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ISLAMIC MEDICAL EDUCATION RESOURCES 04

0011-HUMAN VISCEGERANCY ON EARTH (IKHILAFAT AL INSAN FI AL ARDH)

 Lecture for 1st year students on 10th November 2000 by Professor Omar Hasan Kasule, Sr.

OUTLINE

1.0 DEFINITION OF KHILAFAT, mafhuum al khilafat

A. Two Meanings Of Khilafat

B. Criteria of khilafat

C. Khilafat is a mission for all humans

D. Khilafat as a trust, amanat al khilafat

E. Assessment of human performance as khalifat

 

2.0 PROPHETS AS MODELS OF KHILAFAT

A. Adam as the first khalifah

B. Ibrahim And His Sons

C. Prophets Whose people were destroyed

D. Prophets Of Banu Israil

E. Muhammad

 

3.0 THE RIGHTEOUS, salihiin, & REFORMERS, muslihiin AS MODELS OF KHILAFAT

A. Righteous

B. Ordinary Men

C. Ordinary Women

D. Khulafa Al Rashidiin

E. Scholar-Reformers

 

4.0 THE TRANSGRESSORS AS FAILURE OF KHILAFAT

A. Ibliis

B. Taghoot

C. The Rich And Powerful

D. Non-believing men

E. Non-believing Women

 

1.0 DEFINITION OF KHILAFAT, mafhuum al khilafat

A.  TWO MEANINGS OF KHILAFAT

The concept of khalifat has two meanings that should not be confused. It can be used in a generic sense that applies to all humans to mean the human as a vicegerent of Allah ion earth, khalifat al llaah ala al ardh, whose mission is to execute divine will on earth. It can also be used to refer to a vicegerent of the prophet, khalifat rasuul al laah. The former meaning is the subject matter of this unit but clarification of the latter meaning is necessary to forestall confusion. The prophet Muhammad had a dual function in Madina, as a messenger conveying Allah’s revelations and also as political leader. The first mission was completed and ended with his death. The second mission continued after his death because the community needed political leadership to avoid anarchy. The 4 leaders of the community after the prophet; Abubakr, Omar, Othman, and Ali; were each styled as khalifat rasulilaah because they continued the leadership role of the prophet. The institution of political khilafat was later corrupted from its true political purposes when it was based on tribal and nationalistic bases in the Umayyad, abassid and later generations. The first 4 khulafah, the rightly guided khulafah, al khulafah al rashidiin, gave the institution the characteristics of the true viscegerancy of Allah on earth because they followed the Qur’an and fulfilled all its commands. They worked according to the methodology of the prophet, minhaj al nubuwa (KS 46: Ahmad 5:404). They exemplified the true ideals of khalifat al llaah fi al ardh. Their way was that of true guidance, sunnat al khulafa al rashidiin al mahdiyiin (KS46: Ahmad 4:126). Omar Ibn Abd al Aziz is considered the fifth rightly guided khalifat (KS46: Abudaud K39 B7). The 5 khulafat have a lot of good, fadhail al khulafat al rashidiin (KS46: Abudaud K39 B7,8). Those who came after with the exception of Omar Ibn Abd al Aziz were not of the same quality; they did not fulfil khilafat al laah ala al ardh in full, as it is required. They like others tried their best to fulfil some but not all aspects of this great mission. Three consecutive dynasties have claimed political khilafat of the ummat: the omayyads (41-132 H), the abassids (132 H – 923 H) and the Osmanli following that until overthrown in 1923 CE.

 

The confusion between the two types of khilafat was obvious in the era of the Mu’awiyah the first omayyad khalifat. He proclaimed that all wealth belongs to Allah, which is a true statement if looked at in a general and conceptual way. The companion Abu Dhar al Ghifaari opposed this proclamation because he understood its implications. If all wealth belongs to Allah, and Muawiyah as a political leader claims to be a vicegerent of Allah on earth, then all wealth will be under his control and the rights to property of ordinary citizens would be automatically abrogated.

 

B. CRITERIA OF KHILAFAT

We learn from the story of Adam that there are two basic criteria for a human to be successful in the mission of khilafat: preventing evil, mani’u al fasaad, and preventing the spilling of blood, mani’u safk al dimaau. Preventing evil is the whole purpose of religion and its teachings. It was the mission of the prophets and the righteous down the centuries. Preventing evil is subsumed under the purpose of protecting diin, hifdh al diin, which is the first and most important of the 5 purposes of the Law, maqasid al sharia. Preventing spilling blood is subsumed under the second purpose of the Law, protection of life, hifdh al nafs. Based on its criteria, khilafat has a very wide scope that embraces all human endeavours. It includes relations of the human with the creator, with fellow humans, with other living things, and with the whole eco-system. Khilafat also has a time dimension. The predecessors must work hard to leave the earth a better place for those who will come after.

 

C. KHILAFAT IS A MISSION FOR ALL HUMANS

Khilafat is an honor for humans who were set upon the earth to build a civilization. Allah made the human a vicegerent on earth, istikhlaaf al insan ‘ala al ardh (p. 91 2:30, 6:165, 7:10, 7:129, 10:14, 27:62, 35:39, 38:26; p. 161 2:30-34, 6:165, 7:69, 7:74, 10:14, 10:73, 27:62, 33:72, 35:39). The vicegerancy could be looked at in a generic sense or in a particular sense. All humans have the duty of khilafat. If they fulfill it well they succeed. If they do not they fail. This is equally true of individuals as well as communities. There are periods in human history when the righteous are weak and do not exercise control. These are episodic and never last too long. The wicked fail sooner or later so that the righteous may inherit the earth, wirathat al salihin li al ardh (p.? 7:100, 7:128-129, 7:137, 12:21, 14:14, 17:104, 21:105, 22:41, 24:55, 28:5-6, 33:27, 28:26, 39:74). At no time in human history and existence has the duty of khilafat disappeared altogether. If it did, the whole world would automatically have come to an end.

