Lecture for 1st year medical students on 18th August 2000 by Professor Omar Hasan Kasule Sr.


1.5.1 THE ENORMITIES (al kabair)

A. Concepts

B. Causes Of Sins

C. The Seven Enormities

D. The 70 Enormities Of Imam Al Dhahabi

E. Classification Of The Common Sins


1.5.2 PUNISHMENT ('iqaab)

A. Punishment On Earth

B. Types Of Earthly Punishments

C. Communities Punished In The Past

D. Punishment In The Contemporary Period

E. Punishment In The Hereafter


1.5.3 PREVENTION (amr & nahy)

A. Purpose:

B. Enjoining The Good

C. Forbidding Evil:

D. Mistakes In Enjoining And Forbidding

E. Methodology


1.5.4 REPENTANCE (taubat)

A. Forgiveness

B. Virtues Of Taubat

C. Enjoining Taubat

D. Accepted Taubat

E. Process Of Taubat:


1.5.5 FORGIVENESS (ghufran)

A. Forgiving Instead Of Punishing

B. Scope Of Forgiveness

C. Seeking Forgiveness

D. Reasons For Forgiveness

E. Reasons For Non-Forgiveness


1.5.1 THE ENORMITIES (al kabair)


Qur'anic terminology for sin: The Qur’anic term ithm basically means sin. Sin is an action or omission that is forbidden (haram) (p 68-69 2:85, 2:188, 2:206, 2:219, 2:283, 4:20, 4:48, 4:50, 5:2, 5:62-63, 5:106, 6:120, 7:33, 25:68, 42:37, 49:12, 53:32, 58:8-9, 76:24, 83:12. Besides ithm the Qur'an has used other terms for sin of sinful behavior: dhanb (p. p 453 4:112, 17:31, 28:78, 29:12, 33:5, 55:39, 81:8-9, sayi'at (p. 612 3:120, 4:78-79, 4:80, 7:131, 7:168, 9:103, 11:10, 11:78, 13:6, 17:37, 27:46, 30:36, 42:48), fujuur (p 885 75:5, 91:8),  fahishat (   ).


General concepts of sin in the Qur'an:  The inclination to commit evil is innate in humans (Muslim 1:74, Chapter 48, hadith #230). Humans have evil promptings in their hearts (Muslim hadith # 239). They have the potential for both good and bad. The potential can translate into the intention to do good or the intention to do bad (Muslim hadith # 233). There is strict prohibition of committing sins, tahrim al ithm (p. 68 2:85, 2:188, 2:206, 2:219, 2:283, 4:20, 4:48, 4:50, 5:2, 5:62-63, 5:106, 6:120, 7:33, 25:68, 42:37, 49:12, 53:32, 58:8-9, 76:24, 83:12). Sinning is associated with kufr  (p 885 71:27, 80:42) and the shaitan (p 885 2:168-169, 2:268, 24:31). Sins are incompatible with iman. Iman disappears temporarily for the duration of the sin (MB hadith # 1931). Sin is a cause of punishment by Allah, jazau al ithm (p 69 2:181, 2:206, 3:178, 4:107, 4:111-112, 5:29,  6:120, 24:11, 33:58, 44:43-44, 45:7, 68:52), al iqaab ala al dhanb (2:59, 2:81, 3:11,  5:18, 5:49, 6:6, 7:100, 7:162, 8:52, 8:54, 26:14, 29:40, 40:11, 40:21, 51:59, 67:11, 69:9-10, 69:33-37, 71:25, 91:14), iqaab al sayi'at (p 612 2:81, 6:160, 10:27, 16:34, 16:45, 27:90, 28:84, 29:4, 3:10, 39:48, 39:51, 40:40, 40:45, 40:58, 41:27, 42:40, 45:21, 45:33). A person forced into sin is not punished, raf'u al ithm 'an al mudhtarr (p. 69 2:17, 2:203, 5:3). Humans are always tested by Allah both when he gives them His bounties (ni’mat) (p 58 2:49, 2:124, 2:249, 3:152, 5:48, 5:94-95, 6:165, 7:141, 7:163, 7:168, 8:17, 14:6, 16:92, 18:7, 21:35, 23:30, 27:40, 44:33, 68:17-32, 76:2, 89:15) and when they are in catastrophy (p. 57-58 2:155, 2:214, 3:165-167, 3:186, 7:168, 21:35, 29:2-3, 33:11, 37:101-110, 47:4, 47:31, 89:16). The door of repentance is always open to humans who may be misled by shaitan (p 99-100 3:135, 4:64, 4:110, 8:33, 9:113-114, 51:18, ). Persistence in committing sins, israr ala al dhanb, is severely condemned (p. 453-454 12:29, 12:32, 12:91, 28:8, 19:9, 69:37, 96:16). ,  Sin can be fought by the good people enjoining the good (amr bi maruf) (p 150 3:104, 3:110, 3:114, 4;114, 7:199, 9:71, 11:117, 22:41, 31:17) or forbidding the bad, nahy ‘an an munkar. Doing good can relieve sin, daf'iu al sayi'at bi al hasan (p. 613 13:22, 23:96, 28:54, 41:34).  Not publicizing sins is commanded, wujuub satr al ithm (p 886 24:19). When sins seem to be common people find it easy and acceptable to commit them.


