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ISLAMIC MEDICAL EDUCATION RESOURCES 04

0010-ISLAMIZATION OF MEDICAL SCIENCES (PART III)

Lecture for 1st year medical students on 20th October 2000

4.0 ISLAMIZATION OF KNOWLEDGE: CONCEPT and PRACTICE

A. THE CONCEPT OF ISLAMIZATION:

Islamization of knowledge has become a very popular term and has taken on an identity of its own such that the semantics are debated without dealing with the underlying concepts. Islamization is a process of recasting the corpus of human knowledge to conform with the basic tenets of aqidat al tauhid. When we talk about Islamic or Islamized knowledge we should be careful not to imply that there is knowledge that is not Islamic. All true knowledge whatever its kind and source is Islamic. Islamic knowledge has no time or space constraints because Islam is universal being suitable for every place and time. Islamized knowledge is for the benefit of all humanity and not monopolized by Muslims. Islamization is a corrective reformative movement. The process of Islamization does not call for re-invention of the wheel of knowledge but calls for reform, correction, and re-orientation. Islamization is an evolutionary and not revolutionary movement.

 

B. HISTORY OF ISLAMIZATION

EARLY EFFORTS AT ISLAMIZATION OF KNOWLEDGE

The concept of Islamization of knowledge is not new in Islam. The 2-3rd centuries H witnessed a process of Islamising Greek knowledge with much enthusiasm. The process was not without its pitfalls that have been recorded in history. Modern scholars working on Islamisation of their disciplines will benefit from the previous experience to avoid repeating many of the past mistakes. The early Islamisation process started with astronomical, physical, biological, and mathematical sciences. The process led to the development of the disciplines of theology, kalaam, and Islamic philosophy, falsafat, as counterparts to Greek concepts. The early Muslim scientists like us today felt the problem of dichotomy of knowledge keenly and tried to bridge the gap with varying success. They not only tried to Islamise foreign knowledge but also embarked on developing new knowledge through research. However these efforts could not be continued in the latter part of the abassid era due to general decline of the state.

 

Greek scientific knowledge was transferred along with Greek philosophy and ideas. These were eventually to cause decline of Muslim scientific creativity because many did not agree with basic tenets held by Muslims. Greek science was not very experimental and depended more often on deduction rather than induction. It thus discouraged the scientific tarbiyat of the Qur’an which emphasized observation of nature as a basis for conclusions. Thus in the initial period there was scientific growth due to transfer of knowledge. The momentum of scientific advance could however not be maintained because Greek ideas and philosophy created much confusion in the ummat and could not encourage more rapid growth of empirical knowledge.

 

RECENT EFFORTS AT ISLAMIZATION OF KNOWLEDGE

Motivation: The recent Islamisation movement had its earliest beginnings towards the close of the 14th century H when several Muslim thinkers wrote about the cultural and intellectual invasion of the ummat promoted by an imposed and foreign education system. The responses to this invasion varied. Some just rejected the European education system and European sciences altogether. Some Accepted them whole-heartedly. Some others accepted them with reservations their argument being that they could be de-Europeanised. The main thrust of the Islamization movement has been to de-europeanize education systems.

 

World Conferences On Muslim Education: The First World Conference on Islamic Education held in Makka in 1397 AH/1977 AD was a major event in the Islamisation movement. The Conference succeeded in defining the problem of dichotomy or duality of knowledge and recommended several general approaches to its solution. Follow-up conferences that elaborated practical approaches to solve the problem were held at Islamabad in 1400 AH/1980 AD, Dhakka in 1401 AH/1981 AD, Jakarta in 1402 AH/1982 AD, and Cairo in 1985. The movement thereafter appeared to lose momentum and a sense of direction until a 6th one in Capetown in September 1996. The 6th conference was radically different from the previous ones. It had no government representatives and had a limited agenda: to produce a curriculum for Islamic Schools in South Africa that would serve as a model for other countries.

 

Educational institutions: Practical steps to Islamise knowledge were undertaken in this period. Many Islamic elementary and secondary schools were established with the aim of making their curricula reflect the teachings of Islam. Islamic universities were also established in Malaysia in 1983, Niger in ….., Uganda in…., Islamabad in….. These were essentially modern universities modeled on the European model within an Islamic context.

 

Academic institutions: Specialised institutions were set up to spear-head the Islamisation process: The International Institute of Islamic Thought in Virginia, USA; the Islamic Academcy in Cambridge, UK; the Muslim Education Trust of Nigeria; The Muslim Education Trust in UK; Iqra International Education Foundation in Chicago, USA.