 

Khilafat is a difficult job. Allah in His mercy and justice did not entrust such a heavy mission to humans without giving them the capacity to undertake it. He made the universe and all what is in it subservient to humans, taskhiir. The concept of istikhlaf is closely related to that of taskhiir. Allah made the earth subservient to humans, taskhiir al ardh li insaan (p. 92 2:29, 22:65, 31:20, 45:13, 55:10). The contents of the universe were created to be subservient to the human, taskhiir al kainat (p 695 2:22, 2:29, 2:164, 6:96-97, 6:99, 10:5, 10:67, 14:32-33, 16:5-16, 16:79-81, 17:12, 21:31-32, 22:65, 23:18-22, 25:45-49, 29:61-63, 31:29, 32:27, 35:13, 36:72-73, 39:5, 40:79-80, 45:12-13, 55:10-12, 67:19). All what is on earth was created for the benefit and service of humans (p 695 2:29). Everything on earth was put at the disposal of humans to make their life easy, tadhliil al ardh li hayaat al insaan (p. p.92 2:22, 2:36, 7:24, 13:3, 15:19-20, 16:13, 16:15, 20:53, 21:31, 27:61, 31:10, 40:64, 43:10, 50:7, 51:48, 67:15, 71:19-20, 78:6, 88:20, 91:6). The human was given special intellect and free will. These qualities qualified him for leadership and responsibility in the universe. The special capacities that Allah gave to the human qualified him to be khalifat and can more compensate for the known innate weaknesses of humans that made the angels question in the first place why Adam was being made a khalifat.

 

D. RESPONSIBILITY and ACCOUNTABILITY of KHILAFAT, haml amanat al khilafat

The Qur’an clearly defined khilafat as a trust, amanat al istikhlaaf (p. 161 2:30-34, 6:165, 7:69, 7:74, 10:14, 10:73, 27:62, 33:72, 35:39). The responsibility of khilafat is to fulfil the will of Allah on earth and to maintain the ecosystem, the moral order, and the social order in the optimal state. Istikhlaf is accountability. Khilafat is not only an honor for the human (tashrif) it is more of a responsibility (taklif) that is accompanied by accountability. The human will have to account for all actions while on earth and will have to pass a severe evaluation on whether the responsibilities of khilafat were fulfilled.

 

E. ASSESSMENT OF HUMAN PERFORMANCE AS KHALIFAT

The human record as regards the two criteria of khilafat has been very mixed. Human society from its inception has not always fulfilled the first criterion. The first 2 humans started human history by an act of disobedience. Many other acts of disobedience and evil have been recorded in human history from that time until today. The second criterion was also broken at the very inception of human society when 2 sons of Adam were involved in fratricide. Violence among humans has been part of human history in all centuries and among all groups of people all over the world. We however cannot say that humans were complete failures in the mission of khilafat. Some humans succeeded and others failed. Examples will be given later in the unit.

 

2.0 PROPHETS AS MODELS OF KHILAFAT

A. THE FIRST PROPHETS: ADAM and IDRIS

ADAM

Allah created Adam in the best mould (p 38 15:28-29, 38:71-72). He was made from dust/clay (salsal) (p 39 15:28, 15:33) or dust (tiin) ( p 39 7:12, 17:61, 38:71, 38:76). Allah inspired the spirit into Adam (p 40 15:28-29, 38:71-72) to become a full human. The Qur’an tells us a very educative story about how Allah anointed Adam as the first khalifat (p 38 2:30). He was among the chosen (istifa) (p 38 3:33).  Allah chose him to be khalifat (2:30). The angels objected to this saying that a human will create mischief on earth (    ). This action of the angels could not be disobedience because they cannot disobey Allah. Allah taught Adam names of all things (p 38-39 2:31, 2:33) and challenged the angels to name the things, which they failed to do. Allah therefore ordered the angels to prostrate for Adam (p 1141 7:11, 15:28-30, 17:61, 18:50, 20:116, 38:71-72). They all obeyed except Iblis who refused out of arrogance. Adam was then told to stay in the garden and enjoy its bounties (p 39 2:35, 20:117-119). He stayed happily with his wife (p 40 2:35-36, 4:1, 7:19-23, 20:117, 20:121, 20:123). Iblis out of spite and jealousy misled Adam and his wife (p 80 2:34, 38:71-72). Adam was ordered not to eat from the tree (p 1266 2:35, 7:19-20,7:22). He forgot (p 40 20:115) and committed the mistake (p 39 2:36, 7:22, 20:121) and as a result saw his nakedness (p 39 7:22, 7:27, 20:121).  Adam was blamed by Allah (p 39 7:20). Adam sought forgiveness from Allah (p 39 2:37, 7:23, 20:122). He was forgiven but was ordered out of the garden to the earth (2:36).  Adam was a prophet. He and his wife started the first human family and the first human community. The human race is descended from Adam. The Qur’an refers to humans as children of Adam (banu Adam) (p 38 7:26-27, 7:3, 7:35). The human species, Homo sapiens, can inter-breed among its various races and is all descended from Adam. Apes and other hominids are not descendants of Adam and are not part of the human race. Adam’s main mission was to start the human family and the first human community. The community was, like all human communities, not perfect. The first homicide was committed by a son of Adam against his brother (KS41).