Concepts of good and bad: The concepts of good, tayyib, khair, birr (p 188 2:177, 2:189, 3:92, 76:5-9),  batil  (p. 184 2:188, 3:71, 4:29, 4:161, 16:72, 29:67, 41:42  & 4:27, 2:188, 4:49, 4:161, 9:34, 7:118-119),  khabiith (p 387 2:267, 3:179, 4:2, 5:90, 5:100, 6:145, 7:58, 7:157, 8:37, 9:95, 9:125, 14:26, 21:76, 22:30, 24:26, 33:33),  sharr (p 412 3:180, 10:11, 17:11, 21:35, 24:11, 70:20-21) can be used in an absolute or relative sense. The determination of what is bad or good in an absolute sense is from Allah (p. 16:72  …47:3). Human perceptions are relative. The Qur’an has used the term khayr in a relative sense (p 413 2:216, 3:26, 3:157, 3:178, 3:180, 4:19, 4:77, 6:32, 9:61, 11:31, 23:55-61, 24:11-12, 27:37, 28:66-61, 28:79-80, 33:25, 43:32, 46;11). It has also used it in an absolute sense making it clear that the true criteria of absolute khair are iman (p 414 2:47-48, 2:130, 2:221, 3:110, 18:80-81, 19:73-76, 38:47-48, 43:52, 49:13, 98:7) and good conduct (p 414-415 2:61, 3:110, 3:113-114, 9:88, 28:26, 44:37, 54:43, 66:5, 70:41, 49:15-20, 89:15-20).


Knowledge of good and bad: Scholars have argued back and forth whether the human without the aid of revelation can know the good from the bad. We are of the view that for some human actions, humans can know innately what is bad and what is good. Knowledge to distinguish good from bad is from fitra, revelation, or empirical observation. In an absolute sense, Allah created humans with a conscience. If not polluted, it can enable them distinguish good from bad. He also gave them an intellect that can enable them analyze and see what is good or what is bad. Finally Allah sent messengers and revelations as a further guide to humans in distinguishing good from bad. Human senses and intellect could be deceived and consider what is good bad or what is bad good depending on the circumstances. Human history has been a series of recurring to and fro transition between the good and the bad. In many verses the Qur’an has described the good and the bad. It has also described the permitted (halal) as good and useful and the prohibited (haram) as bad and harmful. It has warned about doubtful matters (mutashabihat) which though not forbidden are better avoided.


Success and failure: Success of earth (falah) is doing good and avoiding the bad. Good acts (‘amal hasan and ‘amal salih) can wipe away sins. Involvement in good acts leaves little time and energy for sins. On the other hand involvement in bad acts (‘amal sayyi, fahishat, kabair, fisq, fujuur) crowds out good acts. It is part of human weakness that the bad acts are apparently more attractive than the good ones. Good acts, unlike the bad ones, require effort and perseverance.



Sinning can arise in one of two ways: (a) an inner tendency to evil in humans. If this is not checked by good tarbiyat or a good environment it leads to sinning (b) Most sins are due to confusion by shaitan, an eternal enemy of humans. The internal and external causes often interact.


Internal causes: Everyone has a basic personality that affects behavior. Behavior does not always reflect the underlying personality. Tarbiyat and the environment could modify the underlying personality so that a person may behave better or worse than what would be expected from the basic personality. Underlying personality is normally set early in life and it is almost impossible to make any significant changes in it. Behavior can however be improved by good guidance and providing a good righteous environment. A very dangerous trend in genetic studies recently is the discovery of genes that are associated with certain criminal or addictive behaviors. These findings if not properly interpreted may give an easy excuse for many anti-social elements to explain away their behavior on the basis of biology over which they have no control. Negative character and behavior can be looked at as diseases and sins. Internal diseases are diseases of aqidat and of the heart (amradh al qalb). External ones manifest as sins of ‘ibadat, sins of the tongue, sexual sins, personal failure, and dhulm.


The role of shaitan: Iblis has been an enemy to humans since his refusal to bow to Adam out of arrogance (p 66-67 2:34, 2:36, 7:11-12, 7:20-22, 15:28-33, 17:61-62, 18:50, 20:116-117, 20:120-121, 38:71-76, p 64 2:34…38:74-75. After his expulsion from heaven, he vowed to mislead humans (p 64-65 2:1168-169, 2:268, 4:60, 4:117-119, 5:90-91, 7:14-18, 8:48, 15:37-43, 16:63, 17:62-64, 24:21, 26:221-223, 27:24, 28:15, 36:82, 38:82-85, 58:19, 59:16).  He is a constant enemy of humans (p 65-66 2:168, 2:208, 5:91, 6:142, 7:11, 7:22, 15:31-33, 17:53, 17:61-64, 18:50, 20:116-120, 25:29, 35:6, 36:60, 38:71-76, 43:62). He will use any opportunity to confuse and misguide. This is out of spite; he wants others to sin and be punished with him. Shaitan can come in any shape and takes many camouflages. Humans must always be on their guard against him (2;168-169, 4:62, 6:121, 6:144, 7:27, 24:21, 34:20-21, 36:60, 43:62). He may operate as a human or may operate as a jinn. He may present as a friend. There are many alluring and deceptive approaches that he adopts such that many people can not identify him (P 67 2:36, 4:38, 4:120, 6:43, 6:121, 7:20-22, 20:120, 22:52-53, 27:24, 29:38, 67:25, 58:10, 114:4-6). Shaitan sows enmity by pretending to be on your side against others. He makes sins appear attractive (8:48). Shaitan is on earth as a trial for humans. Humans were given a free will, the faculty of understanding, and guidance through revelations. Freedom comes with choice. Shaitan represents the bad choice and it is a trial for a human to avoid shaitan’s temptations and make the correct choice. True believers can not be confused or misled by shaitan because they have guidance from Allah that enables them to recognize shaitan whatever his camouflage. They also know the correct path and can not be deviated from it



Classification: Sins can be minor, saghair, or major enormities, kabair  (p 70 22:30, 42:37, 53:32, Muslim hadith # 158). Minor sins become major if they persist and are constant.


