Appreciate that planning is not a new phenomenon since it occurred in the seerat





Events of Hudaybiyyah as told by the Qur’an

Events of Hudaybiyyah as recounted by Bukhari



Hudaybiyyah as an example of long-term strategic thinking and planning








Events of Hudaybiyyah as recounted by Bukhari: Narrated Al‑Miswar bin Mak­hrama and Marwan bin Al‑Hakam (one of them said more than his friend): The Prophet set out in the company of more than one thousand of his companions in the year of Al‑Hudaibiya, and when he reached Dhul‑Hulaifa, he garland­ed his Hadi (i.e. sacrificing animal), assumed the state of lhram for 'Umra from that place and sent a spy of his from Khuza'a (tribe). The Prophet proceeded on till he reached (a village called) Ghadir‑al‑Ashtat. There his spy came and said, "The Quraish (infidels) have collect­ed a great number of people against you, and they have collected against you the Ethiopians, and they will fight with you, and will stop you from entering the Ka'ba and prevent you." The Prophet said, "O people! Give me your opinion. Do you recommend that I should destroy the families and offspring of those who want to stop us from the Ka'ba? If they should come to us (for peace) then AIIah will destroy a spy from the pagans, otherwise we will leave them in a miserable state." On that Abu Bakr said, "O Allah's Apostle! You have come with the intention of visiting this house (i.e. Ka'ba) and you do not want to kill or fight anybody. So proceed to it, and whoever should stop us from it, we will fight him." On that the Prophet said, "Proceed on, in the Name of Allah" Bukhari 5:346-347, Hadith #495