 

IDRIS

It is said that Idris and Ilyas were the same person (KS69: Bukhari K60 B4). Idris was the second prophet after Adam (K69: Sa’ad J1 Q1 p16 q 27). His story is told in the Qur’an (p 85 19:56-57, 21:85)

 

B. IBRAHIM and HIS SONS

IBRAHIM

The story of Ibrahim illustrates the long spiritual search for the truth. He realised that the sun and the moon and the stars could not be worshipped because they change (p 59 6:75-79). He wanted to understand how Allah brings back the dead (p 64 2:260). Allah showed him resurrection using an empirical experiment involving birds. This gave him spiritual calmness. He rejected shirk (p 61 2:127-129, 14:35-41, 19:48, 26:83-89). He chose Islam as his religion (p 10 2:130-133, 22:78); Islam being the pure religion, din hanif (p 347 2:135, 3:67, 3:95, 4:125, 6:79, 6:161, 16:120, 16:123). Ibrahim encountered opposition when he tried calling his people to his religion (p 62-63 6:75-83, 21:51-70, 26:69-82, 29:16-25, 37:83-99, 43:26-28). He challenged the oppressive king Nimrod (p 63 2:258) who threw him into the fire (p 60 21:68-70, 37:97-98). Ibrahim called his father politely to the truth but failed to convince him (p 62 6:74, 9:114, 19:41-48, 26:69-70, 37:83-85,43:26). He asked Allah to forgive his father (p 59 9:114, 19:47, 60:4). Ibrahim was not a mushrik (p 63 16:120-123) and he rejected shirk (p 60 6:79, 9:114, 14:35-36, 26:75-77, 43:26, 60:4). He was neither a Jew nor a Christian (p 63 2:140, 3:65-67). His offspring became abundant (p 61 6:84, 11:69-73, 14:39-40, 15:51-55, 19:49, 21:72, 29:27, 29:31, 37:100-101, 37:112-113, 51:24-28, 57:26). Allah tested him when he ordered him to slaughter his son and he past the test well (p 60 36:100-111). He later built the kaaba (p 60 2:125, 2:127, 14:35-37, 22:26). Ibrahim prayed constantly to Allah (p 61 2:127-129, 14:35-41, 19:48, 26:83-89). He worshipped Allah (   ) and had qunuut (p 62 16:120). He was grateful to Allah for all His bounties (p 62 14:39). Because of his many good acts Allah made Ibrahim a close friend (khalil) (p 59 4:125). Ibrahim’s khilafat mission was very successful. He undertook dawa and struggled against kufr. He obeyed Allah and fulfilled His commands: building the ka’aba and agreeing to slaughter his son (KS47: Ahmad 1:306). At one time in human history, Ibrahim as an individual represented the whole meaning of the concept of ummat, inna ibrahiima kaana ummatan qaanitatan li al llaah.. So successful was Ibrahim in his mission that Allah recognised him as a close friend, khaliil. From the human point of view Ibrahim is prominent for being the grandfather or patriarch of all prophets after him, jadd al anbiya.

 

ISMAIL

The story of Ismail is described in detail in the Qur’an (p. 126: 2:125-129, 2:133, 2:136, 2:140, 3:84, 4:163, 6:86, 14:39-40, 19:54-55, 21:85-86, 37:101-111, 38:48) and the sunnat (KS85: Bukhari K60 B9; Ibn Sa’ad J1 Q1 p23-25, Ahmad 1:253). He was an obedient son who did what his father told him and also obeyed Allah. He did not hesitate when his father told him about the slaughter. He participated in the building of the Ka’aba and the founding of the city of Makka. He is recognised as the father of the arabised Arabs, al ‘arab al musta’aribat.

 

ISHAQ

The Qur’an told the story of Ishaq son of Ibrahim (p 103 2:133, 2:136, 2:140, 3:84, 4:163, 6:84, 11:71, 12:6, 14:39, 21:72-73, 29:27, 37:112-13, 38:45-47). His successful mission was to give birth and to raise a family from which many prophets were sent.

 

C. PROPHETS WHOSE PEOPLE WERE DESTROYED

NUH:

The story of Nuh is described in detail in the Qur’an (p 1268-9 7:59-64, 11:25-41, 17:12, 19:58, 21:76-77, 26:105-122, 37:75-82, 54:9-17, 57:26, 71:1-28, p 1271 9:70, 10:71-73, 14:9) and sunnat, khabar Nuh (KS?: Ibn Sa’ad J1 Q1 p16). He was among the chosen of Allah (p 1270 3:33), a prophet (p 1271 8:84) who was rightly guided (p 1271 8:84). He called his people to Allah for 950 years with little success (p 1271 29:14-15). They called him a liar (p 1227 22:42, 25:37, 26:105, 38:12, 40:5, 40:31, 50:12, 54:9). He prayed against them when he lost hope (p 1270 11:48, 37:79, p 1270 71:21, 71:26). His people were mischievous (p 1271 51:46), they committed transgressions (p 1270 53:52), and disobeyed (p 1270 22:42, 25:37, 26:105, 38:12, 40:5, 40:31, 50:12, 54:9). His wife and son were among the disbelievers (p 1271 66:10, 11:42-43). He was chastised by Allah (p 1270 11:46) for trying to intercede for his family members who had disbelieved (p 1270 11:45). Allah ordered him to construct an ark and to take all the believers with him (    ). The disbelievers perished in the flood (     ). Nuh was saved (p 1271 11:48) and was given peace ( p1270 11:48, 37:79,). He was indeed grateful to his Lord (p 1270 17:3).

