Promulgation of the Madina constitution
Brotherhood between ansar and muhajirin
Brotherhood among all Muslims
Ghazawat and saraya
First year at Madina
Hypothetical Action plan for the first year at Madina
INSTRUCTIONS: THE DISCUSSION LEADER
OR THE MEMBERS (IN TURNS) WILL PRESENT THE MAIN POINTS IN THE BACKGROUND READING SECTIONS PRE-ASSIGNED THE PREVIOUS WEEK
The main events in the first year at Madina were:
1. Promulgation of the Madina constitution
2. Building mosque
3. Brotherhood between ansar and muhajirin Hashr:9, Anfal: 72
4. Brotherhood among all Muslims Anfal:63
5. Ghazawat and saraya: Haj: 39-40, Anfal: 39
INSTRUCTIONS: READ OUT EACH TEXT
ALOUD TWO TIMES. MAKE SURE YOU UNDERSTAND THE MAIN POINTS RAISED. WRITE DOWN THE MAIN LESSON(S) YOU HAVE LEARNED FROM THE
'Amir b. Fuhayrah was a half‑breed from the tribe of Azd belong ing to al‑Tufayl b. 'Abdallah b. Sakhbarah
[who was Abu al‑Harith b. al‑Tufay], who had the same mother as Abu Bakr's daughter 'A'ishah and his son 'Abd
al‑Rahman. Amir b. Fuhayrah became a Muslim while he was their slave, and Abu Bakr bought him and set him free. He was
a good Muslim. At the time when the Prophet and Abu Bakr set out, Abu Bakr had the rights to the milk of a flock of sheep
which used to come to his family in the evening. Abu Bakr sent 'Amir with the sheep to Thawr, and he used to bring them in
the evening to the Messenger of God in the cave there Which is the cave named by God in the Qur'an. Tabari 6:146
They sent ahead with their mounts a man from the Banu 'Abd b. 'Adl, a confederate of the family of al‑'As
b. Wa'il of Banu Sahm of Quraysh. At that time, this man 'Adi was a polytheist, but they hired him as a guide for the journey.
During the nights which they spent in the cave 'Abdallah b. Abi Bakr used to come
to them in the evening and bring them all the news of Mecca, and then return to Mecca by morning. 'Amir would bring the
sheep every evening so that they could milk them, and would then drive them to pasture at daybreak, and spend the morning
with other people's shepherds, so that nobody realized what he was doing.
The Messenger of God and Abu Bakr spent three days in the cave. When Quraysh realized that he was missing, they
offered a hundred she‑camels for whoever would bring him back to them. 'Abdallah b. Abi Bakr spent his time among Quraysh
listening to what they were plotting and to what they were saying about the Messenger of God and Abu Bakr. Then he would come
to them in the evening and give them the news. 'Amir b. Fuhayrah, Abu Bakr's mawla, pastured his flocks among the other Meccan
shepherds, and brought Abu Bakr's sheep to the cave in the evening, when the two men would milk them and slaughter jone
of 1 them. When 'Abdallah b. Ahl Bakr left for Mecca the following morning, 'Amir
b. Fuhayrah would follow after him with the sheep in order to erase his trail.
When the third day had gone past, and the people's interest in the two had died down, the man whom they had hired
brought them their camels and Asma' brought them their travelling provisions. She had forgotten to bring them a strap,
and when they set off, she went to attach the travelling provisions and found that there was no strap. She took off her girdle
and used that as a strap to attach the provisions. Thereafter she was known as "She of the two girdles" on account of this
incident. When Abu Bakr brought the two riding camels to the Messenger of God, he gave him the better of the two and said,
"Mount, may my father and mother be your ransom." The Messenger of God replied, "I will not ride a camel which does not belong
to me." "It is yours, O Messenger of God whom I value more than my father and mother," he said. "No," said the Messenger of
God. "What is the price which you paid for it?" He named the price, and the Messenger of God said, "I will take it for that
price." Abu Bakr said, "It is yours, O Messenger of God." They mounted and set off, and Abu Bakr mounted behind himself his
mawla 'Amir b. Fuhayrah, who was to serve them during the journey. Tabari 6:149
When the clamor about Muhammad and Abu Bakr died down and news came to them that people were no longer talking
about them, their guide brought them their camels and they set off, taking with them 'Amir b. Fuhayrah to serve them and assist
them. Abu Bakr mounted him behind him and shared the saddle with him by turns. There was nobody with them but 'Amir b. Fuhayrah
and the brother of the Banu 'Adi, who guided them along the road. He took them through the Meccan lowlands, then along a route
parallel to the coast below 'Usfan, then across country, rejoining the road after Qudayd, then along the al‑Kharrar
path, then across the pass of al‑Marah, and then along a road called al‑Mudlijah, between the 'Amq road and
the Rawha' road. He then met the 'Arj road, coming to a spring called al‑Ghabir to the right of Rakubah, and then ascended
the Batn Ri'm, finally arriving, one day at high noon, at the quarter of the Banu 'Amr b. 'Awf in Ithe south of) al Madinah.
