Professor Omar Hasan Kasule Sr.


  • Appreciate that planning is not a new phenomenon since it occurred in the seerat





Events of Hudaybiyyah as told by the Qur’an

Events of Hudaybiyyah as recounted by Bukhari


Hudaybiyyah as an example of long-term strategic thinking and planning








Events of Hudaybiyyah as recounted by Bukhari: Narrated Al‑Miswar bin Mak­hrama and Marwan bin Al‑Hakam (one of them said more than his friend): The Prophet set out in the company of more than one thousand of his companions in the year of Al‑Hudaibiya, and when he reached Dhul‑Hulaifa, he garland­ed his Hadi (i.e. sacrificing animal), assumed the state of lhram for 'Umra from that place and sent a spy of his from Khuza'a (tribe). The Prophet proceeded on till he reached (a village called) Ghadir‑al‑Ashtat. There his spy came and said, "The Quraish (infidels) have collect­ed a great number of people against you, and they have collected against you the Ethiopians, and they will fight with you, and will stop you from entering the Ka'ba and prevent you." The Prophet said, "O people! Give me your opinion. Do you recommend that I should destroy the families and offspring of those who want to stop us from the Ka'ba? If they should come to us (for peace) then AIIah will destroy a spy from the pagans, otherwise we will leave them in a miserable state." On that Abu Bakr said, "O Allah's Apostle! You have come with the intention of visiting this house (i.e. Ka'ba) and you do not want to kill or fight anybody. So proceed to it, and whoever should stop us from it, we will fight him." On that the Prophet said, "Proceed on, in the Name of Allah" Bukhari 5:346-347, Hadith #495


