in the seerah

Evaluation of your organization

Process evaluation

Evaluation of a critical incident

Stakeholder evaluation

Project life cycle

Project team

Project success

Process factors

Project factors





Objectives of evaluation


Assess whether objectives were achieved


Assess efficiency


Assess effectiveness


Learn from experience


Benefits/uses of evaluation


Identify success and reinforce


Help management see areas of weakness and improvement


Reassure workers that they are moving well


Reassure stake-holders


Gain confidence of supporters and donors


If the results of an evaluation process are not used to improve future performance the evaluation has not achieved its pupose


Basis for evaluation in the Qur'an and sunnah:




Reward and punishment


Types of evaluation:


What is evaluated?: Evaluation may be of the process or the end-results.


Who does it: internal or external


When is done: active throughout the project - post project after the declared finish date (helps future projects)


Research design and analysis


Research design: experimental, quasi experimental


Analytic technics


Methods of collecting data for evaluation:


Direct observation








Records review


Performance/knowledge tests


Project final report:




Project schedule


Review of project process


Problems encountered and how resolved




Self evaluation


Self-evaluation is very difficult but yet very important. Only the most mature, most self-confident, and most sincere people are capable of looking at themselves in mirror and deal objectively with their performance, negative or positive.


Ask yourself the following questions:


                What have you done well


                What could you have done better


                What further training do you need


                What can you to improve process


Criteria for project success


Keeping the  schedule


Finishing  within budget


Meeting  all project objectives


Meeting stakeholder expectations


Evaluation of individual workers: (move to con/mgm-personnel)


Purposes: determine rewards -improve future performance - identify high potential employees - identify problems and address them 


Benefits of evaluation for workers: know their progress - acknowledge and reward good performance


Benefits of evaluation for managers: assess worker ability 


Methods: formal - informal: check lists - critical incidents - rating scales


Preparation for evaluation: review goals - review performance criteria/targets


Tips for evaluation of an individual worker: give advance warning - explain purpose of evaluation - stick to facts - listen to the employee - do not criticize - give feedback - pinpoint areas of improvement - conclude on a positive note


Limitations of evaluation


Evaluation is post action. It answers the question whether the objectives of the plan are achieved.


Evaluation is too late to be of use to the current project. Its findings are however useful for future projects that are of a similar nature.


Evaluation tends to be affected a lot by the activities towards the end of the project. A project that has been performing badly may get a good evaluation when it ends well; all is well that ends well. A project that was performing well throughout its life may get a bad evaluation when it fails towards the end.


Evaluation is judgement by what you see. The inner intentions and motivation can never be known.


There are a few cases when evaluation is unfair. The outward results may not reflect all the intentions, sincerity, and commitment of the worker. There is little that can be done to alleviate this unfairness because the factors involved cannot measured objectively by humans.


Evaluation by others must be accepted as an attempt to help and not criticize or attack.




Every action however small will be accounted for: Then shall anyone who has done an atom's weight of good, see it! And anyone who has done an atom's weight of evil, shall see it. Qur'an 99:7-8


Everyone is personally accountable: Namely, that no bearer of burdens can bear the burden of another. That man can have nothing but what he strives for. That ( the fruit of ) his striving will soon come in sight. Then will he be rewarded with a reward complete. Qur'an 53:38-41


Evaluation of uhud: Allah did indeed fulfil his promise to you when you with his permission were about to annihilate your enemy until you flinched and fell to disputing about the order and disobeyed it after he brought you in sight ( of the Booty ) which you covet. among you are some that hanker after this world and some that desire the hereafter. Then did he divert you from your foes in order to test you.But he forgave you for Allah is full of grace to those who believe. Qur'an 3:152


Condemning those who claim credit for things they did not do: Think not that those who exult in what they have brought about, and love to be praised for what they have not done think  not that they can escape the Penalty. For them is a Penalty Grievous indeed. Qur'an 3:188


Evaluation too late for corrective action: "Ali bin Abi Talib said, " The world is going backwards and the Hereafter is coming forwards, and each of the two has its own children; so you should be the children of the Hereafter, and do not be the children of this world, for today there is  action ( good or bad deeds ) but no accounts, and tomorrow there will be accounts, but ( there will be ) no deeds to be done"  Bukhari 8:285


