Learn conceptual and practical aspects of project
Implementation as a management function
Components of Implementation
Start and end of implementation
Civilization is implementation of ideas
Projects failure due to poor implementation
Reasons for things not getting done:
Reliance on Allah
Implementation in the plan
Decisions in implementation
Paper work and bureaucracy
Equilibrium between effectiveness vs efficiency
Requirements for successful implementation
Stages of implementation:
Information and communication
Charting project progress:
Managing multiple priorities
Auditing deadline crises:
Routine and procedures
Practicality and pragmatism
Intuition from experience
Risk, perfectionism, uncertainty
Actions must be consistent with words (credible)
Praise for work done by others
Continuity of work
Short but perfect
Gradual requests in getting compliance
Some correct actions to be postponed if they will
Continuity of work
Best of work is what is continuous even if little
Best of work is what is continuous; do what you
Building the prophet's mosque at Madinah
Digging the trench
Stages of implementation
Control of project implementation: gantt chart
Control of project implementation: pert/cm table
Causes of failure in implementation
Simulated project implementation
Use of routines in implementation
Project leader check list
Documentation for project implementation
THE DISCUSSION LEADER OR THE MEMBERS (IN TURNS) WILL PRESENT THE MAIN POINTS IN THE BACKGROUND READING SECTIONS PRE-ASSIGNED
THE PREVIOUS WEEK
Implementation as a management function: Implementation
is an important management function that is often neglected.
Components of Implementation
Outputs (products or services)
Start and end of implementation
You start with inputs and transform them into
outputs. Implementation is the process of transformation. Implementation thus has a beginning and an end.
Implementation involves breaking down the work
into manageable steps or tasks, costing, scheduling, follow-up, control.
Successful implementation is an art that is learned
Civilization is implementation of ideas: All civilizations
are built on ideas that get implemented. Ideas that are not put into practice are worth very little. Many good ideas and decisions
never see the light of the day because of inaction.
Projects failure due to poor implementation: In
our experience many group projects do not succeed not for lack of insight or necessary resources but because of missing or
Reasons for things not getting done:
Vision not clear
Goals too big
Indecision, lack of confidence
Time not enough
Action deficiency: In many cases, the problem
is not poor implementation but lack of inertia and momentum to do something. Lack of vision, purpose, objectives, and self
confidence are causes of inertia. Action deficiency disease that is pervasive in many communities. Failure to carry out things
that have to be done leads to loss of credibility. Your actions must be consistent with your words. Do not tell others to
do things that you yourself fail to do. Action deficiency disease sometimes manifests as an attempt to claim credit for work
not done. The claim may be purely fabricated fantasies or taking credit for work done by others. Being overwhelmed by too
many projects may result in inaction. You succeed by trying, there is no movement without trying. The more you try to exert
yourself, the more likely is the success. Take action to make sure that what you want to happen will actually happen. Never
wait for anything to happen on its own. Do not procrastinate when action is what is called for.
Reliance on Allah: When you have exerted your
maximum human effort in planning and preparation, act and rely on Allah for the results.
Implementation in the plan: The implementation
strategy must be built in the action plan.
Implementation team: An implementation team must
be set for each project. Successful implementation requires good team management skills. You must learn dealing with different
Decisions in implementation: The implementor has
to make decisions constantly. Some are long-term strategic decisions. Others are tactical/operational covering a period of
1 year. Others are day-to-day operational decisions.
Paper work and bureaucracy: Paper-work and bureaucracy
are enemies of successful implementation if overused.
Equilibrium between effectiveness vs efficiency:
Both effectiveness (achieving targets) and efficiency (doing things right at minimum cost) are important in implementation.
Successful implementation strikes due balance between the two.
Requirements for successful implementation: A
manager must have vision, good planning, follow-up and follow-through for successful implementation. Successful implementation
requires, in addition, proper knowledge and skill, clear well written goals (specific,
flexible, realistic), clear priorities, a clear plan of action, and emphasis on quality control (QC), quality assurance (QA)
and quality improvement (QI).