Narrated Al-Miswar bin Makh­rama and Marwan whose narrations attest each other: Allah's Apostle set out at the time of Al‑Hudaibiya (treaty), and when they proceeded for a distance, he said, "Khalid bin Al‑Walid leading the cavalry of Quraish constituting the front of the army, is at a place called Al‑Ghamim, so take the way on the right." By Allah, Khalld did not perceive the arrival of the Muslims till the dust arising from the march of the Muslim army reached him, and then he turned back hurriedly to Inform Quraish. The Prophet went on advancing till he reached the Thaniyya (i.e. a mountainous way) through which one would go to them (i.e. people of Quraish). The she-camel of the Prophet sat down. The People tried their best to cause the she-camel to get up but in vain, so they said, "Al‑Qaswa' (i.e. the she‑camel's name) has become stub­born! Al‑Qaswa' has become stubborn!" The Prophet said, "Al‑Qaswa' has not become stubborn, for stubbornness is not her habit, but she was stopped by Him Who stopped the elephant." Then he said, "By the Name of Him in Whose Hands my soul is, if they (i.e. the Quraish infidels) ask me anything which will respect the ordinances of Allah, I will grant it to them." The Prophet then rebuked the she‑camel and she got up. The Prophet changed his way till he dismounted at the farthest end of Al‑Hudaibiya at a pit (i.e. well) containing a little water which the people used In small amounts, and in a short while the people used up all its water and complained to Allah's Apostle of thirst. The Prophet took an arrow out of his arrow‑case and ordered them to put the arrow in that pit. By Allah, the water started and continued sprouting out till all the people quenched their thirst and returned with satisfaction. While they were still in that state, Budail bin Warqa‑al‑Khuza'i came with some persons from his tribe Khuza'a and they were the advisers of Allah's Apostle who would keep no secret from him and were from the people of Tihama. Budail said, "I left Ka'b Bin Lu'ai and 'Amir bin Lu'ai residing at the profuse water of Al‑Hudaibiya and they had Milch camels (or their women and children) with them, and will wage war against you, and will prevent you from visiting the Ka'ba." Allah's Apostle said, we have not come to fight anyone, but to perform the 'Umra. No doubt, the war has weakened Quraish and they have suffered great losses, so if they wish, I will conclude a truce with them, during which they should refrain from interfering between me and the people (i.e. the 'Arab infidels other than Quraish), and if I have victory over those infidels, Quraish will have the option to embrace Islam as the other people do, If they wish; they will at least get strong enough to fight. But if they do not accept the truce, by Allah in Whose Hands my life is, I will fight with them defending my cause till I get killed, but (I am sure) Allah will definitely make His Cause victorious." Budail said, "I will inform them of what you have said." So he set off till he reached Quraish and said, "We have come from that man (i.e. Muhammad) whom we heard saying something Which we will disclose to you if you should like." Some of the fools among Quralsh shouted that they Were not in need of this Information, but the wiser among them Said, "Relate what you heard him saying." Budail Said, "I heard hum saying so‑and‑so," relating what the Prophet had told him. 'Urwa bin Mas'ud got up and said, "O people! Aren't you the sons?" They said, 'Yes." He added, "Am I not the father? They said, "Yes' He said, "Do you mistrust me?" They said, "No." He said, 'Don't you know that I invited the people of 'Ukaz for your help, and when they refused I brought my relatives and children and those who obeyed me (to help you)?" They said, "yes." He said, Well, this man (i.e. the Prophet) has offered you a reasonable proposal, you'd better accept it and allow me to meet him." They said, "You may meet him." So, he went to the Prophet and started talking to him. The Prophet told him almost the same as he had told Budail. Then 'Urwa said, ‑"O Muhammad! Won't you feel any scruple in extirpating your relations? Have you ever heard of anyone amongst the 'Arabs extirpating his relatives before you? On the other hand, if the reverse should happen, (nobody will aid you, for) by Allah, I do not see (with you) dignified people, but people from various tribes who would run away leaving you alone." Hearing that, Abu Bakr abused him and said, "Do you say we would run and leave the Prophet alone?" 'Urwa said, 'Who is that man?" They said, "He is Abu Bakr." 'Urwa said to Abu Bakr, "By Him in Whose Hands my life is, were it not for the favor which you did to me and which I did not compensate, I would retort on you." 'Urwa kept on talking to the Prophet and seizing the Prophet's beard as he was talking while Al‑Mughira bin Shu'ba was standing near the head of the Prophet, holding a sword and wearing a helmet. Whenever 'Urwa stretched his hand towards the beard of the Prophet, Al‑Mughira would hit his hand with the handle of the sword and say (to 'Urwa), "Remove your hand from the beard of Allah's Apostle ". 'Urwa raised his head and asked, who is that?" The people said, "He is Al‑Mughira bin Shu'ba." 'Urwa said, "O treacherous! Am I not doing my best to prevent evil consequences of your treachery?" Before embracing Islam Al‑Mughira was in the company of some people. He killed them and took their property and came (to Medina) to embrace Islam. The Prophet said (to him), "As regards your Islam, I accept it, but as for the property I do not take anything of it. (as it was taken through treason). 'Urwa then started looking at the companions of the Prophet By Allah, whenever Allah's Apostle spitted, the spittle would fall in the hand of one of them (i.e. the Prophet's companions) who would rub it on his face and skin if he ordered them they would carry his orders immediately; if he performed ablution, they would struggle to take the remaining water; and when they spoke to him, they would lower their voices and would not look at his face constantly out of respect. Urwa returned to his people and said, "O people! By Allah, I have been to the kings and to Caesar, Khosrau and An‑Najashi yet I have never seen any of them respected by his courtiers as much as Muhammad is respected by his companions. By Allah, if he spitted, the spittle would fall in the hand of one of them (i.e. the Prophet's companions) who would rub it on his face and skin; if he ordered them, they would carry out his order immediately; if he performed ablution, they would struggle to take the remaining water; and when they spoke, they would lower their voices and would not look at his face constantly out of respect." 'Urwa added, "No doubt, he has presented to you a good reasonable offer, so please accept it." A man from the tribe of Bani Kinana said, "Allow me to go to him," and they allowed him, and when he approached the Prophet and his companions, Allah's Apostle said, "He is so‑and‑so who belongs to the tribe that respects the Budn (i.e. camels of the sacrifice). So, bring the Budn in front of him." So, the Budn were brought before him and the people received him while they were reciting Talbiya. When he saw that scene, he said, "Glorified be Allah! It is not fair to prevent these people from visiting the Ka'ba." When he returned to his people, he said, "I saw the Budn garlanded (with colored knotted ropes) and marked (with stabs on their backs). I do not think it is advisable to prevent them from visiting the Ka'ba." Another person called Mikraz bin Hafs got up and sought their Permission to go to Muhammad, and they allowed him, too. When he approached the Muslims, the  Prophet  said "Here is Mikraz and he is a vicious man" Mikraz started talking to the Prophet and as he was talking, Suhail bin 'Amr came. When Suhail bin 'Amr came, the Prophet said, "Now the matter has become easy." Suhail said to the Prophet, "Please conclude a peace treaty with us." So, the Prophet called the clerk and said to him, "Write: By the Name of Allah, the most Beneficent, the most Merciful." Suhail said, "As for 'Beneficent,' by Allah, I do not know what It means. So write: By Your Name O Allah, as you used to write previously." The Muslims said, "By Allah, we will not write except: By the Name of Allah, the most Beneficent, the most Merciful." The Prophet said, 'Write: By Your Name O Allah." Then he dictated, "This is the peace treaty which Muhammad, Allah's Apostle has concluded." Suhail said, "By Allah, If we knew that you are Allah's Apostle we would not prevent you from visiting the Ka'ba, and would not fight with you. So, write: "Muhammad bin 'Abdullah." The Prophet said, "By Allah! I am Apostle of Allah even if you people do not believe me. Write: Muhammad bin 'Abdullah." (Az‑Zuhri said, "The Prophet accepted all those things, as he had already said that he would accept everything they would demand if it respects the ordinance of Allah, (i.e. by letting him and his companions perform 'Umra.)"