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ISLAMIC MEDICAL EDUCATION RESOURCES 04

0012-CIVILIZATION, (IMARAT/ISTIMAAR AL ARDH)(PART I)

Lecture for 1st year medical students on 23rd December 2000 by Professor Omar Hasan Kasule Sr.

OUTLINE

1.0 QUR’ANIC PERSPECTIVE OF CIVILIZATION

A. Qur’anic terminology

B. Stages of Human Civilization

C. Human body structure and function in relation to civilization

D. Social organization and Work

E. Conflict

 

2.0 QUR’ANIC ACCOUNT OF ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS

A. The righteous

B. The transgressors

C. Jews

D. Christians

E. Others

 

3.0 SIIRAT of THE PROPHET MUHAMMAD AS A MODEL

A. Pre-Islamic Arabia

B. Muhammad as a human messenger

C. The Makkan period

D. The Madinan period

E. Lessons

 

4.0 THE ISLAMIC STATE, al dawlat al Islamiyat/dar al Islam

A. The rightly guided khilafat

B. The dynasties

C. The peripheries

D. Achievements and failures

E. Lessons for the Future

 

5.0 THE RISE and FALL OF CIVILISATIONS, al dawrat al hadhariyat

A. Concepts

B. Ancient civilizations

C. Regional powers

D. World empires

E. Lessons for the future

 

3.5.1 QUR’ANIC PERSPECTIVE OF CIVILIZATION

A. QUR’ANIC TERMINOLOGY

ISTI'IMAR:

The Qur’an uses the concept of isti’mar to refer to physical construction and development of the earth (p. 91 11:61). The primary purpose of isti’mar is to ease life for humans (p 92 2:22, 2:36, 7:24, 13:3, 15:19-20, 16:13, 16:15, 20:53, 21:31, 27:61, 31:10, 40:64, 43:10, 50:7, 51:48, 67:15, 71:19-20, 78:6, 88:20, 91:6) so that they can undertake the responsibilities of ibadat including physical development of the earth.

 

The term Isti’mar can be equated with civilisation with the understanding that a civilisation could be good or bad. There is a very vital difference between civilisation and modernisation. Civilisation refers to moral values of building a society. Modernisation refers to developments in technology. Not everything that is new and modern is an indication of civilisational growth. The Islamic laws about human interaction, al muamalat, are there to ensure that civilisational growth follows a definite moral code for the benefit of all. All human endeavour is building civilisation is considered ibadat. It must therefore be carried out with a clean intention and expectation of reward from Allah. Destruction of civilisation can be of material things or of humans. Material destruction can be by war, pollution, or neglect. Destruction of people involved immorality, ifsad, or social injustice.

 

QARIAT:

The word ‘qariyat’ is used by the Qur’an to refer to civilization or society (p 940 7:163, 10:98, 11:100, 12:82, 34:18, 43:31, 59:7). The people of the qariat are given bounties (p 941 2:58, 7:96, 7:161, 16:112). Allah warns people of the qariat (p 940 6:92, 6:131, 12:109, 25:51, 26:208, 28:59, 34:34, 36:13, 42:7, 43:23). The qariat can misbehave (p 941 16:112, 17:16, 28:58, 34:34, 43:43). The people can transgress dhulm (p 941 4:75, 11:102, 18:59, 21:11, 22:45, 22:48, 28:59) or become corrupt (p 941 6:123, 7:82, 7:88, 7:96, 17:16, 18:77, 21:74, 27:56, 28:58, 34:34, 43:23). It can be polluted kharaab (p 941 2:259, 27:34). The qariat can be punishment by famine, qaht (p 941 7:94-95, 16:112, 65:8-9). It can be destroyed in punishment (p 940 16:131, 7:4, 7:96-98, 11:102, 11:117, 15:4, 17:16, 17:58, 18:59, 21:6, 21:45, 22:45, 22:48, 25:40, 26:208, 27:56-58, 28:58-59, 29:31, 28:4, 46:27, 47:13).  