Project cycle: Project implementation proceeds
through stages, also called the project planning and control cycle. A project plan is the starting point. Tasks are then defined
and are assigned to persons who will implement them. Task completion is assured by follow-up and control.
Stages of implementation:
Plan: Preparation before start of implementation
is everything. Take time to prepare well, work out the details, and anticipate problems before commencement.
Mobilization of resources: Plan your resources,
know where they are, how to get to them, and how to use them. Cost planning must be exact to avoid cost overruns, a usual
phenomenon in inefficient projects. A skill matrix should be drawn up for each project
Definition of tasks: structured? :yes/no - skill
variety - task identity (complete job) - task significance - autonomy - feedback - task interdependence
Task assignments: explain what to do - explain
where assignee fits in the overall picture - give a time frame - be considerate -give credit
Assure task completion: get focussed - cut through
clutter - understand your priorities - avoid interruptions -budget time for task
Information and communication: Make sure that
all concerned are in the information loop. Set up and use communication channels. Project status reports must be timely, informative
and written in a problem-solving format.
Charting project progress:
Graphic representation is effective when used
to display project activities, duration of the various tasks, and an indication of the sequence of activities that are most
critical at the time of project completion (the critical path).
PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technic) involves
deciding what functions should be performed and what activities will be necessary as well as estimating the resources needed.
Continuous monitoring helps you identify errors
and take preventive or corrective action. In some cases the baseline plan may have to be changed.
Modern computer technology can be used to make
project monitoring and control more timely and more efficient.
Managing multiple priorities: In many projects
the implementor will have to deal with multiple priorities successfully. Budgets get squeezed and time is tight. He must be
on top of all the different schedules and work-loads.
Timing and sequencing of tasks and activities
is important. Tasks well done but in the wrong sequence can wreak havoc on the whole project.
Tasks once started must be completed. Work must
be continuous; a bust of activity followed by long periods of inactivity is a recipe for failure. It is better to do little
at a time, do it well, and do it all the time.
Auditing deadline crises:
Deadlines must be kept. Whenever a deadline is
not reached or when there is a deadline crisis in project implementation, an audit must be carried out to find the causes
and learn from the experience for the benefit of future projects.
The following questions must be asked of every
What did I do to create the crisis?
What was the distraction?
How was time wasted?
Will problems recur?
What was the role of conflict?
What did i learn?
Each situation requires a specific approach, we
can not use a manual
Emergency situations do occur. They may be occasional
or may occur at expected milestones.
Anticipation of as many problem as possible and
preparing contingency plans for them is the secret of successful Implementation.
You must always have well-worked out contingency
plans to deal with the usual problems that usually occur.
Despite the best of anticipatory planning surprises
always occur. Successful implementors requires highly developed skills in improvising to deal with unexpected surprises.
Routine and procedures
Implementation routines have advantages and disadvantages.
You must know when to use a routine. Application should be automatically triggered by the relevant situation. The implementor
must understand the routine in order to use it well.
Implementation is not time for thinking about
actions and their motivations. There is no time to think about alternative courses of action. All thought must be about implementing
the set plan.
Thinking, planning, and information collection
must finally reach a point of no return and must be followed by action.
Knowledge and information do not lead automatically
to action. Many knowledgeable and creative people are not effective. Initiative, the ability to make choices are necessary
Pro-activity: Project management is a pro-active
effort. If you wait for things to happen and you only react you will fail very rapidly.
Simplicity: Simplicity is a key to successful
implementation. Any procedure that requires involved explanation is likely to fail. Actions must be simple, doable and with
a potential to be effective.
Practicality and pragmatism: A successful implementor
is both practical and pragmatic. Pragmatism means being in tune with the environment and pursuing the art of the possible.