‑ The Prophet said to Suhail, "On the condition that you allow us to visit the House i.e. Ka'ba) so that we may perform Tawaf around it." Suhail said, "By Allah, we will not (allow you this year) so as not to give chance to the 'Arabs to say that we have yielded to you, but we will allow you next year." So, the Prophet got that written. Then Suhail said, We also stipulate that you should return to us whoever comes to you from us, even if he embraced your religion;" The Muslims said, "Glorified be Allah! How will such a person be returned to the pagans after he has become a Muslim? While they were in this state Abu Jandal bin Suhail bin Amr came from the valley of Mecca staggering with in his fetters and fell down amongst the Muslims. Suhail said, "O Muhammad this is the very first term with which we make peace with you, i.e. you shall return Abu Jandal to me. The prophet said, "The peace treaty has not been written yet." Suhail said, 'I will never allow you to keep him." The Prophet I said, "Yes, do." He said, "I won't do ' Mikraz said, [...miss..] allow you (to keep him)." Abu Jandal said, "O Muslims! Will I be returned to the pagans though I have come as a Muslim? Don't you see how much I have suffered?" Abu Jandal had been tortured severely for the Cause of Allah. 'Umar bin Al‑Khattab said, "I went to the Prophet and said, 'Aren't you truly the apostle of Allah?' The Prophet said, 'Yes, indeed.' I said, 'Isn't our cause just and the cause of the enemy unjust?' He said, yes.' I said, 'Then why should we be humble in our religion?' He said, 'I am Allah's Apostle and l do not disobey Him, and He will make me victorious.' I said, 'Didn't you tell us that we would go to the Ka'ba and perform Tawaf around it?' He said, 'Yes, but did I tell you that we would visit the Ka'ba this year?' I said, 'No.' He said, 'So you will visit it and perform Tawaf around it? " Umar further said, "I went to Abi Bakr and said, 'O Abu Bakr! Isn't he truly Allah's Prophet?' He replied, 'Yes' I said, 'Isn't our cause just and the cause of our enemy unjust? He replied: 'Yes". I said: "Then why should we be humble in our religion ?" He said, 'Indeed, he is Allah's Messenger and he does not disobey his Lord, and He will make him victorious. Adhere to him as, by Allah, he is on the right.' I said, 'Was he not telling us that we would go to the Ka'ba and perform Tawaf around it?' He said, 'Yes, but did he tell you that you would go to the Ka'ba this year?' I said, 'No.' He said, 'You will go to Ka'ba and perform Tawaf around it.' " (Az‑Zuhri said, " 'Umar said, 'I performed many good deeds as expiation for the improper questions I asked them.'). When the writing of the peace treaty was concluded, Allah's Apostle said to his companions, "Get up and slaughter your sacrifices and get your head shaved." By Allah none of them got up, and the Prophet repeated his order thrice when none of them got up, he left them and went to Um Salama and told her of the people's attitudes towards him. Um Salama said, "O the Prophet of Allah ! Do you want your order to be carried out? Go out and don't say a word to anybody till you have slaughtered your sacrifice and call your barber to shave your head." So, the Prophet went out and did not talk to anyone of them till he did that, i.e. slaughtered the sacrifice and called his barber who shaved his head. Seeing that, the companions of the Prophet got up, slaughtered their sacrifices, and started shaving the heads of one another, and there was so much rush that there was a danger of killing each other. Then some believing women came (to the Prophet); and Allah revealed the following Divine Verses:‑‑'O you who believe, when the believing women come to you as emigrants examine them . . (60:10). 'Umar then divorced two wives of his who were infidels. Later on Mu'awiya bin Abu Sufyan married one of them, and Safwan bin Umaya married the other. When the Prophet returned to Medina, Abu Basir, a new Muslim con­vert from Quraish came to him. The Infidels sent in his pursuit two men who said (to the Prophet), "Abide by the promise you gave us." So, the Prophet handed him over to them . They took hum out (of the City) till they reached Dhul‑Hulaifa where they dismounted to eat some dates they had with them. Abu Basir said to one of them, "By Allah, 0 so‑and‑so, I see you have a fine sword." The other drew it out (of the scabbard) and said, "By Allah, It is very fine and I have tried it many times.' Abu Basir said, "Let me have a look at it."  When the other gave it to him, he hit him with it till he died, and his companion ran away till he came to Medina and entered the Mosque running. When Allah's Apostle saw him he said, "This man appears to have been frightened." When he reached the Prophet he said, "My companion has been murdered and I would have been murdered too." Abu Basir came and said, "O Allah's Apostle, by Allah, Allah has made you fulfill your obligations by your returning me to them (i.e. the infidels), but Allah has saved me from them." The Prophet said, "Woe to his mother! what excellent war kindler he would be, should he only have supporters.". When Abu Basir heard that he understood that the Prophet would return to them again, so he set off till he reached the seashore. Abu Jandal bin Suhail got himself released from them (i.e. infidels) and joined Abu Basir. So, whenever a man from Quraish embraced Islam he would follow Abu Basir till they formed a strong group. By Allah, whenever they heard about a caravan of Quraish heading towards Sham, they stopped it and attacked and killed them‑(i.e. infidels) and took their properties. The people of Quraish sent a message to the Prophet requesting him for the Sake of Allah and kith and kin to send for (i.e. Abu Basir and his companions) promising that whoever (amongst them) came to the Prophet would be secure. So the Prophet sent for them (i.e. Abu Basir's companions) and Allah revealed the following divine verses: 'and it is He Who Has withheld their hands from you and your hands From them in the midst of Mecca,  After He made you the victorious Over them.  . . . the unbelievers had pride and haughtiness,  In their hearts . . . the pride and haughtiness of the time of ignorance.' (Qur'an 48: 24‑26) And their pride and haughtiness was that they did not confess (write in the treaty) that he (i.e. Muhammad) was the Prophet of Allah and refused to write: "In the Name of Allah, the most Beneficent, the Most Merciful," and prevented the Muslims from visiting the Ka'ba. Narrated Az‑Zuhri: 'Ursa said, " 'Aisha told me that Allah's Apostle used to examine the women emigrants. We have been told also that when Allah revealed the order that the Muslims should return to the pagans what they had spent on their wives who emigrated (after embracing Islam) and that the Muslims should not keep unbelieving women as their wives, 'Umar divorced two of his wives: Qariba, the daughter of Abu Umaiya and the daughter of Jarwal Al‑Khuza'i. Later on Mu'awiya married Qariba and Abu Jahm married the other." When the pagans refused to pay what the Muslims had spent on their wives, Allah revealed: 'And if any of your wives have gone from you to the unbelievers and you have an accession ­(by the coming over of a woman from the other side) (Then pay to those whose wives have gone) The equivalent of what they had spent (on their mahr).'(60:11) So, Allah ordered that the Muslim whose wife has gone should be given as a compensation of the mahr he had given to his wife, from the mahr of the wives of the pagans who had emigrated deserting their husbands. We do not know any of the women emigrants who deserted Islam after embracing it We have also been told that Abu Basir bin Asid Al-Thaqafi came to the Prophet as a Muslim emigrant during the truce. AI‑Akhnas Bin Shariq wrote to the Prophet  requesting him to return Abu Basir". Bukhari 3:560-573


