Home

ISLAMIC MEDICAL EDUCATION RESOURCES 04

0007- PROJECT PLANNING & APPRAISAL

Professor Omar Hasan Kasule Sr.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:

Learn conceptual and practical aspects of project planning

OUTLINES:

BACKGROUND READING

Feasibility study is basis for appraisal

What is a project?:

Stages / life cycle of a project:

Hard and soft projects

Feasibility study

Project Planning: definition

Advantages of project planning:

Components of a project plan:

Project Director

Identifying project objectives

Project Team

Stakeholders

Scope of work statement

Project tasks

Key stages

Budgeting

Milestones

Human resource allocation

Establish control procedures

Creativity

Review:

 

DISCUSSION

Check-list of project director responsibilities

Comparing traditional with matrix project structures

 

BACKGROUND READING

INSTRUCTIONS: THE DISCUSSION LEADER OR THE MEMBERS (IN TURNS) WILL PRESENT THE MAIN POINTS IN THE BACKGROUND READING SECTIONS PRE-ASSIGNED THE PREVIOUS WEEK

 

Overview: This chapter deals with project proposals, their appraisal and determination whether they should be accepted for implementation or not.

 

Feasibility study is basis for appraisal

 

What is a project?: A project is a group of activities carried out with clearly defined time and cost to reach specific objectives. A project is not routine or part of the day-to-day operations

 

Stages / life cycle of a project:

 

Conception based on research, perceived need / problem

 

Feasibility study: includes fact finding, alternative approaches, economic evaluation, sources of finance, effect on current operations, and  project assumptions

 

Project planning

 

Implementation

 

Termination

 

Evaluation

 

Hard and soft projects: A hard project starts off with a clear plan and objectives and all details worked out in advance. A soft project starts only with general and vague objectives and concrete details are developed as you go along

 

Feasibility study: Review feasibility study and update information and assumptions

 

Project Planning: definition: Project planning is a type of operational planning

 

Advantages of project planning:

 

Reduce risk

 

Clarify objectives

 

Set standards for performance

 

Set up structure for implementation

 

Set up a control system

 

Components of a project plan:

 

Objectives

 

Methodology

 

Scheduling

 

Budget

 

Organizational structure

 

Procedures for control

 

Procedures for communication

 

Performance standards

 

Project Director:

A project director must be appointed very early in the life of the project and should participate in the planning process

 

Terms of reference and authority for the director should be defined.

 

A list of specific responsibilities should be drawn up for the director including: planning,  organizing, directing, and controlling.

 

The project director must have the following leadership qualities: team leader, motivator, negotiator etc.

 

Some large projects must have a project steering committee in addition to the director

 

Identifying project objectives: Project objectives must be specific, measurable, achievable, realistic, and  time bound

 

Project Team: Set up project team, explain project to them and make sure they understand. You may use a traditional hierarchical system or matrix system (skills matrix). Make sure that you balance personalities.

 

Stakeholders: Identify internal and external stakeholders, analyze their open and hidden agendas, plan how to manage them. Define the project stage that concerns every stake holder must be identified.

 

Scope of work statement: Scope of work statement describing the work to be performed including specifications

 

Project tasks: Brain-storm to identify project tasks and group them as key stages of the project

 

Key stages: Order key stages in a logical order taking into account any dependencies. Assign duration to each stage. Break down key stages into several levels of detail. Develop an operational plan for each key stage allowing for contingencies.

 

Budgeting: Avoid the following mistakes in budgeting: inaccurate scope of work statement, lack of standards, wrong work schedules, inaccurate time estimates, ignoring inflation

 

Milestones:

Determine project milestones (start, end, and duration of each stage) and represent on a chart or graphically making sure you allow for float time.

 

CPM is a project network diagram on which you can identify the critical path that determines the shortest time in which the project can be completed and also the total project time. Critical activities have zero float time

 

A Gantt chart can show the critical path, the milestones, responsible persons, review meetings. Project time should be converted to calendar time

 

Human resource allocation: Plan human resource allocation by day and assign tasks to individuals by name. A linear responsibility chart shows the task, who is responsible, and the estimated time.

 

Establish control procedures

 

Creativity: You should not plan to the last detail. Leave room for creativity of the implementors

 

Review: The plan must be updated continuously during implementation.

 

 

DISCUSSION:

CHECK-LIST OF PROJECT DIRECTOR RESPONSIBILITIES

 

PLANNING

            PROJECT PLAN

            PROJECT SCHEDULE

            PROJECT BUDGET

            COST CONTROL PROCEDURES

            PROJECT CONTROL PROCEDURES

            SPECIFICATIONS AND STANDARDS

 

ORGANIZING

            ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE AND CHART

            JOB DESCRIPTIONS FOR PROJECT TEAM MEMBERS

            HIRE PROJECT TEAM MEMBERS

            PLAN RESOURCES

 

DIRECTING

            PROCEDURES FOR PROBLEM SOLVING

            PROCEDURES FOR DECISION MAKING

            MAINTAIN TEAM MORALE

            CONFLICT RESOLUTION

 

CONTROLLING

            MAKE SURE OBJECTIVES ARE ACHIEVED

            MAKE SURE PLANS AND SPECIFICATIONS ARE FOLLOWED

            PROJECT PROGRESS/STATUS REPORTS

 

COMPARING TRADITIONAL WITH MATRIX PROJECT STRUCTURES

 

Indicate (yes/no) for each criterion below comparing traditional  and matrix project structures

 

ITEM                                                                                       TRADITIONAL          MATRIX

-------------------------------------     -                                   ---------           -------

CONTROL IS TIGHT

CONTROL IS EFFECTIVE

AUTHORITY IS WELL DEFINED

REPETITIVE REPORTING TO SEVERAL BOSSES

RESPONSIBILITIES WELL DEFINED

PROJECT LEADERSHIP IS CLEAR

COMMUNICATION CHANNELS EFFICIENT

COMMUNICATION ON PERSONAL BASIS

VERTICAL COMMUNICATION

CONFLICT BETWEEN PROJECTS LIKELY

HORIZONTAL COMMUNICATION

RESOURCE UTILIZATION EFFICIENT

RESOURCE ALLOCATION FLEXIBLE

COST EFFECTIVE

PRIORITIZATION EASY

CHANGE OF PRIORITIES NOT COMMUNICATED

TEAM WORK IS EASY

COST CONTROL IS EASY

CRISIS INTERVENTION IS EASY

Professor Omar Hasan Kasule 2000