 

SALIH

The Prophet Salih was given rahmat (p 658 11:63) and many bounties (p 658 7:73, 11:61). He was sent to the people of Thamud (p 657 7:73, 7:75, 7:77, 11:61-62, 11:66, 11:89, 26:142, 27:45, p 660 7:73…91:11; KS146: Bukhari K60 B17) who were his brothers (p 658 7:73). The people of Thamud had built a mighty civilisation (p 659 7:74, 11:6, p 660 7:74, 11:61, 15:82, 26:146-149) but were unbelievers. Salih showed the Thamud the signs of his truthfulness (p 657-8 7:73, 7:75, 7:77, 11:61-62, 11:66, 11:89, 26:142, 24:45 p 158 7:73, 11:64, 26:154-155) but they did not believe and were arrogant (p 659 7:75-76). He told them not to waste (p 661 26:151-152). He fought corruption (p 661 7:74, 26:151). They accused him of sorcery (26:153), greed (54:25), and lying (54:25). They made fun of him and asked for their punishment to be sent sooner (p 659 27:46). He called upon them to seek forgiveness (p 658 11:61, 27:46) but they refused. He warned them of the consequences of disbelief (p 658 7:73, 11:64-65, 26:156, 51:43). He called them to the worship of Allah (p 659 7:73, 11:61, 26:144, 26:150, 27:45). The weak among them believed (p 658 7:75) the rich refused (p 659 41:17). They gave Salih the lie (p 660 15:80, 26:141, 54:23, 69:4, 91:11, 91:14). They turned away (p 659 15:81) and committed sins (p 659 7:73, 11:61, 26:144, 26:150, 27:48). They followed their ancestors (p 659-66- 11:62). They molested the camel that they were told to leave alone (p 601 7:73, …54:27, 11:65…91:14, p 659 11:65…91:14). They plotted to kill Salih (p 659 27:49). They committed transgression, dhulm (p 660 11:67, 27:25). They did not accept sincere advice, nasiha (p 660 7:79). They were kufar (p 660 11:62, 11:68). As a consequence of their acts, the unbelievers were destroyed by Allah (p 660-661 26:157-158, 27:51-52, 53:50-51, 91:14, 7:78, 41:17, 51:43-45, 11:67, 15:83, 54:31, 69:5). The believers were saved (p 661 11:66, 27:53, 41:18).

 

SHU'AIB

Shuaib was sent to the people of Madian (p 633 7:85, 7:88, 7:90, 7:92, 11:84, 11:87, 11:91, 11:94, 26:177, 29:36, 7:85, … 11:95) who were his brothers in humanity (p 634 7:85, 11:84, 29:36). He was committed to dawa (p 634 26:180) and was kind and gentle in his approach (p 634 11:84). He called by example (p 635 11:88). He came with clear signs (p 636 7:85, 11:88). He turned to Allah (inabat) (p 634 11:88) and relied on Him (p 634 11:88). He conveyed Allah’s message (p 634 7:93). He wanted to reform his people (p 634 11:88) and was worried about them (p 632 11:84). He reminded them of Allah’s bounties (p 634 7:80). He called them to taubat (p 634 11:90), taqwa (p 634 26:177-179). He told them to be honest in trade (p 634 7:85, 11:84-85, 26:181-182). He called upon them to learn from the fate of previous civilisations that were destroyed (p 635 7:86, 11:88). He warned them about Allah’s punishment (p 634 11:84, 11:89, 11:93). He forbade them from violating people’s rights (p 636 7:85, 11:85, 26:181-183) and robbery (p 636 7:86). He forbade them from hunkering after haram (p 636 11:86), and fasad (p 636 7:85). The followers of Shuaib were not the strong in the society (p 673 11:91-92). They were however firm in their faith (p 633 7:88-89). The arrogant turned away (p 635 111:91-92). They were cruel to Shuaib (p 636 11:89) and threatened to stone Shuaib (p 635 11:91) or expel him (p 635 7:88). They were wasteful (p 635 11:87) and followed their ancestors (p 635 11:87). They called the believers losers (p 633 7:90) and tried to force them to renegade their faith (p 633 7:88). They accused Shuaib of sorcery (p 634 26:185), lying (p 634 26:186, p 635 7:92, 26:176, 26:189, 29:37). Shuaib was called weak (p 635 11:91). They mocked him (p 635 11:87). They challenged him to bring the punishment quickly (p 635 7:88). When they disbelieved, Allah destroyed them (p 636 26:189, 7:91-92, 29:37) and saved Shuaib (p 633 11:94).

 

YUNUS

The story of Yunus was told in the Qur’an (p 1360 4:163, 6:86, 10:98, 21:87-88, 37:139-148, 68:48-50) and sunnat. He left his station of work out of frustration. He was swallowed by a fish as a punishment. He made a dua while in the fish, dua yunus fi al huut (KS584: Tirmidhi K45 B81) and Allah saved him. He returned to his people and called them again to the truth. They rejected him again and punishment was due to come to them but they were relieved when they believed (10:98).