THE HUDAYBIYYAH PLEDGE: God’s pleasure was on the believers when they swore fealty to thee under the tree He knew what was in their hearts and He sent down tranquility to them and He rewarded them with a speedy victory ….  Qur'an 48:18 ….. Narrated Ibn 'Umar: When we reached (Hudaibiya) in the next year (of the treaty of Hudaibiya), not even two men amongst us agreed unanimously as to which was the tree under which we had given the pledge of allegiance, and that was out of Allah's Mercy. (The sub­ narrator asked Naf'i, "For what did the prophet take their pledge of allegiance, was it for death?" Naf'i replied 'No, but he took their pledge of allegiance for patience.") Bukhari 4:129-130, Hadith # 205





(a) What was the long-range vision of Muslims?


(b) What was the broad mission of the Muslims on leaving Madina?


            (c) What were the specific goals and objectives of the Muslims before, during, and after the signing of the   Hudaybiyyah treaty?    


            (d) Identify the externally-imposed mandates on the Quraish? What was expected of them as guardians of the Kaaba and leaders of Arabs? How did they address these mandates? Were they successful?


(e) Who were the stakeholders. Mention the interest of each one in the Hudaybiyyah outcome?


            (f) What were the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and  threats for (i) the Muslims  (ii) the Quraysh? just before the start of negotiations?


(g) What were the strategic issues facing (i) the Muslims (ii) the Quraysh? at the negotiations


            (h) What information did the Muslims get about Quraish? What information did the Quraish get about Muslims. How would each side use that information?


(i) Imagine what moves each side forecast about the other just before the start of the negotiations?


(j) List all the possible scenarios from the point of view of (a) Muslims (b) Quraish


(k) Describe the vision referred to in the opening verse of Surat al Fath. How does this relate to the Prophet's vision in his sleep before he left Madina?

Professor Omar Hasan Kasule 2000