Listing of the enormities: Enormities have been described in various ways. Shirk is in a category by itself because it can never be forgiven. The Prophet mentioned 7 destructive sins, mubiqaat (KS 242, Bukhari 4:23 hadith #28). These are: associating anything with Allah , shirk;  sorcery, sihr;  homicide, qatl;  taking or giving interest, riba); eating the orphan’s property, akl mal al yatiim; fleeing from the battle-field, al tawalli min al zahf; and falsely accusing chaste women, qadhf.. Imaam al Dhahabi described 70 enormities. Other authors have described more or less. Minor sins are considered enormities if repeated often.


Imam Shams al ddiin al dhahbi (d. 748 AH) listed 70 major sins:

Polytheism, shirk

Homicide, qatl al nafs

Sorcery, sihr,

Abandoning, salat, tark al salat,

Withholding  zakat, man'u al zakat

Breaking the fast of Ranadhan without a valid excuse, al iftar fi ramadhan,

Abandoning hajj when capable, tark al hajj

Mistreatment of parents, uquuq al walidayn

Cutting off kinship relations, hijr al aqarib

Adultery & fornication, zina

Sodomy, liwaat

Taking or giving usury, riba

Misappropriation of the orphan's wealth, akl mal al yatim

Telling a lie on Allah and His messenger

Flight from the battle-field,  al firar min al zahf

Deception and transgression by the leader, ghish al imaam wa dhulmihi

Pride, kibr, fakhr, khayla, 'ujb

Giving false evidence, shahadat al zuur

Drinking alcohol, shurub al khamr

Gambling, qimar

False accusation of chaste women, qadhf al muhsanat

Embezzling war booty, ghuluul min al al ghanimah

Theft, sariqat

High-way robbery, qat'u al tariq

Fasle oaths, yamin ghamuus

Transgression, dhulm

….. mukaas

Eating or handling the prohibited, akl al haram

Suicide, qatl al insan nafsahu

Telling lies most of the time, al akdhb fi ghalib al amr

Evil  judge, qadhi al suu

Acceptance of bribes by a judge, akhdh al rashwat ala al hukm

Trans-sexual dress or behavior, tashabuh al rajl bi al mar'at & tashabuh al mar'at bi al rajul

Condoning sexual immorality in family, al duyuuth al mustahsin ala ahlihi

Two husbands who conspire in an illegal re-marriage of a thrice-divorced woman, al muhallil & muhallal lahu

Pollution with urine, adam al tanazuh min al bawl

Showing off, riyaa

Learning for wordly purposes, al ta'alum li al duniyat, and hiding knowledge, kitman al 'ilm

Treachery, khiyanat

 ….  Al mann

Rejecting qadar, takdhiib bi al qadar

Eaves-dropping on people's secret conversations, tasamu

Rumor mongering , nammam

Cursing,  la'an

Cheating and not fulfilling promises, ghadar & 'adam al wafa bi al ahad

Believing the fortune-teller and the astrologer, tasdiiq al kahin & munajim

Wife disobeying husband, nushuuz al mar'at

Making pictures, taswiir

Excesses in mourning the dead, latm, niyahat, shaqq al tahwb, hlaq al ra'as, dua bi al wayl, thubuur

Rebellion/agression against society, al baghyu

…… , istitalat ala al dhaif, al mamluk, al jariyat, al zawjat, al daabat

Annoying the neighbour, adha al jaar

Annoying Muslims and insulting them, adha al muslimin wa shatmihim

Annoying people and …… , adha ibad llah wa al tatawul alayhim

Dragging garments on the ground out of pride, isbaal

Man wearing silk and gold, lubs al hariir & dhahab

Rebellion by a servant, 'abq

Slaughtering for anything other than Allah, al dhabh li ghair al llah

False claim of descent from someone, 

Sterile arguments, jadal, mara'a, ladad

Cutting off un-needed water from others, maniu fadhl al mau

Cheating in measurement, naqs al kayl

Feeling secure from Allah, amn min makr llah

Annoying the 'friends' of Allah, idhiyat awliya al llaah

Praying alone and not in jamaat for no good reason, tarik al jamaat min ghayr udhur

Insisting on leaving congregational prayer, israar ala tark salat al jamaat & salat al jumu'at

Hurting the rights and interests of inheritors in a will, Denying inheritors' rights in a will, 

Plotting and deception, makr & khadi'at

Spying on Muslims and revealing their secrets, tajassus ala al muslimim wa al daliil ala awratihim

Insulting any of the companions, sabb al sahabat.    




We will adopt an approach of classifying sins in groups based on the potential of preventing them. The 4 groups are: sins of aqidat, sins of the heart, sins of the tongue, and oppression (dhulm). There are 3 basic ,sins of aqidat: kufr, shirk, and nifaaq. Kufr is denial and rejection of Allah. Shirk is associating anything else with Allah in worship.  Nifaq is deception in which faith is shown outwardly whereas there is disbelief and rejection of the truth inside. Ma’asiyat, a practical manifestation of deficient aqidat,  occurs when obligatory ibadat duties are neglected or when forbidden acts are committed. Examples of ma’asiyat are: leaving salat or delaying it for no good reason, not fasting or making hajj when able to, and avoiding jihad, etc. Sins of the heart are at the root of many evils and transgressions in the world today. These include inter alia: kibr, takabbur, ‘ujb, hiqd, hasad, ghurur, shahwat, suu’u al dhann,, and  sukhriyyah.. The following sins can be committed through the agency of the toungue: ghaibat, namimat, kadhb, alqaab, laghw, lamz, and hamz. Dhulm is the sin of transgression and oppression. It is violating an individual in his person, his wealth, his rights, or his honor. Dhulm could be physical, psychological or rights violation. It could be directed at an individual, a group of individuals or the whole community. The term dhulm could also apply to situations in which there is transgression against the environment and irreversible destruction of the eco-system.