 

LUT

The story of Lut is told in the Qur’an (p 1047 11:77-83, 15:57-77, 21:71-75, 26:161-175, 27:54-58, 29:26-29, 29:30-35, 37:133-138, 38:13, 50:13, 51:31-37, 54:33-40, 66:10) and sunnat. He was to an immoral people who indulged in sodomy. They refused to listen to him and eventually Allah destroyed them.

 

HUD

The story of Hud was told in the (p 1294-5 7:65-72, 1:50-60, 14:9, 23:31-41, 26:123-140, 38:12, 40:31, 46:21-26, 50:13, 51:42, 54:18-22, 89:6-8) and sunnat (KS 359: Tirmidhi K44 S51; Ahmad 3:481, 482). He was sent to the ‘aad people who were rebellious and were eventually punished by Allah.

 

D. PROPHETS OF BANI ISRAIL

MUSA

Musa was born in the oppressive pharaonic society of Egypt in which all male offspring of banu Israil were killed. He was put in a box by his mother and thrown into the river on the commands of Allah (p 1170 20:38-92, 28:7). He was picked up and grew up in the household of his enemy Pharaon (p 1170 20:39, 26:18, 28:8-9). He was breast-fed by his mother who was employed as a nurse by Pharaon without knowing that she was the real mother (p 1160 20:40, 28:7, 28:11-13). He killed an Egyptian in a scuffle (p 1164 20:40, 26:14, 28:15, 28:19, 28:33). He fled from Egypt to Madian (p 1163 20:40, 28:20-23, 28:45) where he married Shuaib’s daughter (p 1163 28:27-29, p 1164 28:23-35). He was a good family man (p 1164 20:10, 27:7, 28:29). While in the Sinai desert Allah talked to him and gave him the message (p 1161 4:164, 7:143-144, 19:52, 20:9-24, 20:83, 20:85, 26:10-15, 27:7-10, 28:29-35, 28:44-46, 79:16). He was afraid at the beginning (p 1162 20:67-68, 26:12, 26:21, 27:10, 28:18, 28:21, 28:31, 28:34) and asked Allah for help (p 1162 7:151, 7:155-156, 20:25-35, 20:45, 28:16-17, 28:24). He stammered and was not confident of his ability to talk (p 1164 20:27-28, 26:13, 28:34). His brother Harun was great help for him in his mission (p 1170-1 6:84, 7:111, 7:142, 7:150-157, 10:75, 10:87, 10:89, 19:53, 20:28-35, 20:42-49, 20:70, 20:90-94, 23:45-48, 25:35-36, 26:13-17, 28:34-35, 37:114-122). Musa was a prophet (p 1159 2:87, 2:136, 2:246, 2:248, 3:84, 6:81, 6:154, 11:17, 11:110, 17:2, 21:48, 22:44, 28:43, 29:39, 32:23, 40:53, 41:45, 42:30, 46:12, 46:30, 53:36, 87:19), committed (p 1163 19:51), trustworthy (p 1163 28:26), strong (p 1163 28:26), and could get angry for the sake of Allah (p 1164 7:150). He travelled to look for knowledge (p 1163 18:60-69, p 1165-6 18:65-82, 18:60-65). He started his mission by challenging Pharaoh (p 1169-70 2:49-50, 7:136-137, 7:141, 10:90, 14:6, 20:77, 26:61-65, 37:115, p 1166 7:103, 7:104, 7:127, 10:75, 10:83, 10:88, 14:6, 17:101, 28:3, 29:39, 40:26, 43:46, 51:38, 73:15-16, 79:15-26). Allah gave him many miracles (p 1168 7:133, 7:160, p 1169 2:60, 7:107, 7:117, 20:18-21, 20:69, 20:77, 26:32, 26:45, 26:63, 27:10, 28:31, p 1169 2:50,  …20:63, p 1169 7:108, 20:22, 26:33, 27:12, 28:32). He successfully challenged the sorcerers (p 1165 7:112-122, 7:112-122, 10:79-83, 20:58-70, 26:37-48, p 1160-61 7:120-121, 20:70-76, 26:46-51). He was accused of madness (p1159 26:27), sorcery (p 1159 7:109, 7:131-132, 10:70-77, 17:101, 20:57-58, 20:63, 26:34-35, 27:13, 28:36, 28:48, 40:23-24, 43:49), and lying (p 1160 28:38, 40:23-24, 40:36-37). He was able to get converts from his people and converts from the people of Pharaoh who even defended him (p 1162-3 40:28-35, 40:38-46). He bravely and with resolution faced many trials from his rebellious people (p 1166-68 2:53-61, 2:92, 2:108, 4:153-154, 5:20-26, 7:128-129, 7:138-140, 7:148-156, 7:159, 10:84-87, 14:5-8, 20:86-98, 28:76) for example when he was away for 40 days they worshipped a golden calf instead of Allah (p 1164 2:51-52, 7:142, 20:83-85).

 

HARUN

Harun had clear speech (p 1275 28:34). He was the brother and assistant of Musa. He represented Musa (p 1275 7:142) and was his minister (p 1275 25:35). He warned people of Musa (p 1274-5 20:90) but they did not listen. Musa blamed him for the disobedience that occurred in Musa’s absence (p 1275 28:6 …40:36).