 

C. REFORM OF DISCIPLINES:

RATIONALE OF STARTING WITH DISCIPLINES

Discipline reform is the most important item on the agenda of the contemporary Islamization movement. Islamization will have to start at the level of disciplines. This is because knowledge has become so specialized that no effort at general islamization can succeed. Each discipline has developed its own unique epistemology, methodology, and corpus of knowledge. It is also realized that the effort must start with existing disciplines of knowledge. The alternative of starting from a tabula rasa is not practical and will make the process of islamization both long and expensive. Such an approach will relegate the present corpus of human knowledge to the dust-bin of history, an unrealistic alternative. If such an approach were taken, the Muslims will be busy reconstructing knowledge from its foundations while others are going ahead using available knowledge with its defects. Muslims would then become victims of a time lag that will be greatly accentuated by the rapid IT development.

 

CHARACTERISTICS

Successful reform must have the following characteristics: pro-active intellectual effort, academically and methodologically rigorous, objective, and has practical consequences. A pro-active strategy is not reaction to time or place-bound problems. It has its own vision and agenda and takes the initiative to achieve them. It has a grand vision and a mission seen in the long-term perspective. An intellectual approach based on rational grounds is needed and not emotional excitement that does not long. Intellectual rigor is needed in the analysis of problems and formulation of solutions using a clear and consistent methodology. The Islamization effort will fail rapidly if it becomes an ivory-tower exercise with no grass-roots support. It must stay in touch and close to the actual educational problems of the ummat.

 

VISION, MISSION, and GOALS

The long-term vision is accelerated growth of objective, universal knowledge that is beneficial to all humanity and allows a harmonious interaction of humans with their physical, social, and spiritual environment. The practical mission is conceptual transformation of the paradigms, methodologies, and uses of disciplines of knowledge to conform to tauhid. The immediate goals: (a) De-Europeanizing basic paradigms of existing disciplines and thus changing them from being parochial to being objective and universal.  (b) Reconstructing paradigms of disciplines using Islamic universal guidelines. (c) Re-classifying the various disciplines of knowledge to reflect universal values and the tauhidi perspective. (d) Reforming the methodology of research to become objective, purposeful, and comprehensive, (e) Encouraging growth of knowledge through research, and (f) inculcating morally correct application of knowledge

 

SCOPE

Discipline reform will be initially undertaken in the following three main areas: classification of disciplines, tasniif al ‘uluum; epistemology, nadhariyat al ma’arifat; and methodology, mahajiyat al ma’arifat. Classification of disciplines in most universities reflects the European world-view and epistemological assumptions. Some form of re-classification will be needed to reflect tauhidi assumptions. An Islamic epistemological thought must be developed from the Qur’an, the sunnat, and the ummatic intellectual experience over the past 14 centuries. This can incorporate experiences of other communities even if non-Muslim. The methodology of research must be reformed to remove all sources of bias in the selection of fields of investigation, hypothesis formulation, data management and analysis, and reporting of scientific findings. Islamisation will succeed in an ambiance that emphasizes revival of ijtihad and research, motivates researchers and scientists to excel in knowledge, and inculcates correct attitudes to the use of knowledge especially science and technology.

 

ROLE OF THE QUR'AN

The Qur’an is very central to the discipline reform process but must be used correctly. The Qur’an is not a text-book of any discipline although it has data and facts on various disciplines. The Qur’an gives general principles that establish objectivity and protect against biased research methodology. The Qur’an creates a world-view that encourages research to extend the frontiers of knowledge and its use for the benefit of the whole universe.Scientists are encouraged to work within these Qur’anic parameters to expand the frontiers of knowledge through research, basic and applied.

 

D. MISUNDERSTANDING THE REFORM PROCESS

REJECTIONIST APPROACH

The process of discipline reform is wont to be mis-understood and mis represented by both proponents and antagonists. Some understand islamization as rejection of the corpus of existing human knowledge and disciplines. That would be rejection of the achievements of human history over the past 6 millenia because all humans of various geographical and ethnic groups contributed to the knowledge available today in various disciplines.  Reform does not imply that all what is in a discipline is un-Islamic. There are many good and true things accepted by Islam in many of the modern disciplines. The good must be preserved and promoted while the bad is expunged. It is wrong to adopt the wrong attitude of throwing away the baby with the dirty bath water.

 

PAROCHIALIST APPROACH

Some may look at Islamization as an ego trip to create a body of knowledge that is exclusive to Muslims and for their benefit and pride. Reform of disciplines is not theologizing knowledge since Islam is universal and all-embracing. Reform does not seek to parochialize knowledge and tailor it to a particular culture or place. The parochial approach stated in its simplicity is that if the others have their disciplines of knowledge, Muslims must also have their own disciplines of knowledge. Such an argument ignores the universal nature of Islam.