I have been told that the Messenger of God only stayed among them for two days, although the Banu 'Amr b. 'Awf assert that
he stayed among them for longer than that. Then he led his camel, which followed him to the quarter of the Banu al‑Najjar.
There the Messenger of God showed them a drying floor in the midst of their dwellings. Tabari 6:147
Their guide brought them to Quba' in the quarter of the Banu 'Amr b. 'Awf on Monday, the twelfth of Rabi' I [September 24, 622] when the heat of the forenoon had grown intense and the sun had
almost reached its midpoint in the sky Tabari 6:150
The Messenger of God remained at Quba' among the Banu 'Amr b. 'Awf for Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday,
and founded their mosque. Then God caused‑him to leave them on Friday. The Banu 'Amr b. 'Awf assert that he remained
among them longer than that, but God knows best. Some say that his stay at Quba' lasted for ten days or so. Tabari 6:152
FIRST YEAR AT MADINA
(a) Building mosque and house: According to Ibn Humayd--Salamah--Ibn Ishaq: The Messenger of God mounted his she‑camel
and let her reins hang loose. The inhabitants of every settlement of the Ansar (the Muslims of Medina) which she went past
invited him to stay with them, saying, "Come, O Messenger of God, to a settlement which has many defenders and is well‑provisioned
and impregnable." He would say to them, "Let go her reins, for she is commanded (by God)." Finally he reached the present
site of his mosque, and his camel knelt down where the door of his mosque is. At that time this place was a drying‑floor
for dates and belonged to two orphan boys of Banu al‑Najjar under the guardianship of Mu'adh b. 'Afra'; their names
were Sahl and Suhayl, sons of 'Amr b. 'Abbad b. Tha'labah b. Ghanm b. Malik b. al‑Najjar. When the camel knelt down,
the Messenger of God remained on her. After a little she got up and went a short distance, while the Messenger of God let
go her reins and did not direct her with them. Then she turned round, went back to the place where she had knelt first, and
there knelt and laid down her neck. When the Messenger of God dismounted from her, Abu Ayyub took his saddle into his
house. Others of the Ansar invited him to stay with them but the Messenger of God said to them, "The man goes with his
saddle," and stayed with Abu Ayyub Khalid b. Zayd b. Kulayb among the Banu Ghanm b. al‑Najjar. According to Abu Ja'far
(al‑Tabari): The Messenger of God asked to whom the drying‑floor belonged, and Mu'adh b. 'Afra' told him, "It
belongs to two orphans under my guardianship, whom I will compensate for it." The Messenger of God ordered that a mosque should
be built there, and stayed with Abu Ayyub until the mosque and his living‑quarters had been completed. It is said that
the Messenger of God bought the site of his mosque and then built upon it, but the correct version in our Opinion is this,
according to Mujahid b. Musa-Yazid b. Harun-Hammad b. Salamah-Abu al‑Tayyah-Anas b. Malik The site of the mosque
of the Prophet belonged to Banu al‑Najjar and contained palm trees, cultivated land and pre‑lslamic graves. The
Messenger of God said to them, "Ask me a price for it," but they said, "We do not want a price for it, but only the reward
we shall receive from God. " The Messenger of God then gave orders concerning the site; the palm trees were cut down, the
cultivated land levelled, and the graves dug up. Before this mosque was completed the Messenger of God used to pray in
sheep‑enclosures or wherever the time of prayer overtook him.