 

SULAIMAN

Sulaiman (PBUH) was a prophet and a great king (p 586 2:102, 38:35). He was given wisdom (p 584 21:78-79), good (p 585 27:15-16, 27:40, 38:39), and knowledge (p 583-4 21:79, 27:15-16, 27:19, 38:39). He had control over the jinn (p 584 21:82, 27:18, 34:12-13, 38:37-38), and the wind (p 584 21:81, 34:12, 38:36). He could talk with animals (p 585 27:16, p 584 27:16, p 584 27:17-18, 27:40. P 584-5 27:20-28). He made dua to Allah (p 585 27:19, 38:35) and thanked Him for all those bounties (p 585 27:15, 27:19, 27:40, 34:13). The Queen of Sheba visited him and submitted to Islam (p 586 27:41-42, 27:44, 27:41, 27:44, 27:28-31, 27:36, 27:38). 

 

YUSUF

Yusuf (PBUH) was given a lot of bounties by Allah (p 1360 12:6, 12:90). He had knowledge and wisdom while still young (p 1355 12:22). His brothers were jealous (p 1357 12:7-10, 12:11-14, p 1358 12:10, 12:15, 12:8-10, 12:5, 12:8, 12:58-62, 12:70-78, 12:89-92, 12:60-63, 12:16-18). They sold him into slavery (p 1355 12:19-21). Women in Egypt were infatuated with his beauty (p 1356-7 12:23, 12:31-32, 12:32-36, 12:42, p 1359 12:23-33, 12:25, 12:51, 12:30, 12:25). Allah saved him from their bad tricks (p 1356 12:24, 12:33-34). He refused to succumb to their temptations and was therefore imprisoned (p 1357 12:36-40) although he was innocent of their accusations (p 1355 12:51, 12:51-53, 12:26-29, 12:35, 12:51). He was released from prison because of his ability to interpret dreams (p 1355-56 12:6, 12:21, 12:36, 12:40?, 12:46-49, 12:100-101). Allah gave him political power (p 1356 12:56, 12:54-56); he became a senior minister in the Egyptian government (p 1359 12:41-49, 12:50). He was successful in agricultural management (p 1356 12:47) and saved Egypt from famine. He was eventually reunited with his father and his family (p 1357 12:4-6, 12:100, 12:84-86).

 

DAUD

Daud (PBUH) was given a lot of bounties (p 418 27:15, 34:10). He had an elevated position in front of Allah (p 418 38:24-25). He was made a khalifat (p 417 38:26). He was given a lot of knowledge and wisdom (p 417 2:251, 21:78-80, 38:20). The zabuur was revealed to him (p 417 4:163, 17:55). Metal was softened for him (p 417 34:10) and he made military equipment (p 418 21:80, 27:15, 34:13). He had a lot of progeny (p 417 38:30). Allah put at his disposal birds (p 418 21:79, 34:10, 38:19) and mountains (p 417 21:79, 34:10, 38:18). He killed Jalut (p 418 2:251). He became a judge (p 418 21:78-79, 38:21-24, 38:26) and a king (p 418 2:251, 38:20). He was tested by Allah (p 418 38:24) and was forgiven (p 418 38:24-25).

 

ISA

Isa (PBUH) had a special conception with only a mother and no father (p 857 3:33-37, 3:42-47, 5:75, 21:91, 66:12). He was a human (p 857 5:75) and was born like other children (p 858 3:45-47, 19:16-33). He worshipped Allah (p 857 5:72, 5:116-118, 43:59, 61:14). He performed many miracles (p 858 3:49, 5:110-115, 19:29-33). He foretold the coming of Muhammad (PBUH) (p 857 61:6). He was not crucified (p 858 4:157) but was raised alive to the heavens (p 857 3:55 …4:157-159). A lot of lies and fabrications were told about him afterwards (p 856 3:59-61 …43:57-59).

 

E. MUHAMMAD

Muhammad (PBUH), a prophet (p 1083-4 3:68 ..66:8-9) and a messenger (p 1079 33:40) bearing the last revelation. He was a human (p 1073 13:38.60:1) and was the best models for other humans (p 1073 33:21). He received the revelation (p 1087 3:44 …72:1), did not know the unseen except what Allah revealed to him (p 1086 6:5010:20). He undertook many functions (p 1088 2:129…98:2) and provided a model of multi-dimensional leadership. Allah gave him a lot of good (p 1086 4:113 ….108:1). He was endowed with special characteristics (p 1075 33:50…73:1-4) and attributes (p 1078 5:157…33:40). He was given wisdom (p 1078 3:81 …63:1). He had the best of character (p 1071-2 3:159…6:2-4). He was illiterate (p 1072 7:157-158….62:2). He was humble (p 1075-6 15:88), kind (p 1076 9:128…21:109), empathic (p 1083 9:128), patient (p 1078 11:12…52:48), and muzammil (p 1083 73:1). He cared for the believers (p 1078-9 9:128). He was a messenger (p 1079-83 2:108…98:2) who called to Allah (p 1079 33:45-46), a servant of Allah (p 1083 17:1..72:19), a light siraaj ((p1083 33:45-46) that was shining, muniir (p 1083 33:45-46), a warner mundhir (p1083 38:65) & nadhiir (p 1084-5 5:19 ..67:26),  bearer of glad tidings, bashiir (p 1078 5:19 …35:24)., mubasshir (p 1083 17:105…48:8), a witness (p 1083 33:45…48:8) who will witness against his community that he delivered the message (p 1078 2:143…73:15), honoured aziiz (p 1083 9:128),  mubiin  (p 1083 1:89…67:26), muddathir (p 1083 74:1). He conveyed the message (p 1073 45:67 … 88:21-22). The unbelievers plotted against him (p 1073 8:30…52:30-33). Allah encouraged and supported him (p 1074-5 3:176… 73:10-11). His message was established (p 1076 2:119…73:15). It is the last message (p 1076-7 33:40), universal (p 1077 4:79…34:28), and is clear (p 1077 12:108….4:18). The ummat of Muhammad is the best ummat (p 1076 2:143 …3:110).