Self evaluation: " Hadrat Thabit Ibn Jajjaj ( Rad ) says that Umar ( Rad ) said, " Weigh your own selves before you are yourself weighed ( by Allah, concerning your deeds ) If you do so today, then tomorrow, on the Day of Judgment, you will have an easy reckoning. So prepare yourself for the Great Reckoning well in advance before comes the Day whereon you shall be mustered nothing hidden by you shall be hidden Hayat 2:701 …. "Hadrat Anas Ibn Malik ( Rad ) says that one day he was accompanying Umar ( Rad ) and he entered into a garden. There was a small parapet in between us the two and he heard him saying, O the Commander of the Faithfuls! Fear Allah or Allah will surely punish you" ( This he said to his own self. )

Hayat 2: 701


Judge by what you see; the inside in unknown: "Narrated Umar bin al Khattab : People were ( sometimes ) judged by the revealing of a Divine Inspiration during the lifetime of Allah's Apostle but now there is no longer any more ( new revelation ). Now we judge you by the deeds you practice publicly, so we will trust and favor the one who does good deeds in front of us, and we will not call him to account about what he is really doing in secret, for Allah will judge him for that; but we will not trust or believe the one who presents to us with an evil deed even if he claims that his intentions were good" Bukhari 3:491, hadith # 809


The last actions determine how good job is: "Narrated Sahl As-Sadi: The Prophet looked at a man fighting against the pagans and he was one of the most competent persons fighting on behalf of the Muslims. The Prophet said, " Let him who wants to look at a man from the dwellers of the ( Hell ) fire, look at this ( man )" Another man followed him and kept on following him till he ( the fighter ) was injured and seeking of die quickly he placed the blade tip of his sword between his breasts and leaned over it till it passed through his shoulders ( i.w. committed suicide)." The Prophet added, " A person may do deeds that seem to the people as  the deeds of the people of Paradise while in fact, he is from the dwellers of the ( Hell ) fire; and similarly a person may do deeds that seem to the people as deeds of the people of the ( Hell ) fire while in fact, he from the dwellers of Paradise. Verily the ( results of ) deeds done, depend upon the last actions"  Bukhari 8:330-331, hadith # 506


Outcome evaluation: ghazwat uhud in the seerah: Muslims achieved victory in the first encounter at Uhud. Actually, the victory the Muslims achieved on that morning was a genuine war miracle. Some may attribute it to the sound judgment of Muhammad in placing the archers on the mountain side so that they could hit the enemy cavalry before they could reach the Muslim lines while at the same time protecting the rear of all Muslim forces. Muhammad's good judgment is undoubtedly true. But it is equally true that when six hundred Muslims threw themselves against an enemy force five times greater than theirs, they could not possibly have done so and achieved such bravery unless their deeds sprang from their candid faith in the righteous­ness of their own cause. Whoever believes in the cause of truth is not bothered by the material preponderance of any power, how­ever great, and his will would not be shaken even if all the forces of evil rallied against him. Sincere faith in God Almighty is the greatest power, the greatest idea. It is invincible. As long as its subject remains sincere and loyal to it, there is no doubt that sincere faith must obtain all it wills. Therefore, Quraysh was shattered and defeated with all its three thousand fighters by the six hundred Muslims. That is why the women of Quraysh were about to be taken captive. When the Muslims followed up their enemies far from the battlefield, those who remained fell upon the large booty left behind. Indeed, many Muslims were thus drawn away from pursuing the defeated enemy.