Sometimes the word pragmatic takes on a negative coloration to mean lack of principles. You can be pragmatic while being principled
and walking in the moral lane. You will need to remember that the end never justifies the means. Project implemenation requires
a lot of pragmatism and being practical. Everything is possible. You have to take the best action in a given situation.
Intuition from experience: After a lot of implementation
experience you may develop your intuition to the point that you can guess right and be "street smart"
Incremental approach: Incrementalism is an implementation
method appropriate for situations with uncertain information. You assess the situation as you go along and do what is possible
and is practical.
Risk, perfectionism, uncertainty: In order to
be effective we have to accept some degree of risk. Trying to play safe and be perfect may destroy initiative for action.
Records: You must maintain a project diary in
which all significant project events are written. Good documentation reduces errors and misunderstandings.
Human skills: Projects involve managing people.
Interpersonal relations are crucial.
Delegation: You have to delegate many of the responsibilities
in order to have time to carry out leadership functions such as planning and control.
Communication: Good communication is needed. You
must make sure that instructions are understood and are carried out in time.
Negotiation: Negotiation ability is necessary.
You have to negotiate win-win with many people to obtain cooperatio and finish the project
Termination: The terminal stages of the project
are as important as the start. You must plan the termination carefully. Fix a termination date in advance and advertize it.
Plan for the post-project period.
READ OUT EACH TEXT ALOUD TWO TIMES. MAKE SURE YOU UNDERSTAND THE MAIN POINTS RAISED. WRITE DOWN THE MAIN LESSON(S) YOU HAVE
LEARNED FROM THE TEXT
Actions must be consistent with words (credible):
Do you enjoin right conduct on the people, and forget ( To practice it ) yourself. And yet you study the Scripture ? Will
you not understand ? Qur'an 2:44
Praise for work done by others: Think not that
those who exult in what they have brought about, and love to be praised for what they have not done think not that they can
escape the Penalty. For them is a penalty grievous indeed.
Completing tasks: "Aisha reported the Apostle
of Allah ( may peace be upon him ) as saying: Choose such actions as you are capable of performing, for Allah does not grow
weary till you do. The acts most pleasing to Allah are those which are done most continuously, even if they amount to little,
Whenever he began an action, he would do it continuously" Abu Daud 1:358, Chapter
468, Hadith # 1363
Continuity of work: "Aisha reported Allah's Messenger
( may peace be upon him ) as saying: The acts most pleasing to Allah are those which are done continuously, even if they are
small, and when Aisha did any act she did it continuously" Muslim 1: 377-378,
Chapter 273, Hadith # 1713
Short but perfect: "Narrated Anas : The Prophet
( may peace be upon him ) used to pray a short prayer ( in congregation ) but used to offer it in a perfect manner." Bukhari 1:381, hadith # 674
Gradual requests in getting compliance: "Narrated
Ibn Abbas : The Prophet ( may peace be upon him ) sent Muadh to Yemen and said, " Invite the people to testify that none has
the right to be worshipped but Allah and I am Allah's Apostle, and if they obey you to do so, then inform them that Allah
has enjoined on them five prayers in every day and night ( in twenty-four hours ), and if they obey you to do so, then inform
them that Allah has made it obligatory for them to pay the Zakat from their property and it is to be taken from the wealthy
among them and given to the poor" Bukhari 2;271-272, hadith # 478
Some correct actions to be postponed if they will
be misunderstood: "Narrated Aisha : Allah's Apostle ( may peace be upon him ) said to me, " were your people not close to
the Pre-Islamic period of ignorance, I would have demolished the Kaba and would have re-built it on its original foundations
laid by Abraham ( for Quraish had curtailed its building ), and I would have built a back door too" Bukhari 2:383, hadith # 655
Continuity of work: "Narrated Aisha : Once the
Prophet ( may peace be upon him ) came while a woman was sitting with me. He said, " Who is she? I replied, " She is so and
so," and told him about her ( excessive praying. He said disapprovingly, " Do ( good ) deeds which is within your capacity
( without being overtaxed ) as Allah does not get tired ( of giving rewards ) but ( surely ) you will get tired and the best
deed ( act of worship ) in the sight of Allah is that which is done regularly"
Bukhari 1:37, chapter 33, hadith # 41
Best of work is what is continuous even if little:
"Narrated Aisha : The Prophet used to construct a room with a Hasir at night in order to pray therein, and during the day
he used to spread it out and sit on it. The people started coming to the Prophet at night to offer the prayer behind him.