 

THE CONTENT APPROACH

This approach simply aims at rewriting existing text-books to reflect Islamic themes. Some of the effort may be very superficial such as change of terminology and illustrations without changing the essence. The reform we have in mind is of paradigms, methodology and uses of knowledge and not its contents. Content is changing so rapidly that reforming it is clearly futile; by the time one aspect of content is reformed, the discipline has already moved ahead and the reform is already outdated.

 

SPITIRUAL REFORM APPROACH

The possibility of discipline reform by spiritual reform of the student, scholar, or researcher has also been suggested at one time or another. Whereas it is possible for a scientist to be good as an individual, it is difficult for him to change his discipline and turn it around on his or her own. A major change involves a system and not an individual.

 

CURRENT FAILED APPROACHES

Wrong approaches to discipline reform have occurred and these have given the whole process a bad reputation. The following approaches have been used and have not succeeded because they did not address the core issues of the paradigms and methodology of disciplines. ‘Insertion’ of Qur’anic verses and hadiths in an otherwise European piece of writing has been viewed as Islamising that writing. Sometimes the verses inserted have only superficial relevance to the context and the whole exercise is to give a Muslim reader the psychological and emotional satisfaction of reading an ‘Islamic’ piece of writing. Searching for scientific facts in the Qur’an has engaged many Muslim scientists and non-scientists with several and varying underlying motivations. Some want to take a short cut to knowledge by looking it up in the book instead of acquiring it through research. Some aim at proving the comprehensive scope of the Qur’an that covers all disciplines of knowledge including science. It is true that the Qur’an is comprehensive and left out nothing but as general guiding principles and not details of a scientific discipline that must be acquired by research. Searching for Qur’anic proof of scientific facts is the reverse of the process mentioned above. The motivation is to show that the Qur’an mentioned true scientific facts 14 centuries before they were discovered in Europe. Searching for Qur’anic scientific miracles has been used extensively by individuals and groups iuvolved in dawa basically to validate the Qur’an in a scientific way. We feel that the Qur’an is its own proof and does not need the aid of science. It is also illogical to validate the permanent and absolute certainties of the Qur’an using science whose facts, theories, and assertions change on a continuous basis.  Searching for parallels between Islamic and European concepts has been an intellectual pre-occupation of Muslim intellectuals since the early days of contact with Greek knowledge and ideas. Thus approach is apologetic because it pre-supposes the superiority of European ideas and tries to prove that we Muslims have equally good ideas in our intellectual heritage. This approach has helped make many European ideas palatable and acceptable to the Muslim mind. Using Islamic in place of European terminologies has been one of the most superficial approaches. Calling european democracy ‘shura’ does not islamize the concept and practice of democracy; it only makes it easier for the Muslim mind to accept the alien idea as Islamic. Confusion sets in later when the basic contradictions between the european concept of democracy and the Islamic concept of shura. Many Muslim writers have stopped using Arabic translations of european terms or using translations of Islamic terms into European languages to avoid this confusion. They find it preferable to use each term in its original language and definining it. Adding supplementary ideas to the European corpus of knowledge. Attempts have also been made to achieve Islamization without solving the basic problem of dichotomy or duality of knowledge by adding Islamic subjects to European school or university curricula. We have discussed the failed approaches in brief to highlight the possible risk of repeating the same mistakes in the current Islamization effort.

 

E. PRACTICAL STEPS / TASKS OF THE REFORM PROCESS:

MASTERY OF CLASSICAL ISLAMIC SCIENCES

The first step is obtaining a good grounding in Islamic methodological sciences of of usul al fiqh,  ulum al Qur’an, ulum al hadith, and 'uluum al llughat, This is then followed by reading the Qur’an and sunnat with understanding of the changing time-space dimensions while at the same time knowing limitations of literal reading and interpretations. This is then followed by clarification of basic epistemological issues and relations: wahy and aql, ghaib and shahada, ‘ilm and iman. The classical disciplines provide an authentic Islamic methodology that can be developed and applied to various disciplines of knowledge. Mastery of the disciplines does not necessary require that a scientist consecrate a life-time of specialized study of classical disciplines. What is required is a short, concentrated course of study of the methodological aspects of the classical disciplines and not the details. Such a course can last 6-12 months depending on the initial level of preparation of the scholar.