According to Abu Ja'far (al‑Tabari): He himself joined in the
work of building his mosque, together with his companions from the Emigrants and the Ansar. Tabari 7:4-5
(b) Muslim women brought to Madina
In this year the Prophet sent Zayd b. Harithah and Abu Rafi' to his daughters and his wife Sawdah bt. Zam'ah, and
they brought them from Mecca to Medina.
It is said that when 'Abd Allah b. Urayqit' returned to Mecca he informed 'Abd
Allah b. Abi Bakr of the situation of his father Abu Bakr, and the latter brought his father's family to him. The party included
Umm Ruman, the mother of 'A'ishah, ('A'ishah herself ) and 'Abd Allah b. Abi Bakr, and they were accompanied to Medina
by Talhah b. 'Ubayd Allah. Tabari 7:8
(c) Expedition led by Hamza: Al‑Waiqidi asserts that in this year, in Ramadan, seven months after the
Hijrah (about March 623), the Messenger of God entrusted a white banner to Hamzah b. 'Abd al‑Muttalib with the command
of thirty men of the Emigrants. Their aim was to intercept the caravans of Quraysh. Hamzah met Abu Jahl at the head of three
hundred men. Majdi b. 'Amr al‑Juham intervened between them, and they separated without a battle. The banner of Hamzah
was carried by Abu Marthad.
(d) Expedition Led by 'Ubaydah: (He also says that) in this year, eight months after the Hijrah, in Shawwal (April
623), the Messenger of God entrusted a white banner to 'Ubaydah b. al‑Harith b. al‑Muttalib b. 'Abd Manaf and
ordered him to march to Batn Rabigh. His banner was carried by Mistah b. Uthathah. He reached the pass of al‑Marah,
which is near al‑Juhfah, at the head of sixty Emigrants without a single Ansan (Muslim of Medina) among them. They met
the polytheists at a watering place called Ahya'; they shot arrows at one another but there was no hand‑to‑hand
fighting. There is a difference of opinion as to who was the commander of the (Meccan) expedition; some say that it was Abu
Sufyan b. Harb and some that it was Mikraz b. Hafs. Al‑Waqidi says: I consider the true account to be that it was Abu
Sufyan b. Harb, and that he was at the head of two hundred polytheists.
(e) Expedition Led by Sa'd b. Abi Waqqas: In this year, in Dhu al‑Qa'dah, the Messenger of God entrusted
to Sa'd b. Abi Waqqas a white banner (for an expedition) to alKharrar It was carried by al‑Miqdad b. 'Amr. According
to Abu Bakr b. Isma'il-his father-'Amir b Sa'd-his father: I set out on foot at the head of twenty men (or twenty‑one
men). We used to lie hidden by day and march at night, until we reached al‑Kharrar on the fifth morning. The Messenger
of God had enjoined me not to go beyond al‑Kharrar, but the caravan had got to al‑Kharrar a day before me; there
were sixty men with it. Those who were with Sa'd were all from the Emigrants. According to Abu Ja'far (al‑Tabari): Ibn
Ishaq's account of all these expeditions differs from that of al‑Waqidi, which I have just related, and places them
all in year 2.
(f) Expedition Led by Muhammad to al‑Abwa': According to Ibn Humayd--Salamah b. al‑Fadl--Muhammad b.
Ishaq: The Messenger of God came to Medina on the twelfth of Rabi' al‑Awwal (September 24, 622), and remained there
for the rest of Rabl' al‑Awwal, Rabi' al‑Akhir, the two Jumadas, Rajab Sha'ban, Ramadan, Shawwal, Dhu al‑Qa'dah,
Dhu al‑Hijjah--the pilgrimage in that month was directed by the polytheists--and Muharram. In Safar (which began August
4, 623), nearly twelve months after his arrival in Medina on the twelfth of Rabl' al Awwal, he went out on a raid as
far as Waddan, searching for Quraysh and the Banu Damrah b. Bakr b. 'Abd Manat b. Kinanah. This was the expedition of al‑Abwa',
in the course of which the Banu Damrah made a treaty of friendship with him; their fellow tribesman and chief, Makhshi
b. 'Amr, acted on their behalf. Then the Messenger of God returned to Medina without
any fighting, and remained there for the rest of Safar and the beginning of Rabi' al‑Awwal.