When their number increased the Prophet faced them and said, " O people ! Do only those good deeds which you can do, for Allah
does not get tired ( of giving reward ) till you get tired, and the best deeds to Allah are the incessant ones though they
were few" Bukhari 7:499, hadith # 752
Best of work is what is continuous; do what you
can: "Narrated Aishah : The Prophet was asked. " What deeds are loved most by Allah?
he said. The most regular constant deeds even though they may be few." He added. Don,t take upon yourselves, except the deeds
which are within your ability." Bukhari 8:314, hadith # 472
Building the prophet's mosque at Madina: "Narrated
Bukhari 1:246-247, hadith # 413
Building the prophet's mosque at Madinah: We have
seen that the Prophet's camel stopped in the courtyard of Sahl and Suhayl. The Prophet bought the land in order to build
his mosque there. While the mosque was being erected, he stayed in the house of Abu Ayyub Khalid ibn Zayd al Ansari. In the
construction of the mosque, Muhammad worked with his own hands as did the Muslims, whether Muhajirun or Ansar. When the mosque
was completed, they built on one side of it living quarters for the Prophet. These operations did not overtax anyone,
for the two structures were utterly simple and economical. The mosque consisted of a vast courtyard whose four walls were
built out of bricks and mud. A part of it was covered with a ceiling made from date trunks and leaves. Another part was devoted
to shelter the poor who had no home at all. The mosque was not lit during the night except for an hour at the time of the
night prayer. At that time some straw was burned for light. Thus it continued to be for nine years, after which lamps were
attached to the tree trunks on which stood the ceiling. The living quarters of the Prophet were no more luxurious than the
mosque although they had to be more closed in order to give a measure of privacy. ( Muhammad pp 174-175 )
Digging the trench: Salman al Farisi, who knew
far more of the techniques of warfare than was common in the Peninsula, advised the digging of a dry
moat around Madinah and the fortification of its buildings within. The Muslims hurried to implement this counsel. The moat
was dug and the Prophet. May God's peace and blessing be upon him worked with his hands alongside his companions lifting the
dirt, encouraging the Muslim workers and exhorting everyone to multiply his effort. Ali the Muslims picked up their digging
utensils, their picks and shovels, and borrowed more tools from the Qurayzah Jews who remained true to their covenant with
Muhammad. With tremendous effort and exertion, the whole moat was dug in six days. At the same time, the walls of the buildings
on the perimeter of the city facing the enemy were also reinforced, their inhabitants were evacuated and the buildings were
reserved for military use. The women and children were removed to the interior and placed within fortified walls. Rocks were
gathered and placed on the inner side of the moat for use as possible projectiles against the enemy if the need arose. ( Muhammad
pp 303 )
of Kufah: According to Muhammad b. 'Abdallah b. Safwan-Umayyah b. Khalid-Abu 'Awanah-Husayn
b. 'Abd al‑Rahman: When, on the day of Jalula', the enemy had been defeated, Sa'd recalled the army. When 'Ammar b.
Yasir had arrived, he left with the forces for al‑Mada'in. But they did not like it there. 'Ammar asked, "Do the camels
thrive in this place?" "No," was the answer, "because of the mosquitoes." 'Ammar commented, "'Umar once said that Arab tribesmen
won't be healthy in a region in which their camels do not thrive." He went on: Therefore 'Ammar departed with the army
and in the end settled in al‑Kufah.