 

PRIORITIZATION AMONG DISCIPLINES

Due to limited manpower and material resources, the reform process can not be undertaken for all disciplines at the same time. Some form of prioritization will be necessary. Prioritization does not mean marginalization of some disciplines. It is a rational allocation of manpower and material resources for optimal and rapid results. Disciplines that are more methodological will have to take first priority followed by disciplines that are closely related to social reform and societal change. The order of priority for discipline reform: basic natural sciences, applied sciences and technology,  social sciences, humanities, and Islamic sciences. Natural sciences are trend setters both in the field of methodology and social change. Social sciences will be easier to reform because they have now largely adopted the empirical methodology of the natural sciences. Humanities need to be recast using the Qur’anic methodology of analyzing the growth and decline of human civilizations and societies. Islamic sciences became fossilized over the centuries when ijthad was limited; they need a major revival. They will have to be purged of hellenic, judeo-christian, and other influences and will have to be rebuilt directly on the basis of the Qur’an and authentic sunnat. These important sciences will have to be approached taking the time-space dimension into consideration. Since they represent eternally valid revelation, they must have relevance for each period and each place.

 

ISLAMIC CRITIQUE OF THE DISCIPLINES

Islamic critique of basic paradigms of various disciplines involves a critical review of the basic assumptions and concepts in the methodology of each discipline using criteria of Islamic methodology and Islamic epistemology. The critique should be balanced pointing out the strengths and weaknesses. It should address the core conceptual issues and avoid being trapped into detailed and sometimes peripheral issues. A good critique should set out with Islamic paradigms as a bench-mark and then work systematically to analyse the discipline. The critique should not be undertaken in a cultural or civilizational vacuum. It should be appreciated that modern disciplines developed in a judeo-christian and greco-roman european environment which is the source of many background unstated

assumptions in each discipline.

 

 

REVIEW OF TEACHING MATERIALS

Islamic reviews of existing text-books and teaching materials is undertaken to identify deviations from the tauhidi episteme and the Islamic methodology. This will guide the process of reform by focusing only on areas in the discipline that are not in conformity with the Islamic paradigms. The review is useful in assessing the scale of the task ahead. Many enthusiasts of reform were discouraged as soon as they saw that textbooks and other teaching materials were so many and so voluminous that the task of educational reform can not be achieved in a short time.

 

PREPARING INTRODUCTIONS TO DISCIPLINES, Muqaddimat al ‘uluum

Purpose of the introduction to the discipline: The first and logical step in the Islamization of a discipline is to write an Islamic introduction to it. This should establish basic Islamic principles and paradigms that determine and regulate the methodology, content, and teaching of a particular discipline. The introduction should set out the major epistemological and methodological issues of the discipline to guide research, teaching, and practical application. Students of the discipline will study the introduction first before embarking on studying the discipline. The student will in this way have an Islamic orientation to the discipline that will enable him or her to deal with the discipline in a critical way. He will be able to recognize aspects of the discipline that agree with the Islamic frame-work and separate them from those that do not. This sets him on the road to new creative thinking that helps him make original contributions to the discipline from the Islamic perspective. The Introduction to the discipline can therefore be looked at as a tool to transform a student from an uncritical consumer of knowledge to one who is critically selective.

 

Ibn Khuldun’s muqaddimat: A parallel can be drawn with the Ibn Khaldun’s Introduction to History, muqaddimat, which was the first book of his universal History, kitaab al ‘Ibar. Ibn Khaldun’s work is rightfully called the philosophy of History because it presents generalizing and methodological concepts that make sense out of the narration of historical events. We can, in other words, say that the muqaddimat enables a student to understand the study of History. Ibn Khaldun presented a rational/logical, analytical, and encyclopaedic approach to History. He was original in his thinking and developed new terminology to convey his ideas. He explained how the physical environment affects the growth of human society from the most primitive to the most sophisticated urban centers. He explained the determinants of leadership and the political system. He explained the relation between group feeling, ‘asabiyyat, on one hand and the rise and fall of political dynasties on the other. He explained the rise and fall of civilizations and the factors that regulate economic and social conditions. The conclusions presented in the muqaddimat was based on Ibn Khaldun’s wide experience in practical politics as well as his extensive travels in the then known Muslim world. Ibn Khaldun was a Muslim scholar and many of his ideas were influenced by Islamic precepts. The debate is however still open whether the muqaddimat can be considered an Islamic Introduction to History or is just an introduction.