(g) Further Details About Expeditions: During this stay he sent 'Ubaydah b. al‑Harith b. al‑Muttalib
at the head of eighty or sixty horsemen from the Emigrants without a single Ansan among them. He got as far as Ahya', a watering
place in Hijaz, below the pass of al‑Marah.26 There he met a great band of Quraysh, but there was no fighting between
them, except that Sa'd b. Abi Waqqas shot an arrow on that day, which was the first arrow shot in Islam. Then the two groups
separated from one another, the Muslims leaving a rearguard. Al‑Miqdad b. 'Amr alBahram, the confederate (halif)
of the Banu Zuhrah, and 'Utbah b. Ghazwan b. Jabir, the confederate of the Banu Nawfal b. 'Abd Manaf, fled from the polytheists
to the Muslims. They were Muslims, but they had gone to try to effect a reconciliation between the unbelievers and the
Muslims. The commander of the Meccan detachment was 'Ikrimah b. Abi Jahl.
Muhammad (b. Ishaq) says: The banner of 'Ubaydah, I have heard, was
the first banner which the Messenger of God entrusted to a Muslim in Islam.
According to Ibn Humayd--Salamah--Muhammad b. Ishaq: Some of the scholars assert that the Messenger of God sent
him out while he was returning from the raid of al‑Abwa', before he reached Medina.
During this stay he sent Hamzah b. 'Abd al‑Muttalib at the head of thirty horsemen from the Emigrants, without
a single Ansari among them, to Sif al‑Bahr, near al‑'Is, which is in the territory
of Juhaynah. He met Abu Jahl b. Hisham on the coast there at the head of three
hundred Meccan horsemen. Majdi b. 'Amr alJuham intervened between them, being on friendly terms with both parties, and
the two sides separated without a battle.
Some say that the banner of Hamzah was the first banner which the Messenger of God entrusted to a Muslim. This
is because he sent him and 'Ubaydah b. al‑Harith at the same time, so that there is confusion on this point.
What we have heard from scholars to whom we have spoken is that the banner of 'Ubaydah b. al‑Harith was the
first banner to be entrusted in Islam.
(h) Expeditions Led by Muhammad
Then the Messenger of God led an expedition in Rabl' al‑Akhir [....] in search of Quraysh. He went as far
as Buwat in the region of Radwa and then returned without any fighting.
He stayed in Medina for the rest of Rabl' al‑Akhir and part of
Jumada al‑Ula (which began October 3I, 623) and then led another expedition in search of Quraysh. He took the mountain
track of the Banu Dinar b. al‑Najjar (of Medina) and then crossed the desert
of al‑Khabar, halting beneath a tree in the Batha' Ibn Azhar called Dhat al‑Saq. He prayed there, and his mosque
is there. Food was prepared for him there, and he and those with him ate. The site there of the stones on which his cooking‑pot
was supported is still well‑known. Water was brought to him from water called al‑Mushayrib. Then he set off, leaving
alKhala'iq on the left and going through a pass, now called Shu'bat 'Abd Allah. From that point, he went down to the
left until he reached Yalyal, halting where Yalyal adjoined al‑Dabu'ah. Water was brought to him from a well at al‑Dabu'ah.
Next, he went through the plain of Malal until he joined the road at Sukhayrat al‑Yamam, then kept to the road until
he halted at al‑'Ushayrah in the Batn Yanbu'. He stayed there for the rest of Jumada al‑Ula and a few days of
Jumada al‑Akhira (which began November 30, 623). During this time,
the Banu Mudlij and their confederates from the Banu Damrah made a treaty of friendship with him. Then he went back to Medina
without any fighting. In the course of this expedition he made certain remarks to 'Ali b. Abi Talib.
The Messenger of God had only spent a few days in Medina, less than ten, after coming back from the expedition
to al‑'Ushayrah, before Kurz b. Jabir al‑Fihn raided the herds of Medina. The Messenger of God went out in
pursuit of him and reached a valley called Safawan in the region of Badr, but Kurz eluded him and was not caught. This was
the first expedition of Badr.
Then the Messenger of God returned to Medina and stayed there for the
rest of Jumada al‑Akhirah, Rajab and Sha'ban (December 623 to February
25, 624). Among other expeditions he sent out at this time was one under Sa'd b. Abi Waqqas at the head of eight
A HYPOTHETICAL PLAN FOR THE FIRST YEAR OF THE ISLAMIC STATE AT MADINA
Using back ward thinking, draw up a one year action plan for the first year at Madinah.