Definition: shirk is ascribing a partner to Allah or ascribing divine attributes to others besides Allah. SHIRK is also defined as polytheism, worship of others besides Allah(2:165). Shirk is the opposite of tawhiid. Shirk is an unforgivable sin (4:48).


Types: There are two main types of shirk:  major (al shirk al akbar), and minor (al shirk al asghar).. Major shirk manifests as: shirk al-du’a (29:65), shirk al-niyyah, wa-al-qasd wa al-iradah (11:15-16), shirk al-ta’ah (9:31), shirk al-mahabbah (2:165). Minor shirk manifests as riyaa’ (18:110).


Causes: Uncorrupted human nature, al fitrat,  will shun shirk. There must be a definitive causal factor or specific misguidance that leads a person to shirk. Humans are very arrogant and they may commit shirk when they try to humanize the ‘divine’; they fail to accept that any being can be higher and better than humans. They therefore take as gods other human beings or other living or non-living objects that are familiar to them. Shirk could also arise as a result of intellectual failure when the human mind can not grasp an abstract reality and wants to deal with and worship a god that can be seen and can be touched; worship of idols starts this way (p 69-70 14:35, 22:30). Shirk could also be worship of taghoot (p 70 16:36 & 39:17). Other causes of shirk are: blind following of forefathers (p 621 2:170, 5:103-104, 7:28, 7:70-71, 7:173, 10:78, 11:62, 11:87, 11:109, 12:40, 14:10, 21:52-54, 23:24, 26:72-77, 28:36, 31:21, 34:43, 38:5-7, 43:22-24, 53:23), ignorance (p 622 10:68, 12:40, 18:5, 18:43, 22:71, 23:117, 29:8, 30:29, 31:15, 39:29, 29:64, 40:66, 46:4), and obedience of shaitan (p 622 16:63, 19:44-45, 19:81-84, 27:24, 29:38).


Manifestations: Shirk can manifest in the following ways: believing in trinity (p 624 4:71, 5:73), praying for help from anything other than Allah (p 625), worshipping idols (p 625 7:148, 10:18, 20:88-91, 21:52, 21:59-67, 26:70-71, 29:17, 29:25, 53:19-20, 71:23), worship of the sun or the moon, worship of other humans, attributing a wife to Allah (p 627 72:3, 112:3-4), attributing a son to Allah (p 627 2:116,  4:171, 6:100-101, 10:68, 17:40, 18:4, 17:111, 19:35, 19:88-92, 21:26, 23:91, 25:2, 37:151-152, 39:4, 43:81, 72:3, 112:3), permitting the prohibited, prohibiting the permitted, asking (dua) from anything other than Allah.



Definition: Kufr is disbelief of any act of faith (Allah, angels, messengers, books, last day, qadar). Kufr is an act of arrogance and ingratitude to Allah the creator. It is always associated with immorality (fisq & fujuur). Kufr could also be looked at as an unnatural phenomenon that arises when the mind is not sound. (p 1006 2:7, 2:18, 2:170, 6:36, 6:39, 6:50, 6:104, 6:122, 7:179, 8:22-23, 8:55, 10:42-43, 11:24, 13:16, 13:19, 17:72, 18:57, 21:45, 22:46, 25:44, 27:80-81, 30:52-53, 31:7, 35:19-22, 36:9-10, 40:58, 41:44, 43:40, 47:23-24).


Types: Kufr can manifest as major, kufr akbar, or as minor, kufr asghar.  Al kufr al akbar manifests as: kufr al tasdiiq (39:32),  kufr iba’ wa-istikbar ma’a  al-tasdiiq (2:34),  kufr al-shakk wa-al-dhann (18:35-36), kufr al-i’radh (46:3), and kufr al-nifaaq. Al Kufr al asghar manifests as kufr al-nimah (16:112).


Characteristics of kafirun: Among characteristics of kafirun: following the wrong, batil (p 1008 47:3), following desires, hiwa (p 1008 4:150, 7:176, 25:43, 30:29), crime, ijraam (p 1008 6:123-4, 19:86, 20:74, 36:59, 43:74, 45:31, 54:47, 55:51, 68:35, 74:41, 77:46, 83:29), wastefulness, israaf (p 1009 20:177), mischief, ifsaad (p 1009 3:21, 3:112, 3:181, 5:64, 8:73, 16:88), miserliness, bukhl (p 1009 4:37, 92:8), luxury, taraf (p 1009 23:64, 56:45), arrogance, takabbur (p 1010 4:36, 4:173, 7:36, 16:29, 23:66-67, 39:72, 40:76, 45:31, 46:20, 74:23),  ignorance, jahl (p 1010 2:118,  6:37, 28:57, 30:58-59), love of the world, hubb al duniya (p 1010 4:101, 14:2, 16:107, 45:35, 76:27), treachery, khiyanat (p 1011 8:58), transgression, dhulm (p 1013 3:86, 3:117, 3:151, 4:168, 5:45, 6:129, 7:46, 10:52, 10:54, 14:27, 14:42, 14:44-45, 16:28, 16:85, 16:113, 17:47, 18:29, 19:38, 21:87, 29:68, 30:29, 35:37, 39:32, 51:59-60), enmity, adawat (p 1013 4:101, 5:62, 5:78, 41:19, 50:25, 68:12, 83:12), stubbornness ‘inaad (p 1014 2:75, 2:108, 2:118, 4:153, 6:7-8, 6:37, 6:57-58, 6:109-111, 7:203, 8:32, 10:20, 10:50-51, 10:96-97, 13:67, 13:27, 13:31, 15:12-15, 17:45-46, 17:59, 17:90-95, 20:133-135, 21:6, 21:37-40, 22:47, 25:79, 23:21, 26:203-207, 27:71-72, 29:50, 29:53-55, 30:58-59, 34:38, 36:7, 37:176, 38:16, 40:4, 40:69, 41:28, 42:18, 43:30, 46:7, 50:24, 74:16),  ghuruur (p 1016 6:70, 7:51, 45:35, 67:20), fujuur (p 1016 80:42..82:14), fisq (p 1016 6:49, 9:18, 32:20, 46:20, 46:35), negligence, ghaflat, lying, hatred of the truth. These characteristics are generally found in the kafirun but finding of just one of these in an individual does not prove kufr. The work of the kafiruun even if good is not considered (p 1005 3:22, 3:117, 8:36, 9:54, 14:18, 18:103-106, 24:39-40, 25:23, 47:8-9, 47:28).



