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ISLAMIC MEDICAL EDUCATION RESOURCES 04

0002-DRINKS, (ASHRIBAT)

Background reading material for medicine & fiqh panel discussion held at the Kulliyah of Medicine, International Islamic University, Kuantan, on 19th February 2000 by Professor Omar Hasan Kasule Sr.

1.0 SOURCES and TYPES OF DRINKS

A.  Sources of water

A.     Types of water

B.     Physiological purposes of water

D.  Milk

E.  Other drinks made from water

 

2.0 HALAL AND HARAM DRINKS

A. Basis For Halaal And Haraam

B. Permitted Drinks

C. Offensive Drinks

D. Prohibition Of Alcohol

E. Prohibited Non-Alcoholic Drinks

 

3.0 ETIQUETTE OF DRINKING (ADAB AL SHARAB)

A.Type, Amount And Frequency Of Drinking

A.     Start Of Drinking

B.     How To Drink

C.     Hygienic Measures

D.     Ending Drinking

 

4.0 RULINGS ON DRINKS

A. Ethanol as a solvent in medicinal preparation

B. Fermentation of sugar-containing drinks

C. Pollution of community water supplies

D. Ownership of community water supplies

E. Addictive non-alcoholic drinks

 

1.0 SOURCES and TYPES OF DRINKS

A. SOURCES OF WATER

Rain water, mau al samaau (16:69)

Water from oceans and rivers

 

B. TYPES OF WATER

Mau ma’iin (23:50, 67:30)

Mau mahiin (22:8, 77:20)

Mau ‘adhb (25:52, 35:12, 56:68-70, 77:27)

Mau ghadq (72:10)

 

C. PHYSIOLOGICAL PURPOSES OF WATER

Quench thirst

Cool the body

Cleaning

Metabolism

Esthetic

 

D. MILK

Milk (16:60, KS 85 Bukhari K76 B57)

Shaitan and milk (KS 85: Ahmad 2:175)

 

E. OTHER DRINKS MADE FROM WATER

 

2.0 HALAL AND HARAM DRINKS

A. BASIS FOR HALAAL AND HARAAM

Al Ashribat Al Mubaahat (KS 86: Nisai K51 B58)

Best drinks KS 86: Ahmad 1:338

 

B. PERMITTED DRINKS

 

C. OFFENSIVE DRINKS

 

D. PROHIBITION OF ALCOHOL

Kullu muskir khamr KS 219

 

Khamr is the key to sins, al khamr miftaah al shuruur (KS 217-218: Bukhari K30 B1; Ahmad 5:238). Many sins arise from taking khamr (KS 218: Nisai K51 B44).

 

Khamr was prohibited three times (KS 218 Ahmad 2:351)

 

Calling khamr another name to make it halaal, istihlaal al khamr bi tasmiyatihi bi ghayr ismihi (KS 218: Bukhari K73 B6, Abudaud K25 B6, Nisai K51 B41, Ibn Majah K20 B8, Darimi K9 B8, Ahmad 4:237; Ahmad 5:318, 342; Tayalisi H581

 

Khamr is not a medicine but a disease, al khamr laisa dawa bal daa (KS 218: Muslim K26 H21, Tirmidhi K26 B8, Ibn Majah K21 B27, Ahmad 4:211, 217; Darimi K9 B6; Ahmad 5:292, 399; Tayalisi H1018)

 

E. PROHIBITED NON-ALCOHOLIC DRINKS

 

3.0 ETIQUETTE OF DRINKING (ADAB AL SHARAB)

A.TYPE, AMOUNT AND FREQUENCY OF DRINKING

Wastage is prohibited p 620 7:31

 

 

B. START OF DRINKING

 

C. HOW TO DRINK

It is offensive to drink in one gulp, la yasharabu ala jur'at waahidat (KS 290 Abudaud K1 B18, Tirmidhi K24 B13)

 

La yalaghu ka al kalb (KS 290: Ibn Majah K30 B25

 

Drinking with the left is offensive, la yashrabu bi al shamaal (KS 290: Muslim K36 H105-106; Muwatta K49 H6; Ahmad 2:8, 33, 106, 128, 134, 146, 349; Ahmad 3:202, 4:383, 5:311, 6:77

 

The drinking of a believer is different, kaifa yashrabu al mu umin (KS 290 Tirmidhi K23 B20; Muwatta K49 H10; Ahmad 5:369)

 

Drinking from gold or silver vessels is forbidden (KS 290?

 

Taking a breath during drinking (KS 290 Bukhari K74 B27; Abudaud K25 B19; Tirmidhi K24 B13, B14; Ibn Majah K30 B18; Darimi K9 B26; Ahmad 1:284, 285; Ahmad 3:114, 118, 119, 128, 185, 211, 251).

 

Drinking while standing up was prohibited (KS 291) and was allowed in another instance (KS 291).

 

Special dua for drinking milk, dua inda shurbi al llaban (KS  85)

 

Praising Allah before starting to drink (KS 291)

 

Rinsing the mouth, madhmadhat, after drinking (KS 291)

 

D. HYGIENIC MEASURES

Breathing into the vessel, al tanaffus fi al inaa (KS 290 Tayalisi H2118)

 

Prohibition of breathing or blowing into vessel, nahy ‘an al tanaffus wa al nafakh fi al sharaab (KS 86)

 

Drinking from the mouth of the vessel is forbidden (KS 290 Bukhari K74 B23; Muslim K36 H110-111; Abudaud K25 B14; Ibn Majah K34 B20; Darimi K6 B28; Darimi K9 B19; Ahmad 1:226, 241, 321, 339; Ahmad 2:230, 247, 327, 353, 487; Ahmad 3:87; Ahmad 6:376, 431, 434; Tayalisi H1650, 2230)

 

E. ENDING DRINKING

 

4.0 RULINGS ON DRINKS

A. ETHANOL AS A SOLVENT IN MEDICINAL PREPARATION

 

B. FERMENTATION OF SUGAR-CONTAINING DRINKS

Nabiidh (KS 220-221)

 

Materials out of which alcohol is made (KS 219: Bukhari K74 B2-5, Muslim K36  H13-15, Abudaud K25 B4, Nisai K51 B22, Ibn Majah K20 B5, Darimi K9 B7, Ahmad 2:118, 279, 408, 409, 474, 496, 517, 518, 526; Ahmad 3:112; Ahmad 4:267, 273; Tayalisi H2569)

 

C. POLLUTION OF COMMUNITY WATER SUPPLIES

 

D. OWNERSHIP OF COMMUNITY WATER SUPPLIES

 

E. ADDICTIVE NON-ALCOHOLIC DRINKS

 

DISCUSSION

1.      Ruling on the fact that most sugar-based drinks will contain minute amounts of ethanol due to natural fermentation

2.      Ruling on alcohol-free beer

3.      Use of khamr as medicine

4.      Medical consequences of alcohol

5.      Water security in the Muslim world

6.      Microbiological and toxicological definition of potable water

7.      Physiological explanation of the prohibition of drinking in one gulp

8.      The purpose of natural apnoea during drinking

9.      Physiological explanation of the recommendation to take a breath during drinking

10.  Physiological explanation of the prohibition of drinking while standing

11.  Microbiological explanation of the prohibition of blowing or breathing into the drinking vessel

Professor Omar Hasan Kasule Sr. February 2000