 

UMMAT:

The word ummat is used to refer to a collection of humans, animals or even insects. The Qur’an uses the word ummat to refer to any group with a common purpose (p 150 2:128, 3:104, 11:8, 12:45, 16:120, 28:23, 43:22, 43:23). Various communities are described in the Qur’an. The righteous were blessed with material success. The arrogant and disobedient were punished and were destroyed. A community may have both good and bad individuals. It can have good and bad groups of individuals. The evil of the bad can bring punishment and destruction to all including the good.

 

BASHAR/INSAAN

All humans all over the world are one inter-breeding species. Modern DNA evidence points to humans having a single genetic origin. The different ethnic groups or races are very similar in most aspects. The differences seen are superficial and reflect Allah’s majesty who created people to fit different environments. Humans have a spectrum of colors with no clear demarcation between one racial group and another. People living in the hot tropical regions have dark skins that protect them from ultra-violet rays. Those who live the cold artic regions have paler skins.

A civilization is strong if it has energetic and productive people. The best resource is people and successful civilizations know how to train and develop them. There is a critical minimum number of people needed to sustain a civilization. It is for that reason that big political powers have always been entities with a large population. A bigger population means a larger tax base and more resources for military and socio-economic development. A civilization needs military power to defend its interests and well-being. Some times this power may be used negatively in aggressive pursuits.

 

B. STAGES OF HUMAN CIVILIZATION

HUNTING and GATHERERS

The first humans lived primitive lives. They hunted animals and gathered plant products for food. They were nomadic and lived in small groups. They used simple tools made of stone or wood. Their main concern was survival by getting their daily food and being protected from enemies. They had little material or social development.

 

AGRICULTURE

Agriculture is the mother of civilization. The start of agriculture in human history enabled people to settle down in one place instead of roaming around hunting animals and gathering fruits. They domesticated plants and animals. They also domesticated themselves in a way. Their life became more organized. With a settled life they had to organize government, laws, and develop a social structure. Human life changed from just surviving to building a civilization. The earliest recorded human civilizations developed along the fertile river banks of the Nile, Euphrates, and the Indus rivers. These valleys had fertile soils and water to support agriculture. The earliest record of agriculture are in Mesopotamia more than 10,000 years ago. Besides growing crops humans also learned to domesticate animals.

 

Agriculture, the exploitation of the earth and the soil, could be equated with civilization, isti’mar. Agriculture is perhaps the earliest form of positive isti’mar. The Qur’an mentions bringing earth back to life, ihya al ardh (p 91 2:30, 6:165, 7:10, 7:129, 10:14, 27:62, 35:39, 38:26). The Qur’an mentions building the earth, i’imar al ardh (p 91-92 7:74, 11:61, 18:93-97, 30:9). Negative isti’mar is also related to the soil. The Qur’an talks about Ifsaad al ardh (p 96 2:11, 2:27, 2:205, 5:32-33, 7:56, 7:74, 7:85, 8:73, 7:85, 11:116, 26:152, 26:183, 27:48, 28:77, 29:36, 38:28, 42:42, 47:22-23) and kharab al ardh (p 93 1:48, 14:48, 16:45, 37:87, 28:81, 29:40, 34:9, 39:58, 50:44, 54:12, 56:46, 67:16, 69:14, 73:14, 84:3-4, 89:21, 99:1-2).

 

TECHNOLOGY

Technological development occurred when humans were settled in stable communities. Technological development has been by trial and error and often mistakes were made. Humans have always tried to discover new technology to manufacture tools that in turn are used in the exploitation of natural resources. Bones and pieces of wood were the earliest tools used. During the Stone Age stone tools were used. Metal tools made of copper at first replaced these. Bronze was later used because it was stronger. The discovery of iron, a stronger metal, enabled manufacture of even stronger tools. In the past 2 centuries humans have found means of making steel, reinforced iron. Humans are now making tools from artificial materials. The discovery of fire signaled human use of energy for his purposes. Later other forms of energy were discovered such as wind energy and the energy of waterfalls. Animal muscles were then used in place of human muscles. It was not until the past 200 years that new forms of energy were discovered to replace human and animal muscles: thermal energy from burning fossil fuels, electro-magnetic energy, and nuclear energy. Early humans used their feet for transport. They later learned how to use animals for quicker transport of humans and goods. Boats were constructed for water-based transportation systems. The discovery of wheeled vehicles made movement even faster. Wheeled transport developed in places with suitable topography and could not develop in the dense forests of the tropics. Early humans lived in caves. They later learned how to construct dwellings to protect themselves from the elements of weather.