Narrated Al-Miswar bin Makh­rama and Marwan whose narrations attest each other: Allah's Apostle set out at the time of Al‑Hudaibiya (treaty), and when they proceeded for a distance, he said, "Khalid bin Al‑Walid leading the cavalry of Quraish constituting the front of the army, is at a place called Al‑Ghamim, so take the way on the right." By Allah, Khalld did not perceive the arrival of the Muslims till the dust arising from the march of the Muslim army reached him, and then he turned back hurriedly to Inform Quraish. The Prophet went on advancing till he reached the Thaniyya (i.e. a mountainous way) through which one would go to them (i.e. people of Quraish). The she-camel of the Prophet sat down. The People tried their best to cause the she-camel to get up but in vain, so they said, "Al‑Qaswa' (i.e. the she‑camel's name) has become stub­born! Al‑Qaswa' has become stubborn!" The Prophet said, "Al‑Qaswa' has not become stubborn, for stubbornness is not her habit, but she was stopped by Him Who stopped the elephant." Then he said, "By the Name of Him in Whose Hands my soul is, if they (i.e. the Quraish infidels) ask me anything which will respect the ordinances of Allah, I will grant it to them." The Prophet then rebuked the she‑camel and she got up. The Prophet changed his way till he dismounted at the farthest end of Al‑Hudaibiya at a pit (i.e. well) containing a little water which the people used In small amounts, and in a short while the people used up all its water and complained to Allah's Apostle of thirst. The Prophet took an arrow out of his arrow‑case and ordered them to put the arrow in that pit. By Allah, the water started and continued sprouting out till all the people quenched their thirst and returned with satisfaction. While they were still in that state, Budail bin Warqa‑al‑Khuza'i came with some persons from his tribe Khuza'a and they were the advisers of Allah's Apostle who would keep no secret from him and were from the people of Tihama. Budail said, "I left Ka'b Bin Lu'ai and 'Amir bin Lu'ai residing at the profuse water of Al‑Hudaibiya and they had Milch camels (or their women and children) with them, and will wage war against you, and will prevent you from visiting the Ka'ba." Allah's Apostle said, we have not come to fight anyone, but to perform the 'Umra. No doubt, the war has weakened Quraish and they have suffered great losses, so if they wish, I will conclude a truce with them, during which they should refrain from interfering between me and the people (i.e. the 'Arab infidels other than Quraish), and if I have victory over those infidels, Quraish will have the option to embrace Islam as the other people do, If they wish; they will at least get strong enough to fight. But if they do not accept the truce, by Allah in Whose Hands my life is, I will fight with them defending my cause till I get killed, but (I am sure) Allah will definitely make His Cause victorious." Budail said, "I will inform them of what you have said." So he set off till he reached Quraish and said, "We have come from that man (i.e. Muhammad) whom we heard saying something Which we will disclose to you if you should like." Some of the fools among Quralsh shouted that they Were not in need of this Information, but the wiser among them Said, "Relate what you heard him saying." Budail Said, "I heard hum saying so‑and‑so," relating what the Prophet had told him. 'Urwa bin Mas'ud got up and said, "O people! Aren't you the sons?" They said, 'Yes." He added, "Am I not the father? They said, "Yes' He said, "Do you mistrust me?" They said, "No." He said, 'Don't you know that I invited the people of 'Ukaz for your help, and when they refused I brought my relatives and children and those who obeyed me (to help you)?" They said, "yes." He said, Well, this man (i.e. the Prophet) has offered you a reasonable proposal, you'd better accept it and allow me to meet him." They said, "You may meet him." So, he went to the Prophet and started talking to him. The Prophet told him almost the same as he had told Budail. Then 'Urwa said, ‑"O Muhammad! Won't you feel any scruple in extirpating your relations? Have you ever heard of anyone amongst the 'Arabs extirpating his relatives before you? On the other hand, if the reverse should happen, (nobody will aid you, for) by Allah, I do not see (with you) dignified people, but people from various tribes who would run away leaving you alone." Hearing that, Abu Bakr abused him and said, "Do you say we would run and leave the Prophet alone?" 'Urwa said, 'Who is that man?" They said, "He is Abu Bakr." 'Urwa said to Abu Bakr, "By Him in Whose Hands my life is, were it not for the favor which you did to me and which I did not compensate, I would retort on you." 'Urwa kept on talking to the Prophet and seizing the Prophet's beard as he was talking while Al‑Mughira bin Shu'ba was standing near the head of the Prophet, holding a sword and wearing a helmet. Whenever 'Urwa stretched his hand towards the beard of the Prophet, Al‑Mughira would hit his hand with the handle of the sword and say (to 'Urwa), "Remove your hand from the beard of Allah's Apostle ". 'Urwa raised his head and asked, who is that?" The people said, "He is Al‑Mughira bin Shu'ba." 'Urwa said, "O treacherous! Am I not doing my best to prevent evil consequences of your treachery?" Before embracing Islam Al‑Mughira was in the company of some people. He killed them and took their property and came (to Medina) to embrace Islam. The Prophet said (to him), "As regards your Islam, I accept it, but as for the property I do not take anything of it. (as it was taken through treason). 'Urwa then started looking at the companions of the Prophet By Allah, whenever Allah's Apostle spitted, the spittle would fall in the hand of one of them (i.e. the Prophet's companions) who would rub it on his face and skin if he ordered them they would carry his orders immediately; if he performed ablution, they would struggle to take the remaining water; and when they spoke to him, they would lower their voices and would not look at his face constantly out of respect. Urwa returned to his people and said, "O people! By Allah, I have been to the kings and to Caesar, Khosrau and An‑Najashi yet I have never seen any of them respected by his courtiers as much as Muhammad is respected by his companions. By Allah, if he spitted, the spittle would fall in the hand of one of them (i.e. the Prophet's companions) who would rub it on his face and skin; if he ordered them, they would carry out his order immediately; if he performed ablution, they would struggle to take the remaining water; and when they spoke, they would lower their voices and would not look at his face constantly out of respect." 'Urwa added, "No doubt, he has presented to you a good reasonable offer, so please accept it." A man from the tribe of Bani Kinana said, "Allow me to go to him," and they allowed him, and when he approached the Prophet and his companions, Allah's Apostle said, "He is so‑and‑so who belongs to the tribe that respects the Budn (i.e. camels of the sacrifice). So, bring the Budn in front of him." So, the Budn were brought before him and the people received him while they were reciting Talbiya. When he saw that scene, he said, "Glorified be Allah! It is not fair to prevent these people from visiting the Ka'ba." When he returned to his people, he said, "I saw the Budn garlanded (with colored knotted ropes) and marked (with stabs on their backs). I do not think it is advisable to prevent them from visiting the Ka'ba." Another person called Mikraz bin Hafs got up and sought their Permission to go to Muhammad, and they allowed him, too. When he approached the Muslims, the  Prophet  said "Here is Mikraz and he is a vicious man" Mikraz started talking to the Prophet and as he was talking, Suhail bin 'Amr came. When Suhail bin 'Amr came, the Prophet said, "Now the matter has become easy." Suhail said to the Prophet, "Please conclude a peace treaty with us." So, the Prophet called the clerk and said to him, "Write: By the Name of Allah, the most Beneficent, the most Merciful." Suhail said, "As for 'Beneficent,' by Allah, I do not know what It means. So write: By Your Name O Allah, as you used to write previously." The Muslims said, "By Allah, we will not write except: By the Name of Allah, the most Beneficent, the most Merciful." The Prophet said, 'Write: By Your Name O Allah." Then he dictated, "This is the peace treaty which Muhammad, Allah's Apostle has concluded." Suhail said, "By Allah, If we knew that you are Allah's Apostle we would not prevent you from visiting the Ka'ba, and would not fight with you. So, write: "Muhammad bin 'Abdullah." The Prophet said, "By Allah! I am Apostle of Allah even if you people do not believe me. Write: Muhammad bin 'Abdullah." (Az‑Zuhri said, "The Prophet accepted all those things, as he had already said that he would accept everything they would demand if it respects the ordinance of Allah, (i.e. by letting him and his companions perform 'Umra.)"