The archers whom Muhammad had commanded not to leave the mountainside even to rescue the Prophet and his companions from what might seem to them to be certain death watched the battle from their height, and saw the defeated enemy running away and the pursuing Muslims seizing the booty. This whetted their appetites. For a moment, they argued with one another in seeking to convince themselves that no purpose would be served by keeping their position now that God had defeated their enemy. As they watched their fellow Muslims gather the booty, they strongly felt like joining them. When a wiser voice reminded them that the Prophet had commanded them not to leave their position even for rescuing the Muslims from certain death, they rationalized that he had not intended for them to remain in their positions that long, certainly not after the defeat of the enemy. 'Abdullah ibn Jubayr advised them not to violate the Prophet's commandment whatever the circumstances. The majority did not heed his advice, however, but descended to the plain. Ten men only kept their ground. This provided Khalid ibn al Walid, Com­mander of the Makkan cavalry, the golden opportunity to attack and seize the mountainside where the archers were. He eliminated the remainder of the Muslim archers and occupied the mountainside. The other Muslims were not aware of what was happening, preoccupied as they were in gathering everything of value on the field. After he occupied the mountainside, ibn al Walid signaled to the Quraysh to attack again and he advanced upon the Muslims from the rear. The defeated Makkans rallied to his call, turned about and resumed the fighting. The Muslims dropped the booty they carried, drew their swords and defended themselves. But their victory was lost. Their ranks were dis­orderly and their unity was in shreds. Quraysh took a heavy toll of Muslim lives. Earlier, the Muslims were fighting by the com­mand of God and out of their faith in Him and in victory; now they fought in order to save their own lives from certain death and humiliation. Earlier, the Muslims were fighting in a united and orderly manner, under a strong and resolute leadership; now they fought without order or leadership. So great was the dis­order that some may have struck their own fellows. Finally, when somebody raised the cry that Muhammad was killed, chaos reined supreme, Muslim morale plunged to the bottom and Muslim soldiers fought sporadically and purposelessly. This chaos was responsible for their killing of Husayl ibn Jabir Abu Hudhayfah by mistake, as everyone sought to save his own skin by taking flight except such men as 'Ali ibn Abu Talib whom God had guided and protected.


When the Quraysh heard of the fall of Muhammad, their forces fell upon Muslim ranks with renewed vigor. Every one of them was seeking to hit Muhammad, even if dead, that he might have the honor and pride of having participated in his downfall. The Muslims who stood close to the Prophet protected him and drew a close circle around him. Their faith had come back to them and they now stood their ground anxious to lay down their lives in order to save their Prophet. The fact is that one of the stones thrown by the Quraysh had hit the Prophet and caused him to fall to the ground, with a cut lip, a wounded face, and a broken tooth. The stone that hit the Prophet was thrown by 'Utbah ibn Abu Waqqas. It landed with such force that it pushed two links of Muhammad's helmet chain into his wound. Muhammad at­tempted to stand up behind a shield of his companions, but he fell again, this time in a hole which Abu 'Amir had dug as a trap for the Muslims. 'Ali ibn Abu Talib ran to Muhammad and gave him his hand and, together with Talhah ibn 'Ubaydullah, lifted him again to his feet. He and his companions then began to re­treat toward the mountain of Uhud while fighting their pursuing enemies.


In a moment, however, a number of other Muslims joined the circle of the Prophet, and these were so determined and desper­ate in their defense that they formed an impregnable barrier between the Prophet and the enemy. Umm 'Amarah al Ansariy­yah, the Madinese, had been on the battlefield since the morning to give water to the Muslim fighters to drink. When the Muslims suffered defeat, she threw down her water jug, drew her sword, and joined the other fighters around the Prophet for his protec­tion. She shot a number of arrows until she herself was wounded. Abu Dujanah placed himself as a shield before the Prophet and even exposed his back to the falling arrows lest they should hit the Prophet. Sa'd ibn Abu Waqqas shot arrows which Muham­mad passed to him while lending him encouragement. A little earlier, Muhammad himself was using his bow and shot at the enemy until the string of his bow broke. Those who thought that Muhammad had perished, including Abu Bakr and 'Umar, went toward the mountain and sat down. When Anas ibn al Nadr in­quired why they were giving up so soon, and was told that the Prophet of God had been killed, he retorted: "And what would you do with yourselves and your lives after Muhammad died? Rise, and die like he did." He turned, charged against the enemy, and fought gallantly. He kept on fighting despite his wounds and did not give up until he was hit seventy times. His body was so torn up with wounds that only his sister could identify it by means of his fingers alone.