 

C. HUMAN BODY STUCTURE and FUNCTION IN RELATION TO CIVILIZATION

BRAIN

The sophisticated human brain has been central in growth of human civilization. It has given humans the following potentials needed for progress: creativity & innovation, problem solving, forward planning, and self-protection.

 

ERECT POSTURE

The erect posture not made human locomotion more efficient. Humans are able to survey a wide field of vision while moving, a facility not available to four-legged animals. The erect posture also freed the upper limbs for manipulation of objects unlike 4-legged animals that use all their 4 limbs for locomotion.

 

VERSATILE HAND

The human hand is very versatile and can make very fine and graded movements. It has enabled humans to make and use tools of increasing sophistication

 

LONG CHILDHOOD FOR SKILL TRAINING

Humans take the longest time to reach independent adulthood. This is because they need that much time for training and learning the culture of their society. During the long period of training humans learn practical skills. Living in a family or society also stimulates and develops the intellect. Thus humans, unlike other animals, are able to accumulate knowledge and experiences from one generation to another. 

 

METABOLIC ADAPTATION

Human metabolism is adapted to be able to lead a sophisticated life. For example humans do not need to eat all the time. They have limited ability to store food.

 

D. SOCIAL ORGANIZATION and WORK

Social organization can be looked at as being units at increasing levels of sophistication. The simplest unit is the individual who is a member of the nuclear family. The nuclear family is in turn part of the extended family. Several families make up a clan and several clans make up a tribe. Many tribes make a nation. The modern nation-state is made up of many ethnic groups. A well organized human society must be able to protect diin, nafs, nasl, aql, and mal. It must have equilibrium between the spiritual and the material. It must operate within a moral context. Thus isti’mar requires a community and organization.

 

WORK, ‘amal

The Qur’anic term ‘amal does not distinguish between prescribed acts of ibadat and other righteous human activity. All human endeavor is ibadat. Work is a test for humans (p 839 7:129, 7:129, 10:14, 11:7, 18:7, 67:2). There is reward for all types of work; because any human endeavor with the right intention is considered ibadat (p 840 2:85, 3:30, 6:132, 11:15, 11:14, 16:93, 16:111, 18:49, 21:59, 23:63, 24:64, 36:54, 39:39, 39:70, 41:46, 45:15, 45:28, 26:19, 47:33, 47:35, 49:14, 52:16, 52:21, 58:6-7, 64:7, 99:7-8). Humans are argued to work (p 840 6:135, 9:105, 11:93, 11:121, 18:110, 34:11, 34:13, 39:39, 41:5, 41:40, 67:15). They are free to choose the type of work they want to do (p 841 4:66, 17:18-19, 17:84, 41:40, 73:19, 74:37, 76:29, 78:39, 81:28, 92:4-10). Work can be good (p 841 9:121, 16:96-99, 24:38, 29:7, 39:35, 46:16). It can also be bad (p 841 3:28, 3:30, 5:90, 7:28, 11:78, 12:10, 12:32, 12:59, 21:68, 21:74, 26:74, 85:7). Good work is rewarded (p 842 2:231, 2:231, 3:30, 4:30, 4:123, 7:147, 7:180, 10:106, 16:28, 16:33-35, 25:68, 27:84, 27:90, 28:84, 29:55, 30:41, 32:14, 34:33, 40:40, 41:27, 41:50, 45:33, 53:31, 66:7, 83:36, 99:8) and is considered ‘amal salih (p 844 2:215, 4:127, 5:67, 8:73, 23:100, 27:227, 27:19, 33:6, 35:10, 41:33, 41:46, 42:26, 45:15, 46:15, p 844-6 2:25, 2:62, 2:82, 2:277, 3:57, 3:136, 3:195, 4:57, 4:114, 4:122, 4:124, 4:173, 5:9, 5:69, 6:127, 7:42-43, 9:120, 10:4, 10:9, 11:11, 14:23, 13:29, 14:23, 16:32, 17:9, 18:2, 18:30-31, 18:107, 19:60, 20:75, 20:112, 21:94, 22:14, 22:23, 22:50, 22:56, 25:70-71, 28:67, 28:80, 29:7, 29:9, 29:58, 30:15, 30:44-45, 31:8, 32:17, 32:19, 38:31, 34:4, 34:37, 35:7, 37:60-61, 39:74, 40:30, 41:81, 42:22-23, 43:72, 45:30, 46:40, 47:2, 47:4, 47:12, 48:29, 52:19, 56:24, 64:9, 77:43, 75:11, 84:25, 85:11, 95:6, 99:7, p 846-7 16:97, 18:88, 19:96, 24:55). Each person has individual responsibility for work (p 849 2:134 …10:41).