When ,a d had settled in al‑Kufah, he wrote
to 'Umar saying, "I have taken up residence on a site covered with pebbles, it is situated between al-Hirah and the Euphrates,
one side borders on dry land, the other borders on the water. Dry as well as tender thistles abound there. I have left a free
choice to the Muslims in al‑Mada'in; those who have preferred to stay on in the latter, I have left behind there as
a garrison. Thus a number of people from different clans have remained (in al‑Mada'in), the majority of them being from
the Banu Abs." According to al‑Sari-Shu'ayb-Sayf-Muhammad, Talhah, 'Amr, Sa'id and al‑Muhallab: When the
people destined for al-Kufah had arrived there, and the people destined to populate al-Basrah had settled there,
they formed themselves into 'irafat (to find out who was missing) and whoever they
had lost track of was thus returned to them.
Then the people of al‑Kufah asked permission
to use reeds as building material. The people of al‑Basrah put in the same request, whereupon 'Umar said, "Living
in an army camp is easier for you to mount your military operations from and is more convenient, but I do not like to
disagree with you; what is this reed anyway?" They answered, "It is like 'ikrish (i.e.
flax), when it is watered it puts forth stems and produces reeds." Umar replied, 'You do what you think best." Thus the people
of the two garrison cities used reeds as building material. Then fires occurred in al‑Kufah, as well as in al‑Basrah,
the most vehement one occurring in the former. Eighty roof structures were destroyed, not a single stem of reed being
spared. That was in the month Shawwal, the people never stopped talking about it. Sa'd dispatched a few of the victims
of those fires to 'Umar to try and obtain the latter's permission to use bricks for building. Thus they approached 'Umar with
the news about the fire and what losses they had incurred. No detail was left unmentioned; they did not touch on anything
without asking his advice. Umar said, "Go ahead but let nobody build more than three rooms for himself and do not let one
build higher houses than the other. If you adhere to what is generally recognized as proper, you will thrive.' With that advice,
the delegation returned to al‑Kufah. Umar wrote a letter containing similar advice to Utbah and the people of alBasrah.
The supervision over the settling of the inhabitants of alKufah lay in the hands of Abu al‑Hayyaj b. Malik, while
the same task in respect of the inhabitants of al‑Basrah was undertaken by Asim b. al‑Dulaf Abu al‑Jarba'.
They continued: 'Umar had enjoined the delegation
to carry out what he had said, and he ordered the people (in Iraq)
not to construct buildings that were higher than the "norm." "But what is this 'norm'?" they had asked. "The 'norm,"'
'Umar said, "is that which keeps you well away from wastefulness but, at the same time, won't make you lose sight of what
you are aiming at."
According to al‑San--Shu'ayb--Sayf--Muhammad,
Talhah, al-Muhallab, Amr and Sa'id: When they had agreed on the building plan of al‑Kufah, Sa'd sent a message
to Abu al‑Hayyaj and informed him of Umar's letter containing instructions for the roads. 'Umar had ordered that
(main) thoroughfares of forty cubits (in width) be planned. In between these there should be (other) roads each thirty cubits
wide, and between the former and the latter (again others) twenty cubits wide; finally, the side alleys should be seven
cubits wide, no passageway should be narrower than that. The plots of land had to measure sixty cubits (square?) except
the one assigned to the Banu Dabbah. The people who had insight in those matters assembled to carry out measurements, until
Abu al‑Hayyaj divided up all the available space among them, when they had decided on a certain plot.
The first thing to be marked out in al‑Kufah
and that was subsequently erected, when they had finally decided to make a beginning with building, was the mosque.
It was situated in what is now the market area of the soap manufacturers and date sellers. Its ground plan was traced out.