 

RESEARCH

Discipline reform is not an administrative effort. It is academic and will progress well if there is cumulation of published research. The research will generate more interest and will engage academicians and educators in serious debate about the issues of Islamization. Research can be undertaken on the process of Islamization in its historical form since the 2/3rd centuries of hegira or its current form to assess the strengths, weaknesses, threats, opportunities, achievements and failures. Some research can be conceptual trying to relate Qur’anic concepts of knowledge to actual problems that educators confront on a daily basis. Some research could take the form of experimental intervention in which selected modules written according to the Islamic methodology and epistemology are used in class-rooms and an assessment is made of their impact and relative effectiveness. Establishment of specialized research institutions will be necessary for continued support of the reform process

 

TEACHING MATERIAL

Publication and testing of new text-books and other teaching materials is a necessary step towards reform by putting into the hands of teachers and students reformed material. The process of reform will not achieve its ultimate goal of social reform and societal change unless it becomes part of the curricula at schools and universities. There are several Muslim education institutions struggling to provide an islamically-based education. They all complain of the major handicap of not finding enough material to use in the class-room. Any material produced will find a ready audience. It is not necessary to wait until such material is perfected. What is available can be used and can be improved based on feed-back from field experience. Graduates of schools and universities who have used the teaching material will be a different product from those who went through other curricula and will be the true pioneers of Islamization when they in turn start researching and teaching.

 

APPLIED KNOWLEDGE

Developing applied knowledge in science and technology from basic knowledge will be the last stage of the reform process. This is because in the end it is science and technology that actually lead to changes in society.

 

5.0 ISLAMIZATION OF KNOWLEDGE IN MEDICINE

A. DECLINE and RENNAISSANCE

Following the golden era of Islam, the initiative for medical development was in Europe. Muslims can still be proud of this because Europeans learned from them. European renaissance in Medicine after the 16th century can be attributed to medical knowledge preserved and developed by Muslims and passed on to Europe. While Europeans made great strides in medical knowledge, Muslims declined. There are several explanations for the complex phenomenon of decline. It is partly due to the general decline of the Muslim polity and the social instability that occurred. On the other hand we can see the seeds of decline in the transfer of Greek knowledge. Greeks science was very deductive and did not emphasize experimentation and observation. Muslims transferred this Greek knowledge and Islamized it as much as they could. The process of Islamization was however not completed. The scientific spirit of observation, logical reasoning and drawing conclusions that is enshrined in the Qur’an was neglected several times when Muslims followed Greek assertions on medicine blindly without subjecting them to experimental verification. Greek philosophy based on polytheism, magic and sorcery also had its impact on Muslims. Greeks believed in astrology and some Muslim physicians mixed it with medicine. Ibn Sina and the great Muslim physicians of his caliber rejected astrology.  

 

Muslim  renaissance in Medicine started with the commencement of  the new hijra century 1400 H/1980 CE. Medicine in the ummat is passing through a period of renaissance. There is pride in the past and a determination to excel in the present. This renaissance is manifesting as seminars, conferences, memorial buildings, books, and publications dealing with Islamic medicine. Islamic Medical Associations have been set up and are operating in the US, S Africa, Pakistan, Egypt, Sudan, and Jordan. Among their activities are: activities:  journals, bulletins, conventions, research, direct care services, medicolegal fatwas, advocacy, Islamic clinics and hospitals. There is research on remedies in tibb nabawi and traditional medicine, clinical trials of the use of honey in treatment (diarrhoea, ocular disease, and bladder schistosomiasis), chemical analysis of nigella sativa seed. experimental study of Qur’anic facts on menstrual hygiene, immunological and physiological properties of habba sauda by Dr Ahmad el Kadhi. immunological and physiological impact of tilawat al qur’an. use of dermatoglyphics to study hereditary disease, herbal drugs for intestinal infestations, analysis of herbal remedies mentioned by early physicians for pharmacological activity. Clinical trials of ancient remedies. In the practical arena Islamic relief agencies: medical services in war and devasted areas, medical services for the poor, medical services and dawa. Medico-legal fatwas: medico-fiqhi committees at Rabitat Al Aaalam Al Islami, Organization Of The Islamic Conference, The Islamic Hospital In Jordan. Intenational Conferences On Islamic Medicine: Kuwait: 1980, 1982, Usa, S Africa, Egypt, Malaysia, Pakistan. The contemporary Islamic rennaissance in medicine is expressing itself in many forms. One of them is the islamization of medicine. The Islamization process of the 15th century will have to avoid the mistakes of the Islamization ptocess of the 3rd century. Lessons learned from the first islamization experience The islamic revolution in knowledge reached its climax in the 3rd century How Greek ideas stifled Islamic scientific growth

 

B. SCIENTIFIC TARBIYAT IN THE QUR’AN

USE OF THE INTELLECT

Condemnation of not using the intellect, dhamm ta’atiil al ‘aql:

2:44, 2:76, 3:65, 5:58, 5:103, 6:32, 7:169, 7:179, 8:22, 10:16, 10:100, 11:51, 12:109, 21:10, 21:68, 22:46, 25:44, 28:60, 29:63, 36:62, 39:43


 

Condemnation of blind following, dhamm al taqliid al a’ama:  2:170, 5:104, 21:52-54, 26:74-77, 26:136-137, 31:21, 34:43, 37:69-71


Checking information, al tahaqquq min al khabar (p. 388 6:143, 24:4, 24:11-17, 27:27-28, 49:6).