 

E. CONFLICT, qitaal

Human conflict is as old as human history. The earliest recorded conflict was one between two sons of Adam and it ended tragically in homicide (P 949 5:27-31). Conflicts can be armed or non-armed. Weapons were among the first tools that humans discovered. Throughout history technological discoveries have always been of double use: military and industry. Conflicts have their bad destructive consequences but they also can lead to some positive changes. Conflict or its potential acts as a deterrent. Mutual deterrence, tadafu’u, helps maintain balance between and among communities. After a conflict new relations are established and development can occur until a new conflict arises. Many technological developments were a result of supreme efforts to discover weapons needed to win in conflicts. There are three basic causes of conflict: (a) misunderstanding (b) insecurity (c) greed and competition for limited resources. Conflict in a way is part of the survival instinct that all humans have. Jihad is part of ist’imar. It is undertaken for the sole purpose of defeating the taghoot and establishing freedom of religion so that the human potential can be unleashed. Islam forbade all other reasons for fighting because armed conflict is anti-civilization; it destroys life and property.

 

3.5.2 QUR’ANIC ACCOUNT OF ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS

A. GENERAL CONCEPTS

The Qur'an is in essence not a book of history. It however reveals to us some aspects of past communities mainly to teach us moral lessons. The Qur'anic account covers both the pre-historic and historic eras. The origin of all civilizations is one (p 156-7 2:213, 10:19, 21:92, 23:52, 43:33). Each has a fixed life-span (p 151 7:34, 7:135, 10:49, 15:5, 18:59, 23:43). The Qur’an tells us the history of previous communities as a lesson (p 152 11:100). It also urges us to study them as a lesson (p 154 12:109, 16:36, 20:51-52, 20:128, 25:40, 28:43, 32:26, 34:18). Each civilization was distinct (p 152 5:48, 10:19, 11:118, 16:92-93, 22:34, 22:67, 42:8). Prophets were sent to each community (p 152 2:213, 4:41, 6:42, 7:94, 7:101, 10:13, 10:47, 12:109, 13:30, 16:36, 16:63, 16:84, 16:89, 23:44, 26:208, 28:59, 34:34, 35:24, 36:13, 43:23, 40:5). The communities succeeded one another (p 153 9:39, 6:6, 6:133, 7:12, 7:16, 9:39, 11:57, 21:11, 23:31, 23:42, 24:55, 28:45, 47:38, 56:61, 70:41, 86:28, ?70:28). Many of them were luxurious (p 153-4 11:116, 17:16, 27:58, 34:34, 43:23). Many rejected the prophets (p 154 7:96, 7:101, 16:36, 23:44, 27:83, 29:18, 40:5), committed transgressions, dhulm (p 154 4:75, 10:13, 11:102, 11:116, 18:59, 21:11, 22:45, 22:48, 28:59, 29:31). The end was bad (p 155 12:109, 16:36). They were punished (p 155 7:28, 7:38, 7:94, 11:48, 11:102, 16:63, 17:58, 27:83, 40:5, 41:25, 45:28, 46:18, 65:8) or were destroyed (p 155 6:6, 6:42, 6:131, 7:4, 7:96-98, 10:13, 11:117, 15:4, 17:17, 17:58, 18:59, 19:74, 19:98, 20:128, 21:6, 21:95, 22:48, 23:44, 26:208, 28:43, 28:58-59, 28:78, 29:31, 29:34, 32:26, 36:31, 38:3, 46:27, 47:13, 50:56).

