Home

ISLAMIC MEDICAL EDUCATION RESOURCES 04

0002-MIDDLE AGE , SINN AL RUSHD 40-60

Lecture to 2nd year medical students on 19th February 2000 at the Kulliyah of Medicine, International Islamic University, Kuantan by Professor Omar Hasan Kasule Sr.

OUTLINE

1.0 DEFINITION OF MIDDLE AGE

A. DEFINITION by AGE

B. SIGNIFICANCE OF AGE 40 YEARS

C. SIGNIFICANCE OF AGE 60

 

2.0 CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MIDDLE AGES

A. RUSHD

A.     ACTUALISATION:

B.     BALANCE:

D. PEAK OF CAREER:

E. PEAK OF FAMILY:

 

3.0 BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS

A. GENERAL DECLINE

B. SENSORY SYSTEM

C. MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

D. URO-GENITAL SYSTEM

E. COGNITION and MEMORY

 

4.0 PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS

A. BALANCE:

B. MID-LIFE CRISIS

 

5.0 SOCIAL ASPECTS

A. FAMILY REARING:

B. LEADERSHIP:

 

 

1.0 DEFINITION OF MIDDLE AGE

A. DEFINITION

DEFINITION by AGE

Middle age is the period of full human growth and development at which human potential for both good and bad is at its maximum. It is defined as the age 40-60.

 

B. SIGNIFICANCE OF AGE 40 YEARS

The age of forty is the age of guidance, sinn buluugh al rushd (46:1, KS p. 122, KS p. 402). Many prophets were sent after the age of 40. By the age of 40 a person's character and personality have stabilized. No surprises in behavior or attitudes are expected after this age.

 

C. SIGNIFICANCE OF AGE 60

The age of 60 is the start of old age and therefore end of the middle ages. It represents the completion of growth and development. Life after 60 is living on borrowed time. The age of 60 (hadith)

 

2.0 CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MIDDLE AGES

A. RUSHD

Al insan al rashid: 11:78, 11:87. Ibrahim was given rushd 21:51

 

B. ACTUALISATION:

Actualization is a stage of feeling of fulfillment. The individual has achieved all what he/she planned to achieve. Even if there is failure, there is a realistic realization and appreciation of where someone stands with no hope of major new achievements. This in itself forces a person to look at what has been achieved in the past with appreciation.

 

C.     BALANCE:

Balance between intellect and wisdom

Balance between impulse and caution

Balance between conservation/maintenance and innovation

 

D. PEAK OF CAREER:

Because of physical and intellectual decline after middle age, no new major achievements or break-throughs are expected for the majority of people. There are however the exceptional few who continue highly productive life after the age of 60.

 

E. PEAK OF FAMILY:

By the end of middle age, the family is completed. For most people there are no more new children to look after. The older children are themselves becoming adults and setting up their own families.

 

3.0 BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS

A. GENERAL DECLINE

Decline is progressive. Each person declines at a different rate. Structures and functions of the body decline at different rates with much individual variation. In all cases the state of previous health especially in youth determines the rate of decline. Those who lived healthy and active lives experience less decline.

 

Physiological function declines with decline of functional organs

 

Tissue growth declines until the equilibrium between growth/repair and degeneration is tipped in favor of degeneration.

 

Immunological response declines making the elderly more prone to infectious and neoplastic diseases.

 

B. SENSORY SYSTEM

Starting in late middle ages, there is decline of sensory organs. This gradually decreases the impact of environmental stimulation.

 

C. MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

A state of balance is maintained; there is little change in anatomy at ages 25-50 years

 

D. URO-GENITAL SYSTEM

MALES

Testicular function declines but there is no male climecteric. Sexual difficulties are due to the associated diseases.

 

FEMALE

In menopause the ovary is not responsive to gonadotrophins so that the menstrual cycles disappear. The average age of menopause has been increasing in developed countries. Menopause like adolescence has many biological and psychological problems because it is a period of transition.

 

The pre-menopausal syndrome:

 

The post-menopausal syndrome: symptoms in women: physical (hot flushes) & psychic.

 

E. COGNITION and MEMORY

Decline in memory

Decline in speed of intellectual processing

 

4.0 PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS

A. BALANCE:

Psychological balance predominates in middle age

 

B. MID-LIFE CRISIS

The mid-life crisis is due to the realization that many of the youthful ambitions will never be fulfilled.

 

5.0 SOCIAL ASPECTS

A. FAMILY REARING:

Last stages of family rearing

 

B. LEADERSHIP:

Transfer of leadership from generation to the next

Professor Omar Hasan Kasule Sr. February 2000