Nifaaq or hypocrisy is worse than kufr since it involves deception. The hypocrite pretends to be good; the outside is different from the inside. Among the characteristics of nifaaq are: pretending to be a believer, khisaam, riya, shamatah, fisq, kadhb, laziness in ibadat, diseases of the heart, deception, fear of death, abd dhulm.



Ma’asiyat or disobedience is neglect of an obligatory act of ibadat or committing a forbidden act. It is a human tendency to disobey because of arrogance. Acts of disobedience rarely stand alone. Two or more acts are usually associated. This is because ma’asiyat reflects a basic defect in ‘aqidat which manifests in several ways.





Hypocrisy, nifaq (4:145). Hypocrisy arises when the outside is different from the inside and when deeds are different from words. The prophet taught us 4 signs of a hypocrite (MB hadith #31)


Hasad is to hate the good bestowed by Allah on another person and to desire its destruction to the extent that if you were able to destroy it yourself you would destroy it. It is denial of Allah’s qadr because He gives and denies whom He wills. If you like to have a good that someone else has without desiring destroying what he has you are not suffering from hasad but you are competitive. Hasad is a dangerous disease that leads to harming other people and destruction of society. The Qur’an condemns hasad in very strong terms (2:109, 3:120, 12:8-9, 5: 28, 30, 113:1,5). Healthy competition is on the other hand encouraged (83: 26, 57: 21). Only taqwa can prevent you from destructive behavior as a result of hasad. The disease of hasad can be managed by accepting and understanding Allah’s qadar, loving good for others, and self-control.


Pride, kibr, takabbur, & 'ujub: Kibr or takabbur  is a feeling of superiority over others (p 250-252 2:34, 2:87, 4:36, 4:172-173, 6:93, 7:13, 7:36, 7:40, 7:48, 7:75-76, 7:88, 7:133, 7:146, 10:71, 10:75, 10:78, 14:21, 16:22-23, 16:29, 17:37-38, 23:46, 23:67, 25:21, 28:39, 28:76, 28:83, 31:7, 31:81, 34:31-33, 35:42-43, 38:74-76, 39:59-60, 39:72, 40:27, 40:35, 40:48, 40:56, 40:75-76, 41:15, 51:38, 42:13, 45:8, 45:31, 46:10, 46:20, 57:23, 63:5, 71:7, 74:23,  79:20-21 & Muslim 1:54, Chapter 41, hadith #165). It is caused by awareness of some attributes that the others do not have such as beauty, power, knowledge, or social status. The Qur’an condemns kibr (31: 18-19, 17: 37-38, 4: 36, 57: 23). Kibr is a cause of entering hell. If you have a tendency to kibr you must take measures to kill the disease. Know yourself and accept the problem. Find out what makes you feel and behave that way. Make a sincere repentance and change your behavior by returning to Allah. Learn to be humble (25: 63). ‘Ujb is thinking very highly of the good that you have and forgetting to attribute it to Allah the giver. It is the first step to kibr.


Boasting, iftikhar. 53:32


Delusions, ghuruur: The following could be objects of delusion: Allah's forgiveness, afwi al llaah 9), the world, al ghurru bi al duniyat (   ), good work, al ghuruur bi al amal al salih  (   ),  knowledge of scholars, ghuruur al ulama bi al ilm (62:5), wealth, al ghuruur bi al maal (  ). The delusions of sufis are common, ghuruur al mutasawifah, when they claim that they have attained closeness to Allah that exempts them from ordinary obligations.


Anger, gadhab  (p 202 3:118, 5:2, 5:8, 5:64, 5:91, 26:168, 40:4, 93:3, 108:3), when not moderated by taqwa, leads to many other diseases like hiqd and hasad that destroy individuals and societies. It distorts objectivity and good reasoning. Anger is part of human nature that can not be avoided but its manifestations and impacts can be controlled. It can be positive (48: 29) or negative (48:26). Positive anger spurs you to fight and defend your rights and your religion. Negative anger is for selfish, tribal, nationalistic or other such reasons. You must do your best to suppress the manifestations of your anger (3: 133-134, 41: 34). When angry, you can take some measures that can alleviate the anger such as wudhu, ghusl, sitting down or lying down.


Hiqd is a result of unresolved anger in a situation in which the aggrieved person can not forgive and also can not retaliate. It can also arise as a result of unfulfilled love of glory or wealth. Extreme poverty leads to hiqd against the well-to-do. Hiqd destroys you inside and manifests as negative behavior for example an abused wife can abuse her children. A person suffering from this disease is easily manipulated since he is not thinking rationally.


Suu’u al-dhann are negative feelings about your brothers without a reason. It is legally defined as (a) a suspicion that becomes fixed and action is taken on its basis (b) the victim is outwardly a good person the victim is a Muslim. Suu’u al-dhann destroys human relations and is a prelude to tajassus, ghaiba, despise, and oppression. Victims include the powerful, the rich, those in positions of influence in society, relatives, and co-workers. The Qur’an strongly condemns suu’u al-dhann.