 

B. THE RIGHTEOUS

Adam and Hawa were the first human to start a community. We learn from the Qur’an that when he was created a lot of resources of the earth such as plants and animals were already in place. The first human civilization was started with  the Prophet Adam. He and his wife Hawa had many children to whom they bequeathed this first human civilization. It had its good and bad aspects. One of the bad experiences was the fratricide due to jealousy that the Qur’an recounted for us. We know from the Qur'anic account about the food and dress of Adam and his wife. The story of Adam is not in pre-history because it is written down. We thus have a paradoxical result that pre-history was not the start of human civilization. The first human civilization established by Adam and Hawa had all the ingredients of a modern civilization. There was disobedience and transgression from Allah’s command when they ate from the forbidden tree (p. 40 2;35-36, 4;1, 7:19-23, 20;121, 20:123). Adam was however a prophet and repented. He was forgiven and was allowed to start the first human family. Jealousy and violence occurred in the first family when one son of Adam killed his brother. Since the time of Adam, many civilizations and communities have arisen and fallen. The rise and fall follow defined laws called sunan Allah. When people choose the correct approaches they become strong and predominant. Once strong they change their condition and start weakening and eventually collapse.

 

People of the cave: The Qur’an tells us the story of the companions of the cave, ashaab al kahaf (p. 947 18:9-26) who were righteous youths who escaped from an evil society

 

Sabeans are an ancient religious community in the Arabian Peninsula whose remnants are still found in modern Iraq. The Qur'an mentioned them among believers (p. 659 5:69). We know little about their material civilization

 

C. THE TRANSGRESSORS

The people of Ibrahim, qawm Ibrahim, were described in the Qur’an (p. 62 6:75-83, 21:51-70, 26:69-82, 29:16-25, 37:83-99, 43:26-28). They made statutes for worship. They lived under a despotic ruler who had no respect for human life. The people of Babel were engaged in teaching sorcery, ta’aliim al sihr (2:102). We know little about the people of Egypt. The Qur’an described the actions of Pharaoh in Egypt in great detail but gave relatively less information about the Egyptian civilization and society. The society was divided between slaves and nobles; for a long time the Israelities were the slaving class. The people had been cowered into submission to the Pharaoh. There were however believing men and women among the Egyptians and the Israelis just as there were evil people among both groups; Qarun was a degenerate Israili while Haman was an evil Egyptian. The wife of Pharaoh was herself a believer. The Qur’an tells the story of the people of the trenches, ashaab al ukhduud, who were believers burned by fire under the cruel king Jewish Dhu Nuwaas in Yaman (p. 947 85:4-10). They were persecuted for their beliefs. The people of the elephant, ashaab al fiil (p. 947 105:1-5) were a strong military power in Yaman and they tried to destroy the Kaaba in the year of the prophet’s birth. The Qur’an tells us about civilizations that were evil and were finally destroyed, the people of Thamud (p. 262-263 7:73, 9:70, 11:61, 11:68, 11:95, 14:9, 17:59, 22:42, 25:38, 26:141, 27:45, 29:38, 38:13, 40:31, 41:13, 41:17, 50:12, 51:43, 53:51, 54:23, 53:51, 54:23, 69:4-5, 85:18, 91:11), the people of Rass (p. 500 25:38, 50:12), and the people of ‘Aad (p. p769 7:65, 7:74, 9;70, 11;50, 11;59-60, 14:9, 22:42, 25:38, 26:123, 29:38, 38:12, 40:31, 41:13, 41:15, 46:21, 50:13, 41:41, 53:50, 54:18, 89:4, 69:6, 89:6).

