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ISLAMIC MEDICAL EDUCATION RESOURCES 04

0003-ACTIVITY and REST (NASHAAT & RAAHAT)

Background reading material for medicine & fiqh panel discussion hekl at the Kulliyah of Medicine, International Islamic University, Kuantan, on 18th March 2000 by Professor Omar Hasan Kasule Sr.

OUTLINE

1.0 SPEAKING

A. Purpose Of Speech

B. The Good Word

C. The Bad Word

D. Etiquette Of Speaking

E. Rulings About Speaking

 

2.0 SLEEPING

A. Day And Night

B. Purpose Of Sleep

C. Etiquette Of Sleeping, Adab Al Nawm

D. Etiquette Of Waking Up

E. Rulings About Sleep

 

3.0 WALKING

A. Concepts

B. Purposes

C. Etiquette Of Walking

D. Etiquette Of The Road, Adab Al Tariiq

E. Foot Racing

 

4.0 SITTING

A. Sitting Companion

B. Physiological Purposes

C. Sitting And Ibadat

D. Sitting And Learning.

E. Etiquette Of The Assembly

 

5.0 STANDING

A. Physiological Purposes

B. The Unique Human Upright Posture

C. Standing And Ibadat

D. Postural Hypotension

E. Etiquette Of Standing

 

1.0 SPEAKING

A. PURPOSE OF SPEECH

Speech can be sorcery, inna min al bayaan lasihrun (KS 462)

 

B. THE GOOD WORD

The good word is charity, al kalimat al tayyibat sadaqat (KS 462)

 

C. THE BAD WORD

Allah does not like fahsh and tafahhush (KS 462)

 

Type of talk to be avoided (KS 462)

 

D. ETIQUETTE OF SPEAKING

The older ones speak before the younger ones (KS 462)

 

Speak little of keep silent (KS 461)

 

The merit of speaking little (KS 461)

 

Being humble and speaking less is a sign of iman (KS 462)

 

Mention of Allah during conversation, dhikr al Llaah athnaa al kalaam (KS 462)

 

E. RULINGS ABOUT SPEAKING

Fear of people should not deter from saying the truth, rahbat al naas la yamuna'u qawl al haqq (KS 461)

 

Lying to reconcile

 

Exaggeration in conversation

 

Compulsion to lie

 

Mujamalat

 

Self-incrimination

 

Revealing secrets

 

Silence and consent

 

2.0 SLEEPING

A. DAY AND NIGHT

THE DAY

Nahar mubsirat  (10:67, 17:12; p 542 27:86)

 

Nahar ma'aashan (78:11)

 

THE NIGHT

Al layl sakanan (6:96, 10:67, 37:86; p 542 40:61)

 

AL layl libaasan (25:47, p. 539 78:10)

 

Night prayer is not obligatory, salat al layl laisat waajibat (KS 471)

 

Merit of prayer at night, fadhl salat al llayl (KS 469)

 

Merit of recitation of the Qur'an at night, fadhl tilawat al Qur'an fi al llayl (KS 469)

 

What is said on waking up for tahajjud (KS 469)

 

B. PURPOSE OF SLEEP

Sleep is a sign of Allah (30:23)

 

Sleep is rest (25:47, 78:9)

 

C. ETIQUETTE OF SLEEPING, Adab Al Nawm

BEFORE

Sleep with wudu, facing qibla in sleep, what to say when you go to sleep

 

DURING

Sleeping on the right hand side, al naum ala al janb al ayman (KS 552).  Do not sleep on the face, la

yarqudu ala al wajih (KS 552). What to say when alarmed in sleep

 

Adab of yawning:

 

Adab al ‘atas wa al tashmiit:

 

D. ETIQUETTE OF WAKING UP

What to say in the morning, washing face and hands on waking up from sleep

 

E. RULINGS ABOUT SLEEP

Sleeping on the side nullifies wudhu, al naum ala al janb yanqudhu al wudhu (KS 551)

 

A person in ritual impurity, janaba, makes wudhu before sleeping, yatawadhuu al mujnib idha araada al naum (KS 551)

 

Sleeping before salat nullifies wudhu, al naum qabla al salat yanqudhu al wudhu (KS 551)

 

Salat and sleep, al salat wa al nawm (KS 551 Bukhari K4 B53; Nisai K1 B116; Nisai K4 B29)