Sukhriyyat is ridicule, sarcasm, and contempt that leads to laughter. It is despising a person and looking down upon him or her as someone who deserves being ignored and not paid attention to. It quickly destroys brotherly relations. Despising others on the basis of color, race, country or gender is haram and is a denial of Allah’s qadr and is condemned by the Qur'an (9:79, 49:11). A person should not be despised even if he commits a sin because he may improve in the future and Allah may forgive him since Allah can forgive everything (4: 48, 116). A sinner should only be warned. Organizations can despise others by claiming that only they are on the truth. Despising will prevent fulfilling duties of brotherhood eg visiting the sick, helping the distressed and can lead to negative behavior such as exploiting people when they are needy. The Qur’an strongly condemned despising others (49: 22



Laghw (idle talk, vain talk) is waste of time in useless talk.  Discussing immoral stories and talking about what does not concern you ae considered types of laghw. That time could have been better utilized in useful work. Idle talk harms self and others. A Muslim is enjoined to control the tongue, hifdh al lisaan.. Do not speak unless there is some benefit from the talk. Do not speak just for the sake of speaking. It is better to keep quiet than utter a  bad word. Always check what you want to say (17:36, 50:18). Joking is permitted but is becomes bad if excessive or if it involves lying.


Slander/back-biting, ghaibat is talking something about your brother in his absence such that he would be distressed if he found out (Abu Daud 3:1358-9 hadith # 4856). Ghaibat can be by speaking, writing, use of sign language, or use of body language. It can be in the form of allusions and innuendos, ghaibat bi al ta'ariidh, or it can be confined to the heart of the perpetrator, al ghaibat bi al qalb such as suu al dhann (49:12). It does not make a difference whether you are telling the truth or not. What is considered is that the matter reported leaves a negative impression about the victim’s reputation. Ghaibat applies only if the victim is absent. If he is present it is not ghaibat but abuse/insult (sabb). Ghaibat has been likened to eating human flesh. Train yourself to talk about your weaknesses and not those of others. The Qur'an severely condemns both undertaking ghaibat (49:12) or listening to it (6:68). Do not listen to a back-biter. Stop him, change the subject, or walk away. If you ever fall victim to back-biting seek forgiveness from the victim. Back-biting is an act of moral cowardice. You are not able to face a brother and talk to him about what you think he is doing wrong. Negative reporting about a person is allowed in the following situations: seeking redress from the ruler for a transgression, dhulm; eliminating a wrong, izalat al munkar; seeking advice, istiftaa; warning a person from evil, sharr; and identification of people. If the victims are known evil-doers who publicize their sins, talking about them is not considered ghaibat. Any information from known evil-doers should be considered false unless checked out (49:6).


Tale-bearing, namiimat is transferring negative information from person to person with the aim of destroying relations by leading to anger, fitnat, enmity, and haqd (68:10-11, 104:1). Namiimat can be by word, writing, or body language. Namimat was condemned by the Qur’an (104:1, 68:11). Do not believe a rumor monger. Advise him to desist. Be angry with him for the sake of Allah. Do not act on what he tells you and do not make any effort to verify his information. Do not repeat the rumor to anyone. Remember that those who tell you also tell about you.


Najwat: It is forbidden to engage in secret talk in the presence of others. Attempts to listen to such talk is also forbidden.


Kadhib lying is condemned by the Qur’an (22:30). Lying as a sin is worse than adultery and stealing. Lying comes in various forms and circumstances. Interpreting the Qur'an without knowledge is a lie (3:7). White lies, exaggeration, omission, and giving false impressions are all types of lies. Lying by mistake for example due to forgetfulness is forgiven. Denying knowledge of something you know to an enemy in military operations is a must , kadhib wajib. Permitted lying kadhib mubaah is telling a lie to reconcile people in a quarrel or in a marriage. It is also allowed to lie for the purpose of protecting life and property from a tyrant


Cursing, liaan: Cursing any Muslim is forbidden. It is however permitted to curse evil-doers in a generic sense and as a group and not as individuals.


Sabb, abuse, insult, and cursing are all forbidden. You can however curse a group eg oppressors but not an individual person. This prohibition of sabb applies equally well to Muslims and non-Muslims.


Jidaal: If the purpose behind argumentation is to embarrass, it is forbidden (16:125). It is also forbidden to engage in sterile arguments about religious subjects.






Dhulm is violating a person, his wealth, his rights, or his honor. Dhulm could be physical, psychological or rights violation. An individual or a whole nation could be victims of dhulm.


Physical dhulm: violates the human dignity of the victim in addition to the physical bodily injury. Examples are: violence (Muslim 1:58 Chapter 44, hadith # 182); killing (Muslim 1:58 hadith #182), beating, harassment, kidnapping, physical restraint etc.


Psychological violence: includes: spying on privacy of others (49:12), searching for faults, abusing, cursing, false accusations, true accusation of a sin done privately, contempt, use of your position to despise someone else, discrimination, inequitable treatment, humiliating the needy, dhann al-suu’u (49:12), , harassment, treachery, satisfaction that a Muslim is in trouble, shamaatat, harsh speech, ghaldhat al kalaam, mistreatment of parents by frightening, coercing, or putting them off (17:24-25).


Violation of others’ rights: eat orphan’s wealth, gambling, stealing, robbing, bribery to deny a person his right or get undue advantages, cheating in trade, false oaths, breaking contracts, false allegations, spread of falsehoods, false witness, hiding evidence (2:283), waste, use of your position for personal gain or exploit some one else, fraud, dishonesty (M 1:58 hadith #182), favoritism, nepotism, neglect of duties to others (mistreatment of parents, ‘uquuq al waalidayn,  and the wife disobeying her husband. Israf is condemned because it is a type of dhulm because it involves waste of property thus denying someone else from its benefits (p 103-4 6:141, 7:31, 17:29, 25:67).