 

D. PEOPLE  OF THE BOOK

JEWS

Major historical events: Hebrews, the ancestors of Israelities and Jews, were nomadic herders, traveling artisans and merchants wandering between the Nile and the Euphrates. Ibrahim, a Canaanite, gave birth to Ishaq who in turn gave birth to Ya'aqub. Yaqub had 12 sons each of whom led a tribe. The drought forced the tribes from their homeland in Canaan to Egypt, hijrat al yahuud ila misr (p 1354 12:93, 12:99-100). They were enslaved in Egypt and suffered a lot in Egypt, balaau bani Israil fi masr (p. 1337 2:49, 7:141, 14:6). The Pharaohs oppressed them, idhtihaadi al fara’inat lahum (p. 1339-1340 2;49, 14:6, 26:52-53, 28:4). As a result of their demographic expansion of the Jewish population, the pharaohs were afraid and started a policy of systematic genocide to control the Jewish population. Male newborns were killed while females who were thought not to be a military threat were spared. They were saved from the pharaoh’s cruelty, najaat min fir’aun (p. 1352 2:49-50, 20:80, 2;47, 2;49-60) when Musa led the Jews out of Egypt what is called the exodus, khuruuj al yahuud min misr (p. 1345 7:138-139, 20:77-80, 26:52-66). They wandered in the Sinai desert for a long time. Allah showed them a lot of mercy during this period of wandering in the desert but they repeatedly disobeyed. They were fed manna and salwa, food directly from heaven (p 1347 2:57) but they asked Allah to give them a varied diet, talab tanwii’u al ta’aam (p 1347 2:61) whereupon Allah humiliated them by cutting off the food supply and ordering them to farm. They were ordered to slaughter a cow, al amr bi dhabahi al baqara (p 1341 2:67-72) but they rebelliously presented a succession of excuses until they finally slaughtered he cow most reluctantly. Many orders were given to them but they disobeyed most of the time (p. 1341 2;40-48, 2:63, 2:67, 2:122-123, 7:161). Some foods were forbidden for them, tahriim ba’adh al at’imat (p 1342 4:160, 6:146, 16:118). They made persistently unreasonable demands from Musa. They demanded that they see Allah directly, ruuyat al laah jahratan (p 1347 2;108, 4:153) but they were overcome by the experience. Allah provided them with 12 fountains of water when they asked for water, talab al maau (p. 1347 2;60, 7:160).. After the death of Musa, Taalut led them to the promised land of Canaan, dukhuul al ardh al muqaddasat (p. 1345 2:58, 7:161). They became farmers and herders. They were a rebellious people and gave a lot of trouble to King Taaluut, al yahuud wa al malik taaluut (p. 1354 2:246-251). After a period of confusion, Saul became the first king. Daud who united the Israelites to defeat the Canaanites and establish the city of Jerusalem succeeded him. Sulaiman famous for his wisdom succeeded Daud. On the death of Sulaiman 2 kingdoms were established: Israil in the north and Judea in the south. Fighting between the 2 kingdoms weakened them. Many prophets arose among the Israelites but the people rejected them. The Israelities were attacked by more powerful neighbors and were often defeated in battle, haziimat al yahuud fi al huruub (p 1354 3:111-112). By 722 BC the Kingdom of Israil in the north disappeared. By 586BC the Judeans were forced into slavery in Babylon where they stayed for 70 years. On return they rebuilt Jerusalem.

 

Allah’s bounties on the Jews: Allah gave many bounties to the Jews, ni’am al llaah ‘ala al yahuud (p. 1352-3 2;40, 2:47, 2;49-60, 2:63-64, 2;122, 2;211, 5:20, 7:137, 7:140-141, 7:160, 10:93, 14:6, 20;80-81, 28:5-6, 44:30-33, 45:16-19). Allah gave superiority to Jews, tafdhiil al yahuud (p. 1342-3 7:140, 44:30-32, 45:16). Among the bounties given to them that put them in a position of superiority were: faith, imaan (p. 1343 32:23-24), gratitude, shukr (p. 1343 2:47, 2;122), patience, and sabr (p. 1343 7:137, 32:23-24). They were however always rebelling against Allah. Despite their rebellion, Allah was always willing to accept their repentance, taubat al yahuud ba’ada al ma’asiyat (p. 1344 2:54, 7:155-156).