Then a man stationed himself in the center of this ground plan. He was an archer of prodigious strength He shot lone arrow)
to his right and ordered that anyone who wanted could start building for his own beyond where the arrow had landed. (Then
he did the same with an arrow that he shot to the left) Next he shot an arrow straight ahead of him and one in the opposite
direction and ordered that anyone who wanted could start building for himself beyond where these two arrows had landed. Thus
they left a square for the mosque that the people could enter from all sides. Over its front part, a roof structure was built,
that had no (walls at) either side, nor at the front or back. The whole square was meant for the people to congregate in,
but in a way that they (need) not stand packed. In the same manner, other mosques were laid out, except the masjid al‑haram; in those days they did not try to emulate that out of respect for its holiness. The roof
structure of al‑Kufah's mosque measured two hundred cubits in width supported by columns of marble. Its ceiling, resembling
the ceilings in Byzantine churches, was (taken from a palace formerly belonging) to the Persian kings. They marked (the outer
perimeter of) the congregation area by means of a ditch, lest anyone should inadvertently and boldly embark on building inside
that perimeter for his own. They built a house for Sa'd, separated from the mosque by a narrow alley of two hundred cubits
(in length). The treasure chambers were incorporated in this house. It is the present‑day citadel of al‑Kufah.
Ruzbih (b. Buzurgumihr) built it for Sa'd out of baked bricks previously used in buildings of the Persian kings in al‑Hirah.
North of the congregation area five main thoroughfares
branched out, from the south side four such thoroughfares branched out, while from the east and the west (sides) three such
roads were planned. All these roads were marked out (by Sa'd). North of the congregation area, adjacent to it, he settled
Sulaym and Thaqif along two roads, Hamdan along another road, Bajilah along another and Taym al‑Lat as well as
Taghlib along yet another road South of the congregation area he settled Banu Asad along one road, with another road separating
them from Nakha', who in turn were separated from Kindah by another, while the latter were separated from al‑Azd by
yet another road. East of the congregation area he settled the Ansar and Muzaynah along one road, Tamim and Muharib along
another, and Asad and 'Amir along yet another. Finally, west of the congregation area he settled Bajalah and Bajlah along
one road, Jadilah as well as various groups of mixed origin along another, and Juhaynah as well as other groups of mixed origin
along yet another. Thus, all those who lived right next to the congregation area as well as all the other people were housed
between (the main thoroughfares) and beyond them, the entire territory having been divided up into plots. These, then, were
the main thoroughfares; they also built narrower ones that sometimes would run parallel with the former, then merge with
them, and yet others that did not merge with the main roads. These last mentioned roads, however, were less wide. The
dwelling places were found in the space beyond and in between these roads. All the roads and paths began at the congregation
area and, right there, he settled the "tenths", into which the veterans of the battles preceding al‑Qadisiyyah and those
of al‑Qadisiyyah and its aftermath I had earlier been divided. For those warriors who were at the time manning the border
garrisons and that of al‑Mawsil, he held various plots ready until they themselves might come to them. When the first
and second waves of newcomers joined the Arab warriors (in al‑Kufah) and swamped them, the people found their plots
too cramped. Those groups whose newcomers were particularly numerous, went out and joined them (i.e. outside al‑Kufah)/
vacating the plots they had occupied, while those groups whose newcomers were few in number, settled those--since they were
only few in number--in the homesteads of those who had gone to join their newcomers i.e. outside al‑Kufah) if the latter
had been living next door. If that had not been the case, those staying behind chose for themselves more cramped quarters,
thus accommodating their newcomers. The congregation area remained in this state during the entire period of 'Umar's
reign, the tribesmen not coveting it. There was nothing there but the mosque, the citadel and the markets, which were devoid
of buildings or even markings If or buildings). 'Umar had said, "Markets are to be organized on the basis of the norms
valid for mosques: he who gets to a certain place first, has sole rights to it, until he vacates it to go home or as the case
