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ISLAMIC MEDICAL EDUCATION RESOURCES 04

0003-MEMORY FUNCTIONS (DHHAKIRAT, HIFDH)

Lecture to 2nd year medical students on 18th March 2000 at the Kulliyah of Medicine, International Islamic University, Kuantan by Professor Omar Hasan Kasule sr.

OUTLINE

1.0 NATURE OF HUMAN MEMORY

A. Memory Capacity

B. Types Of Memory

C. Neurological basis of memory

D. Cognitive basis of memory

E. Divine basis of memory

 

2.0 PROCESS OF MEMORY

A. Encoding

B. Structuring

C. Organization, active and latent

D. Retrieval

E.  Interpretation

 

3.0 DEVELOPMENT OF MEMORY

A. Early brain growth and development

B. Early challenges

C. Cognitive development

D. Emotional development

E. Psychological development

 

4.0 ENHANCING MEMORY

A. Dua

B. Intention and focus

C. Selection

D. Multiple sensory stimulation

E. Repetitive sensory stimulation

 

5.0 MEMORY DISORDERS

A. Distortion

B. Confabulation

C. Moral forgetting

D. Physical forgetting

E. Reminding


1.0 NATURE OF HUMAN MEMORY

A. MEMORY CAPACITY

Memory capacity & unused brain:  Most humans do not develop their memory to the maximum. Most of the memory capacity is unused. Human memory: Humans are capable of great memory. Memorisation of the whole Qur’an is encouraged (Msulim #1743, 1744). Abu Huraira’s memory MB# 100 p 103. Prophet prayed for Abu Huraira’s memory. He memorised a lot of hadith (KS p. 59). He has reported the highest number of hadith (KS p. 59). He had a methodology for memorisation (KS p. 59).

 

B. TYPES OF MEMORY

SHORT-TERM MEMORY:

Short-term memory is memory of recent events. It is retained for a short time and is then forgotten. It may be filtered and structured to become part of long-term memory.

 

LONG-TERM:

 

IMPLICIT MEMORY

This is a type of memory involved in learning a skill. The human is not consciously aware of this memory

 

C. NEUROLOGICAL BASIS OF MEMORY

 

D. COGNITIVE BASIS OF MEMORY

Some items of information are not stored in the human memory but can be worked out by manipulation of known facts. This is accomplished through knowledge and understanding of inter-relationships. For example a human can use a mathematical formula to generate many facts that otherwise would have had to be memorized.

 

E. DIVINE BASIS OF MEMORY

Allah can give humans the capacity to remember information without active human effort. Allah reassured the prophet not to worry about forgetting the Qur’an because Allah would ensure its perfect memorization (75:16)

 

2.0 PROCESS OF MEMORY

A. ENCODING

 

B. STRUCTURING

 

C. ORGANIZATION, ACTIVE AND LATENT

 

D. RETRIEVAL

 

E.  INTERPRETATION

 

3.0 DEVELOPMENT OF MEMORY

A. EARLY BRAIN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

Effect of age

 

B. EARLY CHALLENGES

Effect of repetition

 

C. COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

 

D. EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT

 

E. PSYCHOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT

 

4.0 ENHANCING MEMORY

A. DUA

 

B. INTENTION AND FOCUS

Istihfaadh kitaab al llaah 5:44

 

C. SELECTION

 

D. MULTIPLE SENSORY STIMULATION

 

E. REPETITIVE SENSORY STIMULATION

Improving memory: repeating 3 times to ensure encoding MB # 82 p 95

 

5.0 MEMORY DISORDERS

A. DISTORTION

Exaggeration

Memory decay

Dhabt al hadiith

 

B. CONFABULATION

Confabulations happens in the elderly who lose some memory because of the dementia and they try to make up lost bits of information to make the conversation smooth. Confabulation could also occur as a community phenomenon in folk tales, asaatwiir. He revelation was rejected by claiming that it was asaatwiir (p 105 6:25, 8:31, 16:24, 23:83, 25:5, 27:68, 46:17, 68:15, 83:13).

 

C. MORAL FORGETTING

Forgetting is loss of access and not loss of the information. The Qur'an in many verses discussed the various types of forgetting (2;44, 2:106, 2:237, 2:282, 5:13, 5:14, 6:41, 6:44, 7:51, 7:53, 7:165, 9:67, 16:70, 18:61, 18:63, 18:73, 19:23, 20:88, 20:115, 20:126, 22:5, 23:110, 2:18, 28:77, 32:14, 36:78, 38:26, 39:8, 4:34, 59:19, 87:6). Allah does not forget: 19:64, 20:52, 58:6. Humans forget. Adam forgot (20:115). The worst form of forgetting is that of the signs of Allah, nisyan ayat al llah (20:126). Shaitan is the cause of forgetting, moral and physical (6:68, 12:42, 58:19, 18:63). Forgetting as a type of negligence (6:131, 51:11. Rememberance of Allah, dhikr Allah, cures forgetfulness (18:24).

 

D. PHYSICAL FORGETTING

It seems that long-term memory is not lost. It is access to it that becomes difficult. Humans forget and are not punished for it (2:286).

 

Forgetting in acts of ibadat: Forgetting in salat (MB# 366 p 212, Muslim #1159, 1161, 1162, 1163, 1164, 1165, 1166, 1168, 1175, 1176, 1177, 1179, 1180, 1181, 1182, 1184, 1187, 1188). Sujuud al shaw MB# 631 p 317. Eating, drinking, or sex in Ramadhan by mistake (MB# 940 p 445, Muslim #2575).

 

E. REMINDING

Humans must be reminded of facts in order to retain them: 2:282, 51:55, 80:3, 87:9

Reminding in a moral sense: (6:68-69, 6:90, 7:2, 11:114, 11:120, 19:67, 21:83, 26:209, 29:51, 38:43, 38:46, 39:21, 40:54, 44:13, 47:18, 50:8, 50:37, 51:55, 74:31, 79:35, 79:43, 80:4, 87:9, 89:23)

 

Reminding in the physical sense: (2:283)

Professor Omar Hasan Kasule sr. March 2000