 

Negative history of the Jews: The Qur’an has mentioned few positive things about the Jews. Some of them were believers while others were not (p 1345 18:32-43, p 1337 2:62, 5:69). Some of their scholars testified that the Qur’an was truthful (p. 1347 13:43, 26:197, 46:10). Most of the Qur’anic account of Jews is about their rebellion, transgression, and corruption which justified Allah’s punishment for them, istihqaaq ‘adhaab al Llaah (p. 1339 3:112). Allah had taken a covenant from the Jews, akhadh al llahh al miithaaq min al yahuud (p. 1337 2:63, 2:83, 2:84, 2:93, 3:187, 4:154, 5:12, 5:70, 7:169) but throughout their history they repeatedly broke the convenant and other agreements, naqdh al yahuud al ‘uhuud (p. 1353 2:63-64, 2:83-85, 2:93, 2:100-101, 3:187, 4:155, 5:12-13, 5:70, 7:169). Their religious leaders were corrupt, ahbaar fasaqat (p. 1337 9:34).

 

Transgressions against Allah: transgression against what Allah forbade, i’itidaau hurumaat al llaah (p 1340 2:65-66), associating Allah with avarice, nisbat al bukhul ila al llaah (p 1340 5:64), associating Allah with poverty, nisbat al faqr ila al llaah (p. 1340 3:181), associating Allah with a child, nisbat al walad ila al llaah (p. 1340 5:18, 9:30), denial of Allah’s bounties on them, kufr al ni’am (p. 1350 2:57, 2:59-61, 2:211, 7:162)

 

False creed: Unbelief, kufr al yahuud (p. 1350 2:88-991, 3:112, 4:155-156, 5:41, 5:64, 5:68), worshipping idols, talab ibadat al asnaam (p. 1347 7;138-139, 20:90-91), worship of the golden calf, ibadat al ‘ijil (p. 1348 2:54, 7:148, 20:87-89),

 

Fabrications: Jews made fabrications about fabrications about Allah, iftiraau ‘ala al llaah (p 1340 3:183, 4:153, 9:31), Maryam (p. 1340 4:156, 19:37), Haaruut and Maaruut (p 1340 2:102), corruption of the taurat, takhrif al tawrat (p 1342 2:75, 2:146, 3:187, 4:46, 5:13, 5:41, 5:44, 6:91)

 

False allegations: Jews made the following false allegations: prophets were Jews, tahwiid al anbiyaa (p. 1346 2;140, 3:67), paradise is only for Jews (p 1346 2:94, 2:111-112), escape of Jews from hell, najaat min al naar (p. 1346 2:80-81, 3:23-24), guidance is for Jews only (p. 1346 2:135-137), Allah’s love for Jews (p 1346 5:18), Jews are the allies of Allah, wilayat al allah (p 1346 62:6)

 

Financial corruption: taking people’s wealth by falsehood (p. 1340 4:161), dealing in interest, akhadh al riba (p. 1338 4:161)

 

Evil Character: transgression, dhulm (p. 1347 2:51, 2:54, 2:59, 2:92, 2:95, 4:160, 4:153, 7:147, 7:15, 62:7), arrogance, ghuruur (p. 1349 2;120, 2;135, 3;24, 5:18), hardness of hearts, qaswat al quluub (p. 1349 2:74, 2:88, 4:155, 5:13), stubbornness, mu’anadat al yahuud (p. 1351 2:59, 2:61, 2:67-75, 2:92, 2:118, 5:24, 7:162), foolhardiness, safah (p 1346 2;130, 2:143), following base desires, itiibau al hiwa (p 1337 2:87, 2:145, 5:49, 5:70), hastening towards evil, musra’at ila al ithm (p. 1350 5:41, 5:62-63), enmity, ‘adawat (p. 1348 2:61, 2:65, 3:112, 4:154, 5:64, 5:82), enmity for angels, ‘adawat al malaikat (p. 1348 2:97-98),  jealousy, hasad (p. 1338 2;105, 2;109, 4:51-54), treachery, khiyanat (p 1338 5:13), lying, kadhb (p. 1338 3:75, 3:78, 3:93-94, 3:183, 4:50-51, 5:41-42), avarice, bukhl (p. 1342 2:58-59, 6:146, 7:161-166), cowardice, jubn (p. 1344 3:110-111, 5:20-25, 59:2, 59:11-14), and materialism (p. 1345 2:94-96, 62:6-8), and materialistic dealings, mu’amalat maadiyyat (p. 1351 3:75-76). The Qur’an gave examples of evil Jewish behavior in the story of the companions of the garden, ashaab al jannat (p. 1339 68:17-32) and the companions of the village, ashaab al qariyat (p. 1339 36:13-29).