‑ The Prophet said to Suhail, "On the condition that you allow us to visit the House i.e. Ka'ba) so that we may perform Tawaf around it." Suhail said, "By Allah, we will not (allow you this year) so as not to give chance to the 'Arabs to say that we have yielded to you, but we will allow you next year." So, the Prophet got that written. Then Suhail said, We also stipulate that you should return to us whoever comes to you from us, even if he embraced your religion;" The Muslims said, "Glorified be Allah! How will such a person be returned to the pagans after he has become a Muslim? While they were in this state Abu Jandal bin Suhail bin Amr came from the valley of Mecca staggering with in his fetters and fell down amongst the Muslims. Suhail said, "O Muhammad this is the very first term with which we make peace with you, i.e. you shall return Abu Jandal to me. The prophet said, "The peace treaty has not been written yet." Suhail said, 'I will never allow you to keep him." The Prophet I said, "Yes, do." He said, "I won't do ' Mikraz said, [...miss..] allow you (to keep him)." Abu Jandal said, "O Muslims! Will I be returned to the pagans though I have come as a Muslim? Don't you see how much I have suffered?" Abu Jandal had been tortured severely for the Cause of Allah. 'Umar bin Al‑Khattab said, "I went to the Prophet and said, 'Aren't you truly the apostle of Allah?' The Prophet said, 'Yes, indeed.' I said, 'Isn't our cause just and the cause of the enemy unjust?' He said, yes.' I said, 'Then why should we be humble in our religion?' He said, 'I am Allah's Apostle and l do not disobey Him, and He will make me victorious.' I said, 'Didn't you tell us that we would go to the Ka'ba and perform Tawaf around it?' He said, 'Yes, but did I tell you that we would visit the Ka'ba this year?' I said, 'No.' He said, 'So you will visit it and perform Tawaf around it? " Umar further said, "I went to Abi Bakr and said, 'O Abu Bakr! Isn't he truly Allah's Prophet?' He replied, 'Yes' I said, 'Isn't our cause just and the cause of our enemy unjust? He replied: 'Yes". I said: "Then why should we be humble in our religion ?" He said, 'Indeed, he is Allah's Messenger and he does not disobey his Lord, and He will make him victorious. Adhere to him as, by Allah, he is on the right.' I said, 'Was he not telling us that we would go to the Ka'ba and perform Tawaf around it?' He said, 'Yes, but did he tell you that you would go to the Ka'ba this year?' I said, 'No.' He said, 'You will go to Ka'ba and perform Tawaf around it.' " (Az‑Zuhri said, " 'Umar said, 'I performed many good deeds as expiation for the improper questions I asked them.'). When the writing of the peace treaty was concluded, Allah's Apostle said to his companions, "Get up and slaughter your sacrifices and get your head shaved." By Allah none of them got up, and the Prophet repeated his order thrice when none of them got up, he left them and went to Um Salama and told her of the people's attitudes towards him. Um Salama said, "O the Prophet of Allah ! Do you want your order to be carried out? Go out and don't say a word to anybody till you have slaughtered your sacrifice and call your barber to shave your head." So, the Prophet went out and did not talk to anyone of them till he did that, i.e. slaughtered the sacrifice and called his barber who shaved his head. Seeing that, the companions of the Prophet got up, slaughtered their sacrifices, and started shaving the heads of one another, and there was so much rush that there was a danger of killing each other. Then some believing women came (to the Prophet); and Allah revealed the following Divine Verses:‑‑'O you who believe, when the believing women come to you as emigrants examine them . . (60:10). 'Umar then divorced two wives of his who were infidels. Later on Mu'awiya bin Abu Sufyan married one of them, and Safwan bin Umaya married the other. When the Prophet returned to Medina, Abu Basir, a new Muslim con­vert from Quraish came to him. The Infidels sent in his pursuit two men who said (to the Prophet), "Abide by the promise you gave us." So, the Prophet handed him over to them . They took hum out (of the City) till they reached Dhul‑Hulaifa where they dismounted to eat some dates they had with them. Abu Basir said to one of them, "By Allah, 0 so‑and‑so, I see you have a fine sword." The other drew it out (of the scabbard) and said, "By Allah, It is very fine and I have tried it many times.' Abu Basir said, "Let me have a look at it."  When the other gave it to him, he hit him with it till he died, and his companion ran away till he came to Medina and entered the Mosque running. When Allah's Apostle saw him he said, "This man appears to have been frightened." When he reached the Prophet he said, "My companion has been murdered and I would have been murdered too." Abu Basir came and said, "O Allah's Apostle, by Allah, Allah has made you fulfill your obligations by your returning me to them (i.e. the infidels), but Allah has saved me from them." The Prophet said, "Woe to his mother! what excellent war kindler he would be, should he only have supporters.". When Abu Basir heard that he understood that the Prophet would return to them again, so he set off till he reached the seashore. Abu Jandal bin Suhail got himself released from them (i.e. infidels) and joined Abu Basir. So, whenever a man from Quraish embraced Islam he would follow Abu Basir till they formed a strong group. By Allah, whenever they heard about a caravan of Quraish heading towards Sham, they stopped it and attacked and killed them‑(i.e. infidels) and took their properties. The people of Quraish sent a message to the Prophet requesting him for the Sake of Allah and kith and kin to send for (i.e. Abu Basir and his companions) promising that whoever (amongst them) came to the Prophet would be secure. So the Prophet sent for them (i.e. Abu Basir's companions) and Allah revealed the following divine verses: 'and it is He Who Has withheld their hands from you and your hands From them in the midst of Mecca,  After He made you the victorious Over them.  . . . the unbelievers had pride and haughtiness,  In their hearts . . . the pride and haughtiness of the time of ignorance.' (Qur'an 48: 24‑26) And their pride and haughtiness was that they did not confess (write in the treaty) that he (i.e. Muhammad) was the Prophet of Allah and refused to write: "In the Name of Allah, the most Beneficent, the Most Merciful," and prevented the Muslims from visiting the Ka'ba. Narrated Az‑Zuhri: 'Ursa said, " 'Aisha told me that Allah's Apostle used to examine the women emigrants. We have been told also that when Allah revealed the order that the Muslims should return to the pagans what they had spent on their wives who emigrated (after embracing Islam) and that the Muslims should not keep unbelieving women as their wives, 'Umar divorced two of his wives: Qariba, the daughter of Abu Umaiya and the daughter of Jarwal Al‑Khuza'i. Later on Mu'awiya married Qariba and Abu Jahm married the other." When the pagans refused to pay what the Muslims had spent on their wives, Allah revealed: 'And if any of your wives have gone from you to the unbelievers and you have an accession ­(by the coming over of a woman from the other side) (Then pay to those whose wives have gone) The equivalent of what they had spent (on their mahr).'(60:11) So, Allah ordered that the Muslim whose wife has gone should be given as a compensation of the mahr he had given to his wife, from the mahr of the wives of the pagans who had emigrated deserting their husbands. We do not know any of the women emigrants who deserted Islam after embracing it We have also been told that Abu Basir bin Asid Al-Thaqafi came to the Prophet as a Muslim emigrant during the truce. AI‑Akhnas Bin Shariq wrote to the Prophet  requesting him to return Abu Basir". Bukhari 3:560-573