 

THINKING

Emphasis on thinking, al hatth ‘ala al tafakkur (p. 242): 6:50, 7:184, 30:8, 34:46.

The intellect can reach a conclusion, al hukm al ‘aqli (p. 343 6:136, 10:35, 18:59, 29:4, 37:154, 45:21, 68:36, 68:39).


 

Thinking by looking at space/horizons, al tafakkur bi al nadhar fi al aafaaq (p 241): 3:191, 7:185, 10:101, 29:20, 30:50, 50:6-7, 80:24, 88:17-20

 

Thinking by looking at humans,  al tafakkur bi al nadhar fi al anfus (p. 242): 30:8

 

Thinking by looking at the signs of allah, al tafakkur bi al nadhar fi ayaat al allaah (p 53): 2:219, 2:266, 3:191, 10:24, 13:3, 16:69, 30:8, 38:29, 39:42, 45:13


 

Thinking about Allah’s creation, al tafakkur fi khalq llaah (p 399): 2:164, 3:190-191, 6:99, 7:54, 7:185, 10:67, 10:101, 13:2-4, 16:10-17, 16:65-70, 21:30-33, 23:70-89, 26:24-28, 27:59-64, 28:71-73, 29:19-20, 30:20-25, 30:48-50, 31:10-11, 41:53, 42:28-29, 45:3-5, 50:6-11, 51:20-21, 79:27-33, 80:24-32, 86:5-7, 88:17-20


Freedom of thought: The Qur’an emphasizes freedom of thought in the form of freedom of belief, hurriyat al aqidat (p 331  2:256, 3:20, 3;32, 3:63-64, 5:92, 10:9, 11;2, 11:57, 16:82, 18:29, 24:54, 57:54-55, 60:6, 64:12, 74:54-55, 76:29, 80:11-12, 81:27-28, 109:1-6).

 

DESCRIPTION OF CHANGES and MOTION

The Qur’an described the attractive force of the earth, jadhibiyyat al ardh (p 92 13:2, 22:65, 30:25, 31:10, 35:41). It described the motion of the earth (p. 328 2:164, 3;27, 6:76, 7:54, 10:6, 11:44, 13;3, 14:33, 17:12, 18:17, 18:47, 18:86, 18:90, 20:130, 21:33, 22:61, 23:80, 24:44, 25:62, 27:86, 27:88, 28:71-73, 31:29, 35:13, 36:37, 36:40, 39:5, 41:37, 45:5, 50:39-40, 56:4, 57:6, 73:1, 74:33-34, 78:10-11, 81:17-18, 84:3, 91:3-4, 92:1-2, 93:1-2, 99:1-2), the boats (p 329 2:164, 10:22, 11:412-42, 14:33, 22:65, 31:31, 42:32-33, 45:12, 54:13-14, 55:24, 69:11), the sun (p. 329 6:78, 13;2, 21:23, 31:29, 35:13, 36:36, 36:40, 39:5), the moon (p. p 329 6:77, 13:2, 21:33, 31:29, 35:13, 76:39-40, 39:5), the water (p. 330 2:25, 2;266, 3:15, 3:136, 3:195, 7:118, 4:13, 4:57, 4:122, 5:1, 5:85, 5:119, 6:6, 7:43, 9:72, 9:89, 9:10, 10:9, 11:42, 13:35, 14:23, 16:31, 18:31, 20:76, 22:14, 22:23, 25:10, 29:58, 39:20-21, 43:51, 47:12, 48:5, 48:17, 55:50, 57:12, 58:22, 61:1, 64:9, 6:11, 66:8, 85:11, 88:12, 98:8), and of the wind (p, 331 3:117, 10:22, 14:18, 15:22, 18:45, 21:81, 22:31, 30:46, 30:48, 38:36, 42:33).