may be until he has sold all his wares." For every newcomer they prepared "reception" camps,254 everyone arriving there being
treated on a basis of equality. Those quarters today are the dwelling places of the Banu al‑Bakka'. (The newcomers
stayed there) until they came to Abu al‑Hayyaj so that he might attend to them by assigning plots to them where they
In the plot destined for that purpose, Sa'd built
a citadel facing the spot where the mihrab of the mosque of al‑Kufah is today. He built it and incorporated the treasury
in it. He himself lived right next to it. Then, (somewhat later, robbers) dug a tunnel to the treasure chamber and stole from
its contents. Sa d notified Umar of this by letter describing to him the layout of the governor's residence and the treasure
chambers vis‑a‑vis the congregatiOn area as situated north of the building. 'Umar replied, "Move the spot where
you actually perform the prayer ritual to a place as close as possible to the building housing the treasure chambers; in so
doing, you make it the direction for prayer. For in the mosque there are always people present, day and night, they will act
as guards of what is also their treasure." Thus the place where the prayer ritual was performed was brought closer (facing
the treasure chambers) and then Sa'd set about building it. A dihqan from the people of Hamadhan, called Ruzbih b. Buzurgumihr,
said to him, "I shall build it for you, and I shall also build a citadel for you; I shall make some sort of connection between
the one and the other so that they constitute one and the same building. " Thus he planned the citadel of al‑Kufah according
to a well‑considered design. Then Ruzbih commenced building it from baked bricks taken from the ruin of a citadel the
Persian kings used to have in the neighborhood of al‑HIrah, which today is still in its place. Sa'd did not allow this
to continue, however. He built the mosque facing the treasure chambers, with the entire length of the citadel being situated
to the right of that side of the mosque facing south. Then he extended it to the right, up to the far end of the Square of
'Ali b. Abi Talib with this square as the prayer direction. Then he extended it yet some more so that the prayer direction
of the mosque encompassed the whole square as well as the right side of the citadel.
The building was supported by pillars made of
marble originally from Christian churches belonging to the king. (This roof structure) had no walls, a situation that
lasted until the building (complete with walls), as it is today, was constructed in the time Of Muawiyah b. Abi Sufyan at
the hands of Ziyad (his adopted brother and governor of Iraq). When Ziyad set out to construct it, he invited several architects
who were born in the Jahiliyyah to come to him. He described to them the location of the mosque, its size and how high he
wanted it to reach up into the air, saying, "I want something higher than anything I have ever heard described." Then
a certain architect, who had previously been in the service of the king, said to him, "This can only be done when supported
by pillars made from blocks of stone quarried at Ahwaz; these blocks have to be pierced and hollowed out, then filled
with lead and (held together by) iron bars, so as to enable you to raise the pillars made of these blocks thirty cubits into
the air. Then you build a roof over them and, to grant (the whole structure) extra solidity, you build walls on all sides
(i.e., supporting the edges of that roof structure).'' Ziyad answered, "This is a description of a structure about which I
used to have inward discussions that I have never been able to settle."
Sa'd provided the gate of the citadel with a lock.
The reason for this was that the markets used to be held nearby right in front of Sa'd's living quarters, the tumult being
so deafening as to prevent Sa'd from conducting a normal conversation. When the citadel was built, people began to ascribe
things to him he had never said. Thus they alleged that Sa d had said (on one occasion), "Stop that terrible noise!" News
of this reached 'Umar, and also that the people were calling it "Sa'd's citadel." So he called Muhammad b. Maslamah and sent
him to al‑Kufah, saying, "Make for the citadel and burn down that gate, then return to me forthwith." Muhammad b. Maslamah
departed and journeyed until he arrived
in al‑Kufah. He bought some firewood, brought
it to the citadel and burned down its gate. Someone went to Sa'd and told him what had happened. Sa'd said, "This must be
a messenger sent here for this very purpose." So he dispatched someone to find out who it was. It was none but Muhammad b.