1.5.2 PUNISHMENT ('iqaab)


Sinners can be punished on earth, adhab al duniyah (p. 803-805 2:49 … 8:33), 'iqaab al duniyah (p 817 7:94-95, 7:133, 7:162, 13;32, 17:68-69, 18:40, 29:40, 30:51, 33:9, 34:16, 38:14, 40:5, 41:16, 51:33, 51:41, 54:41, 54:19, 54:31, 54:34, 67:17).



The punishment may be individual or communal. It may be direct or through the agency of other humans. Execution of legal punishments, huduud, expiates further punishment in the hereafter, iqamat al hadd kafarat (KS 188).



The Qur'an has told us stories of individuals and communities who were punished for their sins on earth such as Pharaoh (    ), people of Yunus (p 804 10:98), People of Hud (p. 804 11:58), people of Nuh (   ), people of Salih (    ), people of Lut (   ), Banu Israil (    ), people of the elephant (    ).



Allah's communal punishments continue even today but people are not conscious of them. Civil wars, natural disasters, epidemic diseases are punishments for sins of some individuals in the community. Communal punishments do not distinguish between the guilty and the innocent. The innocent are punished for their failure to stand up to evil and stop it of migrating to another country.



Sinners will be punished in the hereafter (p 798-800 2:85-89:25). The punishment will be great, adhab adhiim (p 805-806 2:7 … 45:10), painful, adhaab aliim (p. 801-803 2:104… 84:2), severe, adhab shadiid (p. 805 3:4 .. 65:10, (p 818 2:196, 2:211, 3:11, 5;2, 5:98, 8:13, 8:25, 8:48, 8:52, 13:64, 40:3, 40:22, 41:43, 59:4, 59:7),   demeaning, adhab muhiin (p. 806 2:90 … 58:16), permanent, adhab daim (p 803 3:36, 40:49), and will not be lessened (p. 803 2:86, 2:162, 3:88, 16:85). Believers will not suffer this punishment, najaat al mu'uminin min al adhab  (p 800-801 2:102 … 84:24-25). Insti'jaal al adhaab (p 801 8:32 …. 70:1-2). Isti'jaal al iqaab (p. 817 6:165, 7:167).


1.5.3 PREVENTION (amr & nahy)


Amr and nahy are necessary for the maintenance of morality. If they stop, the social order will collapse. Amr and nahy are communal obligations (3:104). There are 2 components: promotive and inhibitive. The promotive component is enjoining the good, amr bi al ma'aruf. The inhibitive component is forbidding the bad, nahy al munkar. The teachings of the prophet indicate that he maintained a balance between the two components he would for example enjoin 4 things and forbid 4. On another occasion he enjoined 7 and forbade 7 (KS 195, 108).



The Qur'an has mentioned the enjoining of good in many verses (p. 150 3:104, 3:110, 3:114, 4:114, 7:199, 11:117, 22:41, 31:17). The good, al ma'aruf, must be in actions, al ma'aruf fi al fi'il (p. 1129 2:233-234, 2:240, 4:25, 31:15, 33:6), speech, al ma'aruf fi al qawl (p. 1129 2:235, 2:263, 4:5, 4:8, 33:32, 47:21), making a will, al ma'aruf fi al wasiyat (p. 1129 2:180, 33:6);  fulfilling obligations, al ma'aruf fi adai al huquuq (p. 1128 2:228, 2:237, 4:5, 4:8, 4:25, 33:6), management of orphans' wealth (p. 1128 4:6), in divorce (p. 1128 3:229, 2:231, 65:2 & p. 1129 2:231-232, 2:236, 2;291, 65:2, 65:6); proposing marriage (p. 1128 2:235); demanding and payment of debts (p. 1128 2:178)



Forbidding of the evil has been mentioned in the Qur'an many times. Adam was forbidden from eating from the fruit tree (p. 1266 2:35, 7:19-20, 7:22). The following prohibitions were mentioned specifically in the Qur'an: following whims and desires, ittibau al hawa (p. 1296 3:120, 2:145, 4:135, 5:48-49, 5:77, 6:56, 6:150, 13:37, 38:26, 42:15, 45:18, 79:40); secret evil conversations, tanaji bi al ithm (p. 1266 58:8); annying Muslims (p. 1266 60:8-9); giving or taking riba (p 1268 2:275, 4:161); drinking alcohol (p. 1267 5:9?; worshipping anything other than Allah (p. 1267 6:56, 11:62, 40:66), aggression (p 1267 2;192-193); evil and shameful things, al fahsha (p 886 4:22, 6:151, 7:27, 7:33, 16:90, 17:33, 27:54, 29:27, 28:45, 42:37, 53:32), fasad (p. 896 2:11-12, 2:60, 2:205, 5:64, 7:56, 7:74, 7:85. 7:142, 11:85, 11:116, 28:77, 29:28-30, 29:36), kufr (p. 1267 4:171, 5:73, 8:19, 8:38-39, 9:12), the offensive, munkar (p. 1267 3:104, 3:110, 3:114, 4:31, 5:63, 5:78-79, 6:28, 7:157, 7:165-166, 9:71, 9:112, 11:88, 11:116, 16:90, 18:74, 22:41, 24:21, 29:29, 29:4, 31:13, 58:2, 59:7).



Halal, haram, & shubuhaat (KS 196, 201): The person must know what is halal and what is haram. Halal is done while haram is avoided. It is forbidden to permit the forbidden as it is equally forbidden to prohibit the permitted (KS 201). Allah wants that people make use of relaxations that He gave them (KS 201) and not say that they are in  no need. Some things are unclear and lie in the gray area between the two, shubuhaat (MB hadith #48). A person is advised to leave what causes him doubt (ma yuriib) and go for certainty (ma la yuriib). People unfortunately use the gray area as an excuse to permit the forbidden (KS 201).