 

Evil actions: murawaghat (p 1339 2:67-73), making fun of believers, istihizaau al mu’uminiin (p. 1339 2:14-15), killing of prophets, qatl al anbiya (   ), hiding the truth, kitmaan al haqq (p. 1349 2:42, 2:140, 2:146, 3:187). They took negative positions regarding prophets, mawaqif salbiyyat li al anbiya (p. 1351 2:87, 2:140, 5:70). They rejected the prophet Muhammad, mawqifu al yahuud min Muhammad (p 1352 2:89, 2:101, 2:146-147, 61:6-7, 33:69, 61:5). They also rejected Isa, mawqif al yahuud min Isa (p. 1351 4:156-157).

 

Corrupting others: spread evil, ifsaad al yahuud (p. 1340 2:60, 5:63, 7:142, 17:4-7), starting wars, ish’aal al huruub (p 1339 5:64), stopping others from Allah’s path, sadd sabiil al llaah (p. 1347 3:99, 4:160, 9:34), 

 

Punishments for Jews: As a result of their rebellion Jews have been punished by Allah, ‘uquubat al yahuud umuuman (p. 1348-9 2:55, Jews have been expelled and scattered many times in their history, tashriid al yahuud (p. 1342 7:167-168). Allah held a mountain above them and threatened to let it fall on them if they disobeyed, rafi’u al tuur fawqahum (p. 1346 2:63, 2:93, 4:154, 7:177). He humiliated them, dharab al dhillat ala al yahuud (p. 1347 2:61, 3;112, 7:152). He also made them paupers, dharab al maskanat ala al yahuud (  ). Allah punished them with lightning thunder, usquubat al yahuud bi al saa’iqat (p. 1349 2:55, 4:153). Their wandering in the Sinai desert for years was a form of punishment for their disobedience, uqubat al yahuud bi al tiih fi al sahara (p. 1349 5:26). Allah turned them into monkeys and pigs (p. 1349 2:65, 5:60, 7:160).

 

CHRISTIANS

Christians are a world-wide religious community that claims to follow the prophet Isa (PBUH). They are considered among the people of the book but they have differences with Jews (p 1230 2:113). They have a defects in the creed, fasaad al ‘aqiidat (p 1221-1222 3:59-61, 3:64, 3:79-80, 5:17-18, 5:72-76, 5:116-117, 9:30-31). They did not follow the gospels, injiil, properly (p 1221 5:47, 5:66, 5:68). They made fabrications about prophets, iftiraau ‘ala al anbiyaa (p. 1220 4:140). They have arrogance, ghuruur (p 1222 2;120;120, 2:175). They have some soft spot for Muslims, mawaddat al Muslimiin (p 1222 5:82) when  compared to Jews. Muslims are forbidden from taking Christians as allies, nahy muwalaat al nasaarah (p. 1222 5:51).

 

E. OTHERS

The Qur’an described the pre-Islamic Quraishi society as a trading community who depended on the summer trade to Syria and the winter trade to Yaman (p. 106:1-2). The Kingdom of Saba was described as a prosperous and strong society under a gentle ruler who consulted her people before making a major decision (p 949 27:22-44, 34:15-21).

Professor Omar Hasan Kasule Sr. December 2000