Background reading material for medicine & fiqh panel discussion at the Kulliyah of Medicine, International Islamic University, Kuantan on 25th March 2000



A. Physiology

B. Normal Menstruation

C. Pre-Menstrual Syndrome

D. Menopause, ya’isu mina al haidh

E. Menstrual Disorders


2.0 HUMAN SEXUALITY, shahwat al jimaa

A. Gender Identity

B. Expression Of Human Sexuality

C. Regulation Of Human Sexuality

D. Human Sexuality And Marriage

E. Coitus


3.0 CONTRACEPTION, maniu al injaab

A. Legal Rulings On Contraception

B. Male Reversible Methods

C. Female Reversible Methods

D. Male Irreversible Methods

E. Female Irreversible Methods


4.0 PREGNANCY, haml/habl

A. Diagnosis Of Pregnancy

B. Period Of Gestation, muddat al haml

C. Activities In Pregnancy

D. Post-Partum Bleeding, nifaas

E. The New-Born


5.0 BREAST-FEEDING, ridhaa’at

A. Neuro-Humoral Control

B. Period Of Breast-Feeding, muddat al ridhaa’at

C. Payment for breast-feeding, ajr al ridhaa’at

D. Foster breast-feeding

E.  Activities during breast-feeding



Marriage before menarche

Medical complications of coitus in menstruation

Hysterectomy before menarche

Ovariectomy before menarche

Teaching Qur’an while in menstruation

Physiological distress of menstruation

Psychological distress of menstruation

Reason for making up salat and not saum if missed during menstruation

Hormonal menstrual regulation

Criteria for decision that menstruation has stopped in order to bathe and pray

Physiological explanation of the manifestations of the pre-menstrual syndrome

Pre-menstrual syndrome and marital disputes

Pre-menstrual syndrome as legal defence in criminal acts

Salat with pre-menstrual syndrome

Saum with pre-menstrual syndrome

Menopausal mood and mental changes causing marital discord

Menopausal or post menopausal syndrome as legal defence in criminal cases

Artificial menopause, surgical or medical

Pros and cons of using estrogen replacement therapy

Legal rulings on menorrhaghia

Legal rulings on metrorrhaghia

Legal rulings on dysmenorrhoea



Gender identity

Gender awareness

Legal rulings on trans-sexuality

Legal rulings on sexual abstinence, rahbaniyyat

Sexual attraction: visual, chemical, aural

Use of cosmetics to hide natural defects

Use of defects to enhance appearance

Rulings on the use of perfumes

Rulings on cosmetic surgery

Rulings on male circumcision

Rulings on female circumcision

Problems due to discord between biological and mental maturity

Teenage sexual abstinence

Penalty for non-coital adultery

Definition of female shyness in relation to sexual hygiene

Definition and rulings on awrat

Rulings on khalwat in the car, the office, by telephone, by internet

Rulings on mixing, ikhtilaat, at the work-place, public transportation, and the class-room

Rulings on mixing, ikhtilaat, in the hospital

Rulings on what constitutes tabarruj

Rulings on spouse withholding sexual priviledges

Rulings on maharim



Population control as national policy

Permissible contraception

Haram contraception

Rulings on male methods of contraception

Rulings on female methods of contraception

Disagreement between husband and wife on contraception



Legal rulings on the minimum and maximum durations of pregnancy

Determination of date of conception in disputes about parenthood

Determination of the date of conception in disputes about zina accusations

Salat and saum in first trimester pregnancy complications

Saum in early pregnancy

Hajj in late pregnancy

Salat and saum in post abortal period

Rights of the fetus to property and inheritance

Rights of the mother

Rulings about naming a newborn

Rulings about aqiiqat for the new born



Rulings on the period of lactation/breast feeding

Is refusal to breast feed a form of child abuse?

Rulings on payment for breast feeding

Salat for nursing mother

Saum for nursing mother

Professor Omar Hasan Kasule, Sr. October 2004