Forbidding the good: The situation is very dynamic. Once a community neglects amr and nahy there is social disorder. Scales and values are reversed. The good may be forbidden (p 1267 9:67 & p. 1266 6:26, 15:70, 19:46, 20:116, 20:167, 36:18, 9:9-10).



Who undertakes amr & nahy: Any one can undertake amr & nahy on the specific subject that they know well. The person need not morally perfect; what is needed is that he is trying to get better.

What: Any blameworthy, munkar, or forbidden, haram


How: You must know the munkar. Explain that it is wrong. Start by forbidding verbally by giving advice. If there is no change condemn in a harsh way. If there is no change still consider physical means of removing the evil.


1.5.4 REPENTANCE (taubat)


Sins can be forgiven, ghufran al dhanb (p. 455 2:58,  3:31, 3:135, 7:161, 14:10, 33:71, 39:53, 40:3, 46:31, 48:2, 61:12, 71:4).  Repentance is from sins, taubat min al dhanb (p 454 2:286, 3:16, 3:135, 3:147, 3:193, 4:92, 9:102, 12:91, 12:93, 20:73, 26:51, 26:82, 40:55, 47:19). Allah is happy with the taubat of his servants (KS 143). Allah will accept taubat from a human until the moment of death (KS 143).



Taubat has a lot of virtues (KS 144).. Nadam is a form of taubat (KS 144). Taubat is a form of self-cleansing from evils, tatahur min al fahsa (p. 885 3:135, 4:15, 4:19, 4:25, 7:80-84, 33;30, 65:1). Taubat is good, fadhl al taubat (KS 144). It has good results (p. 258 19:60, 20:82, 25:70, 28:67). It is associated with rewards, thawab al taubat (p. 258 19:60, 25:70, 66:8). It is followed by reform, islah (p. 258-259 2:160, 3:89, 4:146, 5:39, 6:54, 16:119, 19:60, 20:82, 24:5, 25:70-71).



Allah enjoins humans to repent, al amr bi al taubat (p. 258 5:74, 11:3, 24:31, 66:8). . The Prophet used to make taubat many times a day (KS 143). Allah accepts taubat from His servants (p. 259 9:104, 40:3, 42:25) to the last moment in the life of a person (KS 143) until the last day, yawm al qiyamat (KS 143). He is happy when a sinner repents (KS 143). Taubat can be accepted from the renegate, al murtadd (KS 143); the murderer, qatil (KS 143).



Taubat nasuhat is one that is not followed by any additional sin. We can tell that taubat was accepted if the person desists and does not return to the sin.



taubat must be early (p. 259 4:17-18, 5:34). The person must give up the sin, al iqlau 'an al dhanb, after taubat (p 259 3:135, 8:38). Taubat must be accompanied by regret and remorse, nadam (p 259 3:135, 4:64, 9:102) which are otherwise also considered as forms of taubat (KS 144).


1.5.5 FORGIVENESS (ghufran)


It is Allah's mercy that there is forgivess of sins, maghfirat al sayi'at (p 613 2:271, 3:193, 3;195, 4:18, 4:31, 5:12, 5:65, 7:95, 7:153, 8:29, 11;114, 25:70, 39:35, 40:9, 42:25, 46:16, 47:2, 48:5, 64:9, 65:5, 66:8). Allah can forgive instead of punishing (p. 806 2:175, 2:284, 3:128-129, 5:18, 5:4, 5:118, 8:33, 9:66, 9:106, 17:54, 29:21, 33:73; p. 1135 2:175, 2:284, 3:129, 5:18, 48:14). 



Allah's forgiveness is very wide (p. 1131 53:32). It covers all sins (p. 1133 39:53) including transgression, dhulm (p 1135 3:135, 13:6). It occurs in the hereafter (p. 1131 14:41, 20:82, 57:20). Allah promised humans His forgiveness (p 1135 2:268, 5:9, 48:29). However it is in His will to forgive or not forgive (p 1120 2:284, 3:129, 4:48, 4:116, 5:18, 5:40, 48:14).  Allah forgave prophets: Adam (p. 1131 2:37, 7:23), Ibrahim (p. 1131 14:41, 26:82), Daud (p 1132 38:25), Sulaiman (p 1132 38:35), Muhammad (p. 1132 48:2), Musa (p 1132 7:151, 28:16), Nuh (p 1132 21:87-88, 68:48-50).



Humans are encouraged to hasten in seeking forgiveness, al musarat ila al maghfirat (p 1132 3:133, 57:21). Forgiveness is sought from Allah only (p. 1134-1135 3:147 .. 71:28). It is He alone who can forgive (p 1135 3:135).



The following are reasons for getting forgiveness from Allah: iman (p. 1132 136, 5:9, 8:4, 8:74, 20:73, 22:50, 26:51, 33:35, 34:4, 35:7, 46:31, 48:29, 61:11-12), taqwah (p. 1132 3:133, 8:29, 33:70-71, 47:15, 49:3, 57:28, 71:3-4), taubah (p 1132 40:7), jihad (p.1132 4:95-96, 61:11-12) khashiat (p. 1132 36:11, 67:12) ta'at (p. 1132 3:31-32), afwu (p. 1132 2:22, 64:14), amal salih (p. 5:9, 11:11, 22:50, 34;4, 35:7, 48:29, 64:17).



The following are reasons for withholding forgiveness: shirk (p. 1132 4:47, 4:116), kufr (p. 1132 4:137, 4:168, 8:38, 9:80, 47:34), nifaq (p. 1132 63:6).

Professor Omar Hasan Kasule Sr. August 2000