 

Sleeping in salat is from shaitan, al naum fi al salat min al shaitan (KS 551: Ibn Majah K5 B42, Muwatta K1 H26)

 

Night prayer is abandoned if sleep is overwhelming (KS 471)

 

3.0 WALKING

A. WALKING COMPANION

Bipedal walking of humans

 

Walking on earth, Mashyu ala al ardh (25:63)

 

Walking in the earth, Mashyu fi al ardh (17:37, 17:95, 31:18)

 

Walking in the markets, mashyu fi al aswaaq (25:7, 25:20)

 

Walking in homes, mashyu fi al masaakin, (20:128, 32:26)

 

Allah made the roads (16:15; p 558 20:53, 21:31; P 558 43:10)

 

Ability of the road for hajj, istitaa’at al sabiil (3:97)

 

Knowing the direction of the road, ihtidaau ila al sabiil (4:98)

 

B. PURPOSES

Purposive walking, al qasd fi al mashy  (31:19)

 

Walking for jihad (28:25)

 

Walking for employment

 

Walking for ibadat: merit of long walk to the masjid

 

Walking for knowledge

 

Walking for exercise

 

Walking for social visit

 

C. ETIQUETTE OF WALKING

Quick walking, harwalat

Big steps

Firm steps, thubuut al aqdaam (2:250, 3:147, 8:11, 47:7)

Walking on feet (7:195, 24:45)

Walking straight, mashyu sawiy (67:22)

Walking with etiquette, mashy wa al adab (25:63, 31:19)

Walking with shyness, mashyu & hayaa (28:25)

Walking and difficulty, mashyu & haraj (17:37, 31:18)

Woman not to make sound with her walking (23:31)

D. ETIQUETTE OF THE ROAD, Adab Al Tariiq

The rights of the road, haqq al tariiq, are ghadh al basar, kaff al adha, and radd al salaam (KS 342: Bukhari K79 B2)

E. FOOT RACING, musabaqat

Prohibition of foot racing unless wearing khuff or bare footed (KS 281: Ahmad 2:256, 358, 385, 424, 505; Ahmad 3:190)

4.0 SITTING

A. SITTING COMPANION

Jaliis al khayr & jaliis al suu

Sitting with the righteous, salihiin

Sitting with the transgressors, al qu’ud ma’a al dhaalimiin (4:140, 6:68)

 

Sitting on graves, al juluus ala al qubuur

B. PHYSIOLOGICAL PURPOSES

Sitting to rest

Sitting to relax: BP, muscle tension, metabolism

Sitting in a calamity, al juluus ‘inda al musiibat (KS 153: Abudaud K20 B21)

C. SITTING AND IBADAT

Remembering Allah sitting down, dhikr al laah qu’udan (p 956 3:191, 4:103, 10:12)

D. SITTING AND LEARNINGE.

E. ETIQUETTE OF THE ASSEMBLY

Priority for the first come

Prohibition of making a man stand up to take his seat

Reclaiming a seat after going out for a short time

Special rights for the handicapped

Sitting of women

Sitting of children

5.0 STANDING

A. PHYSIOLOGICAL PURPOSES

Standing as preparation for walking

B. THE UNIQUE HUMAN UPRIGHT POSTURE

C. STANDING AND IBADAT

Qiyaam al llayl (3:113, 25:64, 39:9, 52:48-49, 73:1-4, 73:20)

Qiyaam li dhikr al laah  (3:191, 4:103)

Qiyaam al salat (4:102, 4:142, 5:6, 22:26, 26:21)

Wuquuf Arafat

Wuquuf muzdalifat

D. POSTURAL HYPOTENSION

E. ETIQUETTE OF STANDING

Qiyaal al ihtiraam

Qiyaam li al janazat

 

DISCUSSION

1.      Physiological explanation of sitting down leading to relaxation

2.      Postural hypotension in salat

3.      Postural edema in salat

4.      Sleep as rest

5.      Physiological explanation of the recommendation to sleep on the right side

6.      Explanation of the prohibition of sleeping on the face

7.      Explanation of why deep sleep nullifies wudhu

8.      The physiological purpose of yawning

9.      The physiological purpose of ‘atas

10.  Rulings on narcolepsy and salat

11.  Dyslexia and legal defense

Professor Omar Hasan Kasule Sr. March 2000