 

DESCRIPTION OF THINGS

The Qur’an described mountains, jibaal, as elevated (p 266 11:43, 77:27),  firm (p. 266 13:3, 15:19, 16:15, 21:312, 27:61, 31:10, 41:10, 50:7, 77:27, 78:7, 79:32), stable (p 267 7:143),  refuge (p. 267 16:18), colored (p. 267 35:27), powdered dust (p. 267 56:5), mobile (p. 268 27:88), erect (p. 268 88:19). The Qur’an described the barrier between two oceons (p. 311 25:53, 27:61, 55:19-20). Iron was described as beneficial to humans (p. 323 57:25). Its manufacture (p. 323 18:96-97, 34:10-11) and softening (p. 323 34:10) were also described.

 

DRAWING CONCLUSIONS FROM EMPIRICAL OBSERVATION

The Qur’an calls upon humans to observe Allah’s signs of Allah in the universe (p 45-49 2:164 ….51:20) and in humans (p. 49-51 3:6 … 90:19). Ibrahim by his empirical observation of the sun and the moon was able to reach true knowledge of Allah (p. 59 6:75-79). His heart was calmed in his belief in resurrection when Allah showed him the revival of birds that he had killed (p. 60 3:260). The Qur’an has described many natural phenomena in detail for example the earth’s gravitational attraction, jaadhibiyat al ardh (p 92 13:2, 22:65, 30:25, 31:10, 35:41). Mountains were also described in detail: height, iritifa’u al jibaal (p 266 11:43, 77:27).

 

The Qur’an however made it clear that human senses have limitations. For example human vision is limited (p. 379 2:7, 2:17, 2:55, 4:153, 6:103, 7:27, 7:143, 9:26, 9:40, 13:2, 15:15, 24:40, 25:21, 33:9, 36:9, 36:66, 45:23, 47:23, 53:17, 53:35, 56:85, 69:38-39) and can be deceived when it confuses a mirage for water (p. 379 24:39). Human hearing is also limited (p. 381 2:7, 6:46, 7:179, 8:21, 11:20, 18:101, 23:24, 28:36, 35:14, 35:22, 45:23, 52:38).

 

RATIONAL THINKING and ASSERTIONS BASED ON REASON

In many prohibitions the Qur’an provides logical reasons. For example with regard to alcohol both the benefits and the harms were mentioned (p. 405 2:219, 16:67) and the reason for prohibition was given (p. 405 4:34)

 

LOGICAL OPERATIONS

The use of similitude, tashbiih,  of two things and phenomena is seen in the following verses: the earth and the movement of the clouds (p 236 27:88), Islam and light (p. 236 5:15-16, 6:122, 13:16-17, 14:1, 14:5, 33:43, 35:20, 57:9, 65:11), resurrection with revival of dead earth (p. 237 7:57, 22:5-6, 30:19, 30:50, 35:9, 41:37, 43:11, 50:9-11), mountains in the hereafter with wool  (p. 70:9, 101:5), the rebellious heart with the rock (p. 238 2:74)/. The unbeliever is described as the similitude of the mute (p 238 2:171, 6:39), the deaf (p. 238 2:171, 6:39, 7:179, 10:42, 11:24, 21:45, 25:44, 30:52, 43:40), the blind (p. 238 2:171, 6:50, 7:179, 10:43, 11:24, 13:16, 30:53, 35;19, 40:58, 41:17, 43:40), cattle (p 238 7:179, 25:44, 47:12),  donkey (p 238 74:49-51), dog (p. 239-9 7:175-176), the dead (p. 239 6:36, 6:122, 30:52, 35:22), foam (p 239 13:17), darkness (p. 757 2:257, 5:1, 6:39, 6:122, 13:16, 14:1, 14:5, 33:43, 57:9, 65:11). The hypocrite, munafiq, is the similitude of the mute (p. 239 2:17-19), the blind (p. 239 2:17-18), the blind (p. 239 2:17-18), blocks of wood (p. 239 63:4). The believer is described as the similitude of far-sightedness, basiir (p. 239 6:50, 11:24, 13:16, 35:19, 40:58), the free (p 240 6:122, 35:22), the hearer (p 240 11:24, 30:53). Humans on the Last day are described as the similitude of the bed, firaash (p 240 101:5). Unity is described as the similitude of a strong building (p. 240 61:4). Boy servants in paradise are described as the similitude of pearls (p. 240 76:19).