THE HUDAYBIYYAH PLEDGE: God’s pleasure was on the believers when they swore fealty to thee under the tree He knew what was in their hearts and He sent down tranquility to them and He rewarded them with a speedy victory ….  Qur'an 48:18 ….. Narrated Ibn 'Umar: When we reached (Hudaibiya) in the next year (of the treaty of Hudaibiya), not even two men amongst us agreed unanimously as to which was the tree under which we had given the pledge of allegiance, and that was out of Allah's Mercy. (The sub­ narrator asked Naf'i, "For what did the prophet take their pledge of allegiance, was it for death?" Naf'i replied 'No, but he took their pledge of allegiance for patience.") Bukhari 4:129-130, Hadith # 205





(a) What was the long-range vision of Muslims?


(b) What was the broad mission of the Muslims on leaving Madina?


                (c) What were the specific goals and objectives of the Muslims before, during, and after the signing of the   Hudaybiyyah treaty?               


                (d) Identify the externally-imposed mandates on the Quraish? What was expected of them as guardians of the Kaaba and leaders of Arabs? How did they address these mandates? Were they successful?


(e) Who were the stakeholders. Mention the interest of each one in the Hudaybiyyah outcome?


                (f) What were the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and  threats for (i) the Muslims  (ii) the Quraysh? just before the start of negotiations?


(g) What were the strategic issues facing (i) the Muslims (ii) the Quraysh? at the negotiations


                (h) What information did the Muslims get about Quraish? What information did the Quraish get about Muslims. How would each side use that information?


(i) Imagine what moves each side forecast about the other just before the start of the negotiations?


(j) List all the possible scenarios from the point of view of (a) Muslims (b) Quraish


                (k) Describe the vision referred to in the opening verse of Surat al Fath. How does this relate to the Prophet's vision in his sleep before he left Madina?






Understand how  to make effective strategic moves




Basic terminology

Incorporation of strategic moves in the strategic plan

Speed of strategic moves

Types of strategies vis-s-vis an opponent

Assessment of key players before making a strategic move 

Sequence of strategic moves

Conditioning of strategic moves

Zero sum vs variable sum moves

Factors to consider in planning strategic moves

Assessment of benefits/losses  of cooperation vis a vis confrontation

Strategic moves in cases of extreme uncertainty





Umrat al qada: fulfillment of the treaty

Treatment of believing women who came to the Muslim camp



Post-Hudaybiyyah: Management Of Strategy 6-8 Ah

The Makkah Campaign: Case Study Of A Grand Strategy





Content: This chapter discusses the practical moves that are needed to implement a strategic plan and how to deal with obstacles and counter-moves from opponents of the plan


Basic terminology: strategic thrusts, strategic moves, programs,  action plans: Strategic thrusts are statements of strategic intents. Programs are translations of strategy into projects. Action plans are specific practical steps towards implementing a strategy, including tasks and timing. Strategic moves are actual measures taken to implement the strategy.


Incorporation of strategic moves in the strategic plan: Strategic moves must be incorporated in the strtegic plan. A strategy is useless unless it incorporates the necessary strategic moves that must be made, their timing and sequence. Flexibility is needed in planning strategic moves. The environment may change considerably during plan implementation which necessitates revision of the planned moves.


Speed of strategic moves: There are 3 types of strategic moves: (a) Sudden and major to throw competition off balance (b) Paced and incremental with continuous evaluation (c) Slow today, major impact in long-term perspective.


Types of strategies vis-s-vis an opponent: There are three types of strategies: dominant, dominated, and equilibrium. You must use dominant strategies and eliminate dominated ones. Equilibrium strategies are sometimes the best because each player's response is the best response and there is mutual benefit.


Assessment of key players before making a strategic move: Before making any strategic moves, key players (for and against the plan) must be identified and must be assessed. Key player assessment involves: their motivation, relative power, strengths, weaknesses, and probable behavior.


Sequence of strategic moves: Strategic moves may be sequential or simultaneous.