Quraysh took the news of Muhammad's death with exhilaration and joy, and Abu Sufyan began a search for his body on the battlefield. The Muslims around Muhammad did not deny the news of his death in obedience to Muhammad's own commandment designed to prevent any new onslaught by the Quraysh against him. Ka'b ibn Malik, however, came close to the circle and, bending himself over Abu Dujanah, noticed that the Prophet was there and still alive. He proclaimed at the top of his voice: "O Believers, be glad, for the Prophet of God is here and still alive." The Prophet, however, asked him to keep quiet. The Muslims then reinforced the protective circle around the Prophet and moved with him farther up toward the mountain; they were led by Abu Bakr, 'Umar, 'Ali ibn Abu Talib, al Zubayr ibn al 'Awwam and others. The cry of Ka'b brought about a different effect upon the Quraysh. Most of the latter did not believe it but regarded it as an enemy trick designed to rally the Muslims to fight again. A few Makkans ran to,ward the Muslims shouting, "Where is Muhammad? Death to me if he lives!" The Prophet hurled the javelin of al Harith ibn al Simmah at the oncoming party. It hit the leader, threw him off his horse, and killed him. When the Muslims reached the entrance to the valley on the other side, 'Ali filled his shield with water, washed Muhammad's face and poured some water on his head. Abu 'Ubaydah ibn al Jarrah pulled out the two links of chain from Muhammad's wound, and his two front teeth fell off in the process. While this was taking place, Khalid ibn al Walid pursued the Muslims on the hillside with a small force of Makkan cavalry. But they were repelled by 'Umar ibn al Khattab and a number of the Prophet's companions. The Muslims continued their retreat. So great was their exhaus­tion that when it was noon, the Prophet led the prayer seated, suffering as he was from his wounds, and the Muslims prayed behind him seated also.( Muhammad pp 263-267 )


The Prophet then commanded burial for all the dead, which numbered seventy; and, when this was completed, he led his party back to Madinah. The Muslims were quite sad and solemn for having encountered such defeat after their victory, and such humiliation after their splendid accomplishment. They fully realized that it was the archers' disobedience of Muham­mad as well as the Muslims' preoccupation with booty that had exposed them to this sad turn of events. ( Muhammad pp 268 )


On the morrow, which fell on Sunday the 16th of Shawwal, the mu'adhdhin of the Prophet called upon the Muslims to regroup and pursue the enemy. Only those who had participated in the previous day's battle were, however, allowed to proceed. When the Muslims set out toward the Makkan force, Abu Sufyan im­mediately learned that his enemies had returned from Madinah with new reinforcements. Muhammad reached Hamra' al Asad while Abu Sufyan and his companions were still at al Rawha'. Since he passed by both camps, Ma'bad al Khuza'i, who was still an associationist, was asked by Abu Sufyan about Muhammad and his forces. He replied that "Muhammad and his companions are coming after you with such a large army that I have never seen the like of it. Those who were not present yesterday are all with him today shouting with anger and seeking revenge." Abu Sufyan, on the other hand, though he wanted to run away from any more confrontations with Muhammad, pondered the consequences of such a flight. Would not the Arabs say of Quraysh in such an eventuality what he himself would have liked to say of Muhammad and his companions? But then, were he to return to Muhammad and the Muslims defeat them this time, would not the Quraysh be destroyed once and for all? He therefore made recourse to a trick. With some riders of 'Abd al Qays proceeding to Madinah, he sent a message to Muhammad that the Quraysh had decided to pursue the Muslims in order to finish them off. When this message reached Muhammad at Hamra' al Asad, his will and determination remained constant and his decision unchanged. The whole Muslim force, which remained in place for three days and three nights, made large bonfires during the night in order to show the world that they were there to stay. Finally, disagreeing with Abu Sufyan, the Quraysh pre­ferred to save the memory of their victory of Uhud and to return to Makkah. Thereafter, Muhammad returned to Madinah with more confidence in Muslim power, though the insincere believers began to raise their heads in derision of the Muslims and asked: "If the battle of Badr was a sign from God proving the veracity of Muhammad's prophethood, what was the sign of the battle of Uhud?" (Muhammad pp 269-270 )





Evaluate the following critical incidents in the seerah by answering the questions: What went wrong, how was it identified, when was it identified, what was the corrective action taken, how could the results of this evaluation benefit planning of similar events in the future.


                (a)           Ghazwat Uhud

                (b)           Ghazwat Hunayn

                (c)           The Jisr debacle in Iraq




Think of a successful educational program or project in your organization that you know well or were intimately involved with and make an evaluation using the following criteria:


                (a)           What went wrong

                (b)           How was it identified,

                (c)           When was it identified,

                (d)           What was the corrective action taken,

                (e)           How could the results of this evaluation benefit planning of similar events in the future.