 

3.0 THE RIGHTEOUS, salihiin, & REFORMERS, muslihiin AS MODELS OF KHILAFAT

A. THE RIGHTEOUS

LUQMAN

The Qur’an described Luqman as a wise man and a good parent (p. 1046 31:12-19).

 

DHI AL KIFLI

The story of dhi al Kifli is told by the Qur’an (p 459 21:85-86, 38:48).

 

AL SAMIRIYYI

The story Samiriyy is told in the Qur’an (p 555 20:85, 20:87, 20:95).

 

DHU AL QARNAIN

Dhul al qarnain travelled east and west reforming people who were lost (p 458-9 18:83-98)

 

Khidhr (p 1177 18:60-65, p1076-7 18:65-82)

 

B. BELIEVING MEN

MEN IN A GENERIC SENSE

The Qur’an has described men as mujahidiin (p 483 33:23), fearful of Allah (p 483 5:23, 24:37), callers to the good (p. 483 40:28), striving towards the good (p. 484 28:20), truthful (p 484 33:23), clean (p 484 9:108), and believers (p 484 33:23, 40:28, 48:25).

 

SPECIFIC GROUPS

The Qur’an told stories of specific groups of believing men: people of the cave (18:11-25), the believing man from the village (p 483 36:20), a believing man from the people of Musa (p. 483 28:20), believing man among the people of Pharaoh (p. 484 40:26-35).

 

C. BELIEVING WOMEN

The Qur’an told the story of god and righteous women: the mothers of the believers (p 1099 33:28-32, 33:52, 33:59), the wife of Ibrahim (p. 1099 11:71-73, 14:37, 51:29-30), the wife of Zakariyyah (p. 1099 3:40, 19:5, 19:8), the wife of Omran (p. 1099 3:35-36), the wife of Pharaon (p. 1099 28:9, 66:11), the righteous woman (p. 1099 4:34) and the 2 daughters of Shu’aib (p 1103 28:23-25). Maryam was a righteous person (p 1107 2:87…81:14). She was chaste (p 1107 21:9…66:12), truthful (p1109 5:75), clean (p 1109 3:42), among the chosen by Allah (p 1107 3:42), innocent (p 1107 19:32), human (p 1107 5:17…5:75) and not divine (p 1107-8 4:171…5:116). She worshipped Allah (p 1109 3:43). Allah gave her a lot of bounties (p 1109 5:110, 23:50). Her birth was a blessing (p 1109 3:33-36). She was given sustenance rizq from Allah (p 1109 3:37). She bore Isa (PBUH) (p 1108 19:16-34). She talked with angels (p 1108-9 3:42-43, 3:45-48, 19:17-25)

Wife of Pharaoh (p 890 28:9, 66:11)

 

D. KHULAFA AL RASHIDIIN

ABUBAKR (d. 13H)

OMAR (d. 254H)

OTHMAN (d. 35H)

ALI (d. 40H)

OMAR IBN ABD AL AZIZ

 

E. SCHOLAR-REFORMERS

WEST ASIA

Abu Hanifah (b. 80H; d. 150H)

Malik bin Anas (b.95H; d.179H)

Shafie (b. 150H; d. 204H)

Ibn Hanbal (b. 164H; d.241H)

Al Ghazzali (b. 450H; d. 505H)

Ibn Taymiyah (b. 661H; d. 728H)

Al Nawawi (631-676H)

Abdulqadir al Jiilaani (b. 471H;  d. 561H/1166CE)

Muhammad Ibn Abd al Wahhaab (b. 1703CE; d. 1787CE)

Jamal al ddiin al Afghani (b. 1838/9CE; d. 1897CE)

Abd al Rahman al Kawakibi (b. 1854CE)

Muhammad Rashid Ridha (b. 1865CE; d. 1935CE)

King Faisal (1906-1975CE)

 

SOUTH ASIA

Sheikh Ahmad Sirhind (b. 975H; d.1034H)

Shah Waliu al llaah al Dahlawi (b. 1114H/1703CE; d. 1176H/1762CE)

Syed Ahmad Berelvi (b. 1201H/1786CE; d. 1831CE)

Mualana Muhammad Ali (b. 1878CE; d. 1931CE)

Muhammad Iqbal Lahori (b. 1849CE; d. 1905CE)

Abu A'ala al Maududi (b. 1903CE; d. 1978)

Shibli Nu'umaan (1857-1914): started nadwatu al ulama

Muhammad Qasim Nanutawi (1832-1880): started deoband school

Rashid Ahmad Gangohi (1828-1905CE)

Mujaddid al Alf al Thaani (1564-1624CE)

 

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA

Shehu Uthman dan Fodio (b. 1754CE d. 1807CE)

Muhammad Bello (b. 1781CE)