Conditioning of strategic moves: Strategic moves may be conditional or unconditional. Conditional moves are taken in relation to threats and promises. Promises and threats could be used as either deterrents or compellents. Unconditional moves  do not have to wait for some other event to occur. They are taken independently


Zero sum vs variable sum moves: In a zero sum situation, in which one person's gain is always another person's loss, pre-emptive action may be the best course of action. There are non-zero sum situations in which through collaboration and coordination, 2 players can assure a win/win outcome. In the extreme situation,  non-zero sum situation may end as lose-lose


Factors to consider in planning strategic moves: Relative power, resources, time, and the environment are to considered in assessing benefits/losses of particular strategic moves. Your Power, resources, timing . The opponent's power, resources, timing. Environmental changes affecting you and the opponent


Assessment of benefits/losses  of cooperation vis a vis confrontation: When deciding on which strategic moves to make, you have to consider your power vis-a-vis that of the opponent in the light of the benefits of cooperation with them. When your power is high it is better for you either to set your terms (if your benefit is low) or collaborate (if your benefit is high). If your power is low consider accepting the best offer (if yur benefit is low) or accommodation (if your benefit is high).


Strategic moves in cases of extreme uncertainty: Some strategic moves can be taken whatever the level of uncertainty. If you have nothing to lose and there is a slim chance of gaining, make the move even if the odds are overwhelmingly against you. If the immediate gains are more than the losses, the decision to make a move should be based on the long-term impact of a possible failure. A failure that could threaten the continued existence and efficient functioning of the organization should not be taken lightly.


Brinkmanship: Brinkmanship in strategic thinking is risky but may also be associated with a lot of rewards. It should be avoided where control or understanding of the risk are limited. Conservative players never approach the brink in any situation. The risk rises with the increase of the level of uncertainty. More daring players get near the brink and even stand on it. If they are wise they better know how to extricate themselves. If they do not know how to get out of such a situation, they have only themselves to blame for whatever catastrophes may follow.


Pre-emption: Pre-emptive moves involve taking reactive moves even before the events reacted to have not yet fully unfolded. Pre-emptive moves result in gain of lead-time. Reaction  to events before they occur gives you an advantage and an upper hand.






Umrat al qada: fulfilmnent of the treaty: Truly did Allah fulfil the vision for His Messenger. You shall enter the Sacred Mosque, if Allah wills, with minds secure, heads shaved, hair cut short, and without fear. For He knew what you knew not, and He granted, besides this, a speedy victory. Qur'an 48:27 … Narrated Al‑Bara': When the Prophet intended to perform 'Umra in the month of Dhul‑Qa'da, the people of Mecca did not let him enter Mecca till he settled the matter with them by promising to stay in it for three days only. When the document of treaty was written, the following was mentioned: 'These are the terms on which Muhammad, Allah's Apostle agreed (to make peace).' They said, "We will not agree to this, for if we believed that you are Allah's Apostle we would not prevent you but you are Muhammad bin 'Abdullah." The Prophet said, "I am Allah's Apostle and also Muhammad bin 'Abdullah." Then he said to 'Ali "Rub off (the words) 'Allah's Apostle' ", but 'Ali said, "No, by Allah, I will never rub off your name." So, Allah's Apostle took the document and wrote, 'This is what Muhammad bin 'Abdullah has agreed upon: No arms will be brought into Mecca except in their cases, and nobody from the people of Mecca will be allowed to go with him (i.e. the Prophet ) even if he wished to follow him and he (the Prophet) will not prevent any of his companions from staying in Mecca if the latter wants to stay.' When the Prophet entered Mecca and the time limit passed, the Meccans went to 'Ali and said, "Tell your Friend (i.e. the Prophet) to go out, as the period (agreed to) has passed." So, the Prophet went out of Mecca. The daughter of Hamza ran after them i e. the Prophet and his companions) calling, "O Uncle! O (Uncle!'' 'Ali received her and led her by the hand and said to Fatima, "Take your uncle's daughter. Zaid and Ja'far quarrelled about her. 'Ali said, "I have more right to her as she is my uncle's daughter. Ja'far said, "She is my uncle's daughter and her aunt is my wife.' Zaid said, "She is my brother's daughter." The prophet judged that she should be given to her aunt, and said that the aunt was like the mother. He then said to 'Ali, You are from me and I am from you", and said to Ja'far, "You resemble me both in character and appearance", and said to Zaid, "You are our brother (in faith) and our freed slave." Bukhari 3: 536-538, Hadith #863


Treatment of believing women who came to the Muslim camp: Narrated 'Urwa bin Az‑Zubair that he heard Marwan bin Al‑Hakam and Al‑Miswar bin Makhrama relating one of the events that happened to Allah's Apostle in the 'Umra of Al‑Hudai­biya. They said, "When Allah's Apostle concluded the truce with Suhail bin 'Amr on the day of Al‑Hudaibiya, one of the conditions which Suhail bin 'Amr stipulated, was his saying (to the Prophet), "If anyone from us (i.e. infidels) ever comes to you, though he has em­braced your religion, you should return him to us, and should not interfere be­tween us and him." Suhail ‑refused to conclude the truce with Allah's Apostle except on this condition. The Believers disliked this condition and got disgusted with it and argued about it But when Suhail refused to conclude the truce with Allah's Apostle except on that condition, Allah's Apostle concluded it Accordingly, Allah's Apostle then returned Abu Jandal bin Suhail to his father, Suhail bin 'Amr,and returned every man coming to him from them during that period even if he was a Muslim. The believing women Emigrants came to (Medina) including Umm Kulthum, the daughter of 'Uqba bin Abi Mu'ait was one of those who came to Allah's Apostle and she was an adult at that time. Her relatives came, asking Allah's Apostle to return her to them, and in this connection, Allah revealed the verses dealing with the believing women).'Aisha said, "Allah's Apostle used to test all the believing women who migrated to him, with the following verse. 'O Prophet! When the believing Women come to you, to give the pledge of allegiance to you(60: 12) when Allah ordered His Apostle to return to the pagans what they had given to their wives who lately migrated (to Medina) and we were informed that Abu Basir..." relating the whole narration. Bukhari 5:317-318, Hadith # 496





(a)           Draw a table showing strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats for Muslims in the years 6 AH and 8 AH


(b)           Draw a table showing strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats for Quraish in the years 6 AH and 8 AH


(C)           Identify strategic issues for Muslims in the post-Hudaybiyyah period. What strategic moves were made? What were the consequences? what were the original strategic moves? what were the counter-moves?