Carry out a process evaluation of the following events in the seerah

                (a) Ghazwat Mu'tah

                (b) Ghazwat Tabuk




Think of a critical incidence you know or have read about and answer the following questions:


What happened

What were the consequences

Why did it happen

Could it have been anticipated

What early signals were ignored

When was problem first recognized

Who should have reacted

Why did he not react as needed

What did we learn from the incident




Think of a project you read or know about and answer the following questons:


Who are the stakeholders

Did stakeholders change during project

Did project fulfil expectations

Did project address needs

Did project satisfy benefits

Did prpject produce results needed




Answer the following questions about a project you know or read about. For each criterion indicate yes or no


Feasibility study present

Timetables realistic

Responsibility and authority clear

Objecves clarified

Milestones fixed

Tasks identified and allocated

Resources estimated correctly

Documented control system

lLnes of communication

Monitoring cost





Answer the following questions about a project team that you know or read about. For each criterion indicate satisfactory/unsatisfactory


Team working together

Conflict resolution

Team leadership

Team motivation




Think of a project that you know or read about and indicate (satisfactory/unsatisfactory) for each of the following factors of success


Project base







Project leader

Team performance




Think of a project that you know or read about and indicate (satisfactory/unsatisfactory) for each of the following process factors


Setting objectives

Support of senior management

Stakeholder consultation

Project team

Project plans

Control system

Tasking/work breakdown

Stakeholder approval





















What is continuous quality improvement:

Tools of quality control:

Data collection:




Quality Performance

Constant Improvement



Quality improvement





What is continuous quality improvement: Continuous quality improvement (QI) is a management philosophy that is committed to continuous and consistent improvement in quality. It involves training for quality, making the necessary changes in the organizational structure, It is both long-term and short-term. Long-term QI should be the main aim. QI is consistent with the Islamic concept of IHSAAN. Improvement must be continuous. Humans can never reach perfection and rest on their laurels. They must always strive to approach it; the nearer the better. Quality assurance or quality improvement is a type of control. Muslims must be leaders of quality because this is the very essence of their creed.  The concept of IHSAN is the basis of quality. A Muslim tries to achieve excellence in whatever he does. He seeks to improve every day.

We talk of quality improvement rather than quality control or quality assurance. The aim is not to perform at a pre-set standard but to constantly improve and get better. Quality requires a change in organizational culture so that all members take pride in quality work. Material incentives or punishments are not sufficient to assure  quality. Free exchange of information and ideas without fear of censure, a non-judgmental approach, sharing authority, cooperation and not competition help foster a culture of quality improvement. The debate over which is more important, quantity or quality, is irrelevant. Both are important. Good management does not trade one for the other. It has the skill to produce the optimal quantity needed at the optimal quality desired. Of course both quantity and quality are affected by the resources available to management.


Tools of quality control: The following tools are used in quality control: control charts, histograms, scatter diagrams, pareto charts, fish-bone diagrams, run charts, binomial probability paper, flow chart, cause effect diagram. A control chart is a graph showing the average and the range (upper and lower control limits). A histogram shows the distribution, shape and dispersion. Scatter diagram is a graph of number of defects against the type of defect. The pareto chart exposes the relative magnitudes of defects. A fish-bone diagram. Run charts. Histogram. Scatter diagram. Flow chart. A cause-effect (CE) diagram is a type of flow chart. It shows boxes and arrows. Fault tree diagram


Data collection: There are 3 main purposes for data collection: understand the situation, analysis, and process control. The data collected may be continous or discrete


Sampling: The sampling scheme chosen must fulfil the following conditions: accuracy, reliability, speed, and economy. The following types of samples may be used: random, 2-stage, cluster sampling




Quality Performance: "Idha amila ahadukum amalan fa liyutiqnahu"


Constant Improvement: "Man istawa yawumaahu fahuwa maghboon"





Imagine you are a management consultant during the reign of Omar Ibn al Khattab and were asked for advice on the provincial administrations.


                (a)           suggest a quality improvement program

                (b)           construct a fault tree for provincial revenue collection




ęCopyright Professor Omar Hasan Kasule Sr, July 2000