 

RESPECTING THE OTHER OPINION

Discussion and exchange of views is a necessity for humans, dharurat al hiwar (p. 373 2:150, 4:165, 6:149, 16:125, 18:54). The Qur’an has taught the best methods of discussing with others even in controversial matters (p. 347-348 16:125, 29:46, 41:33-34). Discussion has its own etiquette, adab al hiwar (p 375 6:108, 16:125, 29:46). Truth must be revealed (p. 375-376 2:91, 3:71, 21:24). Contradictions must be avoided (p. 376 2:85, 2:91, 6:91, 2:7-8, 25:20, 54:2). Arrogance is condemned (p. 376 28:49-50). The following are attributes of good discussion: objectivity, tajarrud (p. 376 28:49-50, 34:24-25, 34:46, 54:2-4), truthfulness (p 376 3:61), asking for evidence (p. 376-377 2:80, 2:111, 3:65-67, 3:93, 21:24, 25:7, 27:64, 40:56), and knowledge (p. 377 3:66, 10:39, 11:13-14, 22:3, 22:8, 31:20, 40:35).

 

ABANDONING FALSE PREMISES

 

EVIDENCE-BASED KNOWLEDGE AND ACTION

The Qur’an calls for evidence, al burhan (p 190-191 2:111 … 78:6-16). It called for establishment of evidence, iqamat al hujjat (p 316-317 2:76-77, 2:150, 2:258, 4:165, 6:75-83, 6”143-144). False evidence is rejected (p. 320 42:15-16, 45:24-26).

 

OBJECTIVITY, itiqamat

The Qur’an calls for objectivity in measurement (p 100 17:35, 26:182). It condemns turning away from truth, I;iraadh ‘an al haqq (p 132 2:130 … 46:3). Truth must be revealed, idhaar al haqq (p. 337 2:42, 2:146, 3:71, 5:10, 8:6, 12:51, 23:62, 34:23, 41:53, 45:29).

 

INNOVATION: bid’at vs ibdaa’u

 

LOGICAL OPERATIONS

Examples and resemblance, tashbiih. The Qur’an has drawn so many examples that challenge the human mind to think by pointing out resemblances between things without explaining what these are.

 

 

C. ISLAMIC INPUT CURRICULUM, THE IIUM EXPERIENCE

MUQADDIMAT AL TIBB

The Kulliyah of Medicine of the International Islamic University, Malaysia, is currently experimenting with an approach to Islamization in medicine similar to that pioneered by Ibn Khaldun. It has a 5-year program of Islamic input into the Integrated Medical Curriculum that will be published in 2 volumes under the title ‘Muqaddimat al Tibb: Introduction to the Study and Practice of Medicine for Medical Students and Medical Practitioners’. The programs runs parallel to the medical curriculum. Relevant Islamic concepts on medical conditions are introduced before the students study those conditions. The purpose of medical treatment can be used to illustrate this approach. The western (Euro-American) world-view is that the purpose of medicine is to prevent premature death, prolong life, and may be at some stage in the future discover the cause of aging and thus be able to eliminate death altogether. Medical students at Kuantan are taught that the timing of death, ajal, is in the hands of Allah and that no human, physician or not, can delay or advance it. People will die when their term arrives. The purpose of medicine is therefore not to prevent death but to maintain the human in the best quality of life for the remainder of their life on earth. Since the moment of death is never known to any human with any certainty, the physician will strive his utmost until the last minute to ensure the highest possible quality of life. The two approaches, westerm and Islamic, will lead to differences in the attitudes and behaviors of Muslim and non-Muslim physicians although they have the same quantum of medical knowledge, skill, and technology.

 

CORRELATION

 

STUDENT TARBIYAT

 

D. RESEARCH and APPLICATIONS

INNOVATION and CREATIVITY

RESEARCH

APPLICATION

 

E. THE CHALLENGE TO EXCEL:

Our situation today was described correctly by Imaan al Shafi more than a thousand years ago as quoted by Jalaluddin al Suyuti in his book al Tibb al Nabawi   After the science which distinguishes between what is halal and what is haram.  I know of no science which is more noble than that of medicine.... Truly the opole of the Book have overcome us and overtaken us in this supreme art”. We feel that the process of Islamization will provide the intellectual stimulation and practical motivation for us to work hard in medical research sot aht we may become leaders of the field.

 

What can you do as an individual?: You must develop commitment to the discipline reform process. You must master your discipline well; you can not reform or improve what you do not know. If you did not get a traditional Islamic education endeavor to get the minimum essential knowledge of usul al fiqh, Qur’an and hadith methodology. Critique the basic paradigms of your discipline on the basis of tauhid and the universal and perennial values of Islam. Orient your research and teaching to Islamization priorities. Write and publish your ideas and experiences. Net work with others who hold similar views and are engaged in similar endeavours. Teach and inspire others to take up the challenge of educational reform

Omar Hasan Kasule, Sr.  October 2000