(a)           What was the ultimate vision of the Makkah campaign? Did it become a reality?


(b)           What was the mission of the Makkah campaign?


(c)           Can you identify any externally-imposed mandates?


(d)           What were the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and  threats for (i) the Muslims (ii) the Quraysh?


(e)           What were the strategic issues facing (i) the Muslims? (ii) the Quraysh?


(f)            Reconstruct from your reading what you think were the main elements of the Muslim strategic plan. How was each implemented?


(g)           What strategic considerations were behind the efforts to avoid humiliating the Quraish?


Who were the stakeholders among the Quraish? How were they won over? What were the strategic considerations behind treating them well?









Understand effective strategy implementation



Phasing/staging strategy implementation

Requirements for strategy implementation

Motivated leader

Resources needed for strategy implementation

Organizational changes needed for implementation

Behavioral change needed for strategy implementation

Control measures for implementation


Situations in which contingency planning is used

Exploiting opportunities


Difficulties in management of strategy

Opposition to strategy


Selling the plan





Implementing a local strategy

Old and new management teams

Types of managerial personalities for strategic transitions

Behavior of various management types during strategic transitions





Phasing/staging strategy implementation: Strategic moves can be likened to a game of chess but several-fold more complicated. In chess the environment and the rules are well known; in strategy they are not. Like chess, strategic moves are in stages. The timing and sequence of such moves are part of strategic logic. Each strategic move must be broken down into its separate specific  components. This makes analysis, monitoring, and modification easier. Very big strategic moves occurring suddenly are associated with higher risk. Each move must be made taking into consideration previous moves and anticipated future moves


Requirements for strategy implementation: Strategy implementation requires motivated leaders, resources, organizational restructuring, and behavioral changes. Both the leadership and the organization (structure and culture) must adapt to the new strategy. The personality of the leader is very crucial in the early stages of a strategic shift. Pioneering types who aim at explosive growth or expansion are more likely to succeed than those who prefer stability, and continuous growth. However when the strategic shift has become complete then the more administrative types who prefer stability can take over. A new strategy may call for human, financial, and material resources not available in the organization. Part of strategic planning is to make sure those resources are available. Unavailability of resources is a strong reason for not embarking on a new strategy. It is also not wise to start the initial phases for which resources are available if there is no guarantee of resource availability for later stages. The  organization must change to match the new strategy: Changes are needed in organizational leadership, structure, design, and culture. Adaptation of the leadership style to the new strategy involves both the personality and style of the leaders. Key managers who understand and are committed to the strategic plan should  be put in the right positions. The whole strategic planning cum management process can fail if uncommitted people are entrusted with the execution. Adaptation of the  organizational structure & design to match the new strategy involves restructuring and reporting changes. The best restructuring is to let each department or unit deal with one or several related strategic issues/objectives. Top leadership then provides coordination between the various units. Operational and functional relationships must be linked through vertical and horizontal integration. The organizational culture must change to match the new strategy, the new vision and mission, and the long-term strategic perspective. Behavioral change needed for strategy implementation: Implementation of a strategic plan leads automatically to behavioral changes. This is because the vision and  sense of direction that are introduced. People are able to relate their individual contributions to a larger picture. They become more focussed and future-oriented.


Control & monitoring: Strict control measures are needed for action plans arising out of strategic plans to ensure that there is no deviation from the vision and mission of the organization or its plans. Monitoring: Monitoring of strategy implementation is of utmost importance. Monitoring covers the following: assumptions and information used in the plan, changes in key personnel, trends, and results. Monitoring can be continuous, at project milestones, during major crises, or at regular scheduled periods. The methodology of planning includes: updating information, predicting future behavior, identifying the impact of actual results on strategy


Contingencies: Situations in which contingency planning is used: Cases of high uncertainty . When forecasts are non-specific? When rapid response to changes is necessary. When particular conditions are likely.


Modifications of strategy for different levels of uncertainty: When uncertainty is low, program exactly. When uncertainty is moderate make progressive reassessment. When uncertainty is high, advance by stages. When uncertainty is very high, utilize prepared opportunism.