Maslamah! Immediately, Sa'd sent a message inviting him inside. But he refused. Then Sa'd came outside and invited him
in, offering him hospitality. But he refused again. Next Sa'd offered to bear the expenses of the man's staying on in
al‑Kufah, but he would not hear of it. Instead he handed Sa'd a letter from 'Umar that read, "It has come to my notice
that you have built a citadel and that you have taken possession of it as your personal fortress, it being called 'Sa'd's
citadel.' You have even made a gate separating you from the people! However, it is not your property; have you gone insane?
Go and find yourself a place to live near the treasure chambers and lock that (if you insist), but don't have a gate in the
citadel preventing the people from entering it and depriving them of their right to sit freely with you in counsel even at
the time when you choose to leave your quarters." Sa'd swore to Muhammad b. Maslamah that he had not said what the people
had imputed to him. So, instantly, Muhammad b. Maslamah set out on his return journey. When, in the vicinity of Medina,
his provisions had run out, he had to still his hunger with what bark of trees he could find. Suffering from indigestion,
he finally approached 'Umar and told him all that had happened. 'Umar asked, "Did you not take anything from Sa'd for me?"
Muhammad answered, "If you had wanted that, you should have (said so in the) letter you gave me for him, or you should have
given me leave to use my own judgment in this matter." Whereupon 'Umar said, "The most sagacious man is he who displays
his own initiative, when he has no directives from his superior to fall back on, or who, without holding back, gives expression
to his own views." Then Muhammad b. Maslamah told 'Umar of the oath Sa d had sworn and what he had said (on that occasion).
Believing Sa'd to be sincere, 'Umar said, "He is surely more veracious than those who informed him or those who told me (all
of Basrah: "According to Muhammad b Bashshar-Safwan..sahib al furat"
Tabari 12:163 …. According to Muhammad b.
Bashshar--Safwan b. 'Isa al‑Zuhn-- 'Amr b. 'Isa Abu Na'amah al‑'Adawl--Khalid b. 'Umayr and Shuwaysh Abu
al‑Ruqqad: 'Umar b. al‑Khattab dispatched 'Utbah b. Ghazwan and said to him: "Set out, you and those who are with
you. When you reach the farthest part of the Arab land and the closest part of the non‑Arab land, then halt." They marched
out. When they reached al‑Mirbad, they found soft stones (kadhdhan) and said:
"What are these soft stones (al‑basrah)? Then they moved on and reached a
place in front of a small bridge. There were tall grass and sprouting reeds. They said: "This is the place where you were
ordered (to halt)," so they halted short of [crossing into the territory of] the governor of the city of al‑Furat (sahib al-furat)….. "..He ordered them to dig a canal...drinking water to Basrah"
Tabari 12:165 … He ordered them to dig a canal through which water could be made to flow from the Tigris,
so they dug a canal for drinking water to al‑Basrah.
Identify factors of successful implementation
in the cases that you have studied
STAGES OF IMPLEMENTATION
Identify stages of implementation in the cases
that you have studied
CONTROL OF PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION: GANTT CHART
Think of a project that you have been involved
or one you are planning to undertake in the field of education. Complete the following GANTT chart. You may not know all the
information and may have to estimate
TIME SINCE START
0 1 2 3
CONTROL OF PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION: PERT/CM TABLE
Think of a project that you have been involved
or one you are planning to undertake. Complete the following GANTT chart. You may not know all the information and may have
Using the information from the table above complete
the following PERT chart
CAUSES OF FAILURE IN IMPLEMENTATION
SIMULATED PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION
USE OF ROUTINES IN IMPLEMENTATION
PROJECT LEADER CHECK LIST
DOCUMENTATION FOR PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION
SCOPE OF WORK
LOGICAL DIAGRAM OF KEY STAGES
WORK BREAK-DOWN FOR KEY STAGES
BUDGET (APPROVED AND OPERATIONAL)
Go to Part V