Abdullah (b. 1766CE)

Al Haaj Omar Tall (b. 1794CE; d. 1864CE)

Syed Muhammad Abd al llaah Hasan (b. 1864CE; d. 1920CE)

Swaib Semakula

Ahmad Muhammad al Mahdi

 

NORTH AFRICA

Amir Abdul Qadir (b. 1222H/1807CE

Muhammad Ali al Sanussi (1787-1859CE)

Ma'a al 'aynayn al Qalqani (b. 1831CE)

 

4.0 THE TRANSGRESSORS AS FAILURE OF KHILAFAT

A. IBLIIS

Iblis had arrogance, istikbaar iblis (p 64 2;34, 7:12-13, 17:61-62, 38:74-75). He refused to bow to Adam and subsequently led him astray, iblis wa Adam (p. 66-67 2:34, 2:36, 7:11-12, 7:20-22, 15:28-33, 17:61-62, 18:50, 20:116-117, 20:120-121, 38:71-76). He is an enemy of humans, ‘adawat Iblis li al insane (p 65 2:168, 2:208, 5:81, 6:142, 7:11, 7:22, 15:31-33, 17:53, 17:61-64, 18:50, 20:116-120, 25:29, 35:6, 36:60, 38:71-76, 43:62). He causes waswasat in humans (p. 67 2:36, 4:38, 4;120, 6:43, 6:112, 6:121, 7:20-22, 20:120, 22:52-53, 27:24, 29:38, 47:25, 58:10, 114:4-6). He leads people astray, ighwauhu li al insaan (p. 64-65 2:168-169, 2:268, 4:60, 4:117-119, 5:90-91, 7:14-18, 7:30, 8:48, 15:37-43, 16:63, 17:62-64, 24:21, 26:221-223, 27:24, 28:15, 36:62, 38:82-85, 58:19).

 

B. TAGHOOT

NIMRODH

p 63 2:258

 

KING WHO WANTED TO TAKE SARAH

KS47: Bukhari K34 B100, Muslim K43 H154, Ibn Sa’ad J1 Q1 P23, Ahmad 2:403)

 

PHARAON

The name Pharaon is a generic name for several kings of Egypt. In Qur'anic usage it is used to describe the behavior of despots as the prophet said that in every society there is a pharaon, li kulli ummat fir'aun. Pharon claimed he was god (p 889 28:38, 79:24-25). He enslaved people (p 889 23:46-47, 26:22). He had arrogance, istikbar (p 889 10:75, 10:83, 23:46, 28:39, 43:51). He spread corruption on earth, ifsad (p 889 10:91, 28:4, 44:17-22). He suppressed, batshat, (p 890 26:49-55, 40:26, 40:28-29). He denied Allah’s signs (p 890 3:11, 8:54, 17:101-102, 38:12, 40:24, 40:36-37, 43:46-47, 50:12-14, 51:38-39, 54:41-42, 73:15-16,  85:18-19). He was in loss, tughyan (p 890-1 10:83, 10:88, 20:24, 20:43, 20:45, 28:3-6, 89:10-12). He was also a transgressor, dhulm (p 891 2:49, 7:103, 7:127, 8:54, 14:6, 20:78-79, 26:10-11). He was eventually punished by Allah (p 891-2 3:11,  7:103, 7:130, 7:137, 8:52, 8:54, 11:97-99, 28:40-42, 38:12-14, 40:44-46,  54:41-42, 69:9-10, 73:16) and was destroyed (p 893 2:50, 16:19, 28:39, 43:55, 44:24, 51:40).

 

DHU NUWAAS

He was a jewish King in Yaman who burned believers (p 80 85:4)

 

C. THE RICH and POWERFUL

QARUN

p 910-11 28:76-83, 39:34-40, 40:23-24

 

HAMAN

p 1275 28:6,  28:8, 28:38, 29:39, 40:23-24, 40:36

 

JALUT

(p 266 2:249-251)

 

ABU LAHB

(KS58: Ahmad 3:492, 493; Ahmad 4:341; p 1046 111:1-3)

 

ABU JAHAL

The Prophet called him fir'aun hadhihi al ummat. He was strong but in the wrong way. The prophet always prayed to Allah to strengthen Islam by his conversion or that of Omar Ibn al Khattab. It seems that he realized the truth of the prophet's message but arrogance and envy prevented him from conversion. He mistreated the prophet (KS55: Muslim K50 H38; Ahmad 2:370; Ibn Hisham p 184). He tried to prevent the message from receiving the message (KS55: Ahmad 4:63, 5:371, 376).

 

D. UNBELIEVING MEN

The Qur’an described the rebellious people of Lut who persisted un evil (p. 1047 7:80-84, 11:77-83, 15:57-77, 21:71-75, 26:161-175, 27:54-58, 29:26-29, 29:30-35, 37:133-138, 38:13, 50:13, 51:31-37, 54:33-40, 66:10).

 

Owner of the garden (p 948 18:32-44)

 

Companions of the garden (p. 947 68:17-22)

 

People of the elephant (p. 947 105:1-5)

 

E. UNBELIEVING WOMEN

Wife of Lut (p. 1068 7:83, 11:81, 15:60, 27:57, 29:32-33, 66:10)

 

Wife of Nuh: p 1271 66:10; p 1099 66:10

 

The carrier of firewood (p. 1098 111:4-5)

Professor Omar Hasan Kasule, Sr. November 2000