Exploiting opportunities: Be always prepared to exploit opportunities. This can be achieved by preparing reserve resources, monitoring the environment, and being ready for rapid reaction. Reserve resources for anticipated immediate needs must be set aside so that no time is spent in mobilizing resources. Monitoring the environment continuously is the only way of making sure that opportunities will be missed. The monitoring must be systematic. The leadership must be prepared to move into  rapid reaction when an opportunity appears


Equilibrium: Strategy implementation is a fine art of balancing opposing and sometimes contradictory forces and tendencies: Balancing  short-term vs long-term goals, Balancing internal vs external forces, Balancing the continuing vs new strategies and workplans, Balancing  stable vs risky options, Balancing time and effort spent in planning vs time for action


Difficulties in management of strategy: There are 4 main difficulties in the practical implementation, management, and control of strategic plans: There is usually a long lag-time between action and outcome. There is always uncertainty about the future. There are many dynamic shifts that require changing plans rapidly. Evaluation of implementation and results is difficult in the midst of action. Long lead-time between action and outcome. Uncertainty about the future. Dynamic shifts that cause strategy changes. Objective evaluation is difficult in the middle of action


Opposition to strategy: Strategy implementation requires dealing with recalcitrant or opposing members. Many people will oppose new strategies because they do not understand their importance for the future. There is conflict between the old and the new. Leadership must be ready to resolve conflicts that arise between new strategic plans and on-going activities. Potential opposition should be anticipated and measures taken to decrease it. Education and continuous effective communication could resolve many problems. Including potential opponents in the planning process could be useful


Inertia: Inertia is the main enemy of new strategies. Human beings stick to what is familiar and instinctively oppose the new. There is always resistance to new changes especially if there is no obvious crisis. Yet the essence of strategy is to foretell and make the necessary strategic moves before catastrophe shows its ugly face.


Selling the plan: Both motivation and logical persuasion are needed to sell a strategic plan especially in situations in which the new strategic plan is opposed








Using the strategic plan prepared in previous exercises, list the main steps you would undertake to implement it



                Compare the advantages and disadvantages of using new as opposed to old management teams in implementation of new strategies. For both new and old, list the advantages and the disadvantages. List possible barriers to implementation from the old management




Give examples of the following managerial personalities from your experience in educational institutions:


Pioneer (Intuitive Thinking, Explosive Growth)

Conqueror (Rational Thinking,  Expansive Growth)

Level-Headed (Rational Thinking, Continuous Growth)

Administrator  (Conformer In Thinking, Consolidation Of Growth)

Economizer (Legal Thinkng, Cautious Growth)

Diplomat (Open-Minded, Retreat And  Repositions)



Score each type of manager (pioneer, conqueror, level-headed, administrator, economizer, diplomat) as high, medium, or low using the criteria of conformity, sociability, activity/dynamism, and pressure to achieve.





Understand how  to make a tactical or action plan



Chapter overview

Relation between action and strategic plans

The time dimension

How plans are used

Components of the planning process

Stages of the planning process

 The environment

 Vision and mission



 Assumptions and forecasts


Check-list for plans

Review of plans

Float time

Allowance for the human factor

Commonsense and simplicity

Who plans?

Planning bottom-up and top-down: centralization vs decentralization



Description of the annual action plan

Skeleton of the annual action plan



Islam calls for simplicity and ease



Evaluation of a planning process

Check-list of an action plan

Preparing an action plan for a local organization

Analyzing the hijra of the Prophet as an example of action planning

Hypothetical action plan for the first year of the Islamic state at Madina





Definitions: This chapter covers the main elements of an action plan, a description of goals, objectives, tasks (what, who, when, how). An action plan is implementation of a selected portion of the strategic plan. A series of tactical plans over several years accomplish the strategic objectives of the strategic plan. An action plan usually covers a short period of time usually 1-2 years.


How plans are used: Plans can be used in three different ways: as standing orders, as intermediate use plans, and as single use plans. Standing orders are policies, procedures, rules and regulations that are followed in a routine way. Intermediate use plans are usually programs or projects of a certain duration and with a specific objective or goal in mind. Single use plans are operational budgets, unit plans, and annual action plans


Components of Planning process: The planning process has 2 components: (a) determination of objectives, an expression of intention or NIYYAT, and (b) formulation of actions to achieve those objectives. Planning is an expression of intent, niyyat. Every human endeavor must have a niyyat for it to be of benefit. Niyyat also implies commitment because you are supposed to undertake only purposive activities to whose completion you should morally be committed. Formulation of actions to achieve set objectives is the essence of action planning


Stages of the planning process: The planning process must be systematic and follow rational problem-solving stages. The planning process has the following stages: (1) environmental analysis (swot process) (2) state vision and mission (3) niyyat and commitment (4) set goals: refinement of mission - key issues - general ends to be achieved (5) set objectives: specific statement of results expected (6) collect and analyze information (7) make assumptions/forecasts about missing information: controllable factors - uncontrollable factors (8) search for opportunities (9) consider all alternative solutions (10) decide on best alternative (11) formulate action plans to achieve objectives: define tasks needed to achieve objectives - delegate - set targets (12) communicate (13) set up control mechanisms (14) execution of the plan (15) follow-up and follow-through (16) evaluation using goals as criteria


The Environment: The environment in which you are going to operate must be understood. The internal environment are your strengths and weaknesses. The external environment are opportunities and threats.


Vision, mission, goals, and objectives: The vision and mission of the tactical plan are derived from the strategic plan. Goals are the key issues that you want to address. They are general ends to be reached. Good goals are challenging yet attainable. They are clear, specific, measurable, and time-phased. Objectives are specific statements of results expected. They define a specific direction and are a basis for control. Good goals are clear, they set targets, can be used to measure progress within a given time frame.


Information, assumptions, forecasts: Relevant information must be collected, cross-checked, and used in planning. Assumptions and forecasts are made when information is not perfect and the unknown future. In making forecasts a distinction must be made between controllable and uncontrollable factors. You can influence the former but not the latter. All alternative approaches should be considered. The best, which is adopted as the plan, is found by elimination.


Check-list for plans: To check completeness of the plan you must ask yourself 12 questions about the main elements of a plan: objective, implementors, those affected by the plan, methodology of implementation, time of implementation, place of implementation, cost of the plan, barriers to implementation, contingency plans, any other related plans, control and evaluation.


Review of plans: Plans must be reviewed regularly, either quarterly or biannually


Allowance for time and the human factor: The time scheduling should allow for some float time to be able to absorb some delays of some stages without disturbing deadlines for the whole plan. A good plan must make allowance for the human factor. Humans are not perfect. Things can not always go as planned.


Common sense and simplicity: Quite often poor plans are made when leaders rely unduly on sophisticated statistical tools and forecasts made easily accessible by today's technology and forget the old and tested tool of common sense. What may look sophisticated on paper will prove to be sheer nonsense in the field. The test of a good plan is to be able to explain it to a teenager and he understands the main elements. Major mistakes are often hidden in the high-ringing sophisticated jargon of today's planners.


Who plans: Participation of plan implementors in the planning process increases commitment to the plan and helps its successful execution. Planning bottom-up (decentralisation) or top-down (centralisation) can be used depending on the circumstances. In general it is better to plan bottom-up than top-down. Too much centralized planning may make micro sense but prove to be micro nonsense in the field.


Contingencies: Because of limitations of information sources and inability to forecast the future accurately, each action plan must include contingencies in case the main plan does not work or faces unforeseen obstacles.


Overplanning: The temptation to overplan must be resisted. Specific details may have to be left to the initiative of the people in the field carrying out the plan. Their creativity and initiative should not be stifled.


Description of the annual action plan: An annual action plan is a document that charts course of action for 1 year and is consistent with general strategic plan. It sets out the objectives, goals, time schedules of the various activities, as well as the required material and human resources. An action plan is a constraint on 'crisis planning'  since it anticipates events and plans for them and provides a detailed guideline for those executing the program. An action plan can be prepared by the central leadership (centralized) or the local leadership (decentralized). It is always best for the plan to be prepared by those who will be directly involved in its implementation. An action plan requires quarterly reviews and should be modified should the need arise


Skeleton of the annual action plan: A good action plan should contain the following elements (headings):  Title, Vision,  Mission, Goals, Objectives for each goal,  Tasks for each objective,   Detailed planning for each task: who is responsible? - methodology - timing - place - human resources (compute person-time) - non-human resources (as money, material) - expected result criteria of evaluation.   Appendices: background information used in planning - detailed description of methodology - resumes of key persons - details of budgetary computation               













Think of any educational plan in whose formulation you were involved or about which you know very well and determine whether each of the following stages of planning was followed in formulating the plan


(1) environmental analysis (swot process)


(2) state vision and mission


(3) niyyat and commitment


(4) set goals: refinement of mission - key issues - general ends to be achieved


(5) set objectives: specific statement of results expected


(6) collect and analyze information


(7) make assumptions/forecasts about missing information: controllable factors - uncontrollable factors


(8) search for opportunities


(9) consider all alternative solutions


(10) decide on best alternative


(11) formulate action plans to achieve objectives: define tasks needed to achieve objectives - delegate - set targets


(12) communicate


(13) set up control mechanisms


(14) execution of the plan


(15) follow-up and follow-through (16) evaluation using goals as criteria



Use the following check list of completeness to assess any educational action plan that you are familiar with:


(1) What is vision, mission, goals, objectives, tasks


(2) Who will implement this plan?


(3) Who will be affected by this plan?


(4) Wow will the plan be implemented?


(5) When will the plan be implemented?


(6) Where will the plan be implemented?


(7) What will the plan cost (human and material)?


(8) What are the likely barriers to implementation?


(9) What are the contingency plans if main plan fails?


(10) What are the related plans?


(11) How will the plan be controlled and evaluated?





This exercise can be done by an individual or a small group. Think of a geographically and socially well-defined Muslim community that you know very well or an organization to which you belong or whose operations are very familiar to you. Outline a 1-year action plan to address a selected education issue. The action plan should be based on the general strategic plan that you prepared in previous exercises.


Provide some basic information (50 words) on which your planning will be based: total population to be served, socio-demographic characteristics, existing facilities and resources in the community, main elements of the long-term strategic plan.


Since this is a class-room exercise and you have no time to prepare a comprehensive plan, choose only one field of concern.


List your vision, mission, goals, objectives, and tasks. Choose only one task and plan for it in detail. Follow the following outline:









                WHO IS RESPONSIBLE?






                EXPECTED RESULT





(a) What was the overall vision


(b) What was the mission?


(c) What were the goals?


(d) What were the objectives?



(e) What were the different tasks of the plan?


(f) For each task provide the following:

                Who was responsible?

                How was it carried out?

                When was the task (start, end, timing)

                Where was the task carried out?

                What were the human resources involved?

                What were the non-human resources involved?

                What were the expected results?


(g) What were the opportunities and threats?


(h) What could have been the alternative contingency plans?


(i) Who would feel the impact of the plan if it succeeded?0


(j) How did Hijra contribute to the overall strategic plan?


(k) What lessons do you derive from Hijra for your local work?




Go to Part III

ęCopyright Professor Omar Hasan Kasule Sr, July 2000