Lecture for 1st year medical students on 29th July
2000 by Professor Omar Hasan Kasule
1.3.1 CONCEPTS OF TAQWA and ‘IBADAT
A. Taqwa: Concept
B. Ibadat: Concept
C. Ibadat: Nature
D. Purpose And Functions Of Ibadat
1.3.2 TAHARAT AND SALAT
A. Concept And Methods Of Taharat
B. Importance And Advantages Of Salat
C. Salat: Classification And Times
D. Method Of Salat (Kaifiyat Al Salat)
E. Regulations Of Salat (Ahkaam Al
1.3.2 FASTING (SAUM)
A. Merits Of Fasting
B. Benefits Of Fasting
C. Types Of Fasting
D. Etiquette And Regulations Of Fasting
E. Exemptions In Fasting
1.3.4 GIVING (INFAQ/ SADAQAT)
B. Purposes Of Sadaqat
C. Zakat Al Maal
D. Zakat Al Fitr
E. Non-Obligatory Sadaqat, Sadaqat
1.3.5 PILGRIMAGE, HAJJ
B. Significance Of Hajj
C. The City Of Makkah
D. Significance Of The Rites Of Hajj
E. Regulations Of Hajj, Ahkaam Al
1.3.1 CONCEPTS OF TAQWA and ‘IBADAT
A. TAQWA: CONCEPT
There is no correct English translation
for the word taqwa. It is commonly translated erroneously to mean fear. Humans
undertake good actions and avoid evil ones not only out of fear of Allah’s punishment in case of default, but to express
gratitude to Allah for the gift of life and the bounties they enjoy on earth. Taqwa
is the only true and invariable criterion of superiority among humans (p 246 49:13). Taqwa
or its absence have a major impact on human action (p 245 2:2-3, 2:177, 3:133-135, 3:186, 7:201, 8:34, 23:52, 28:83, 57:28,
65:2-4, 77:41-44). At an individual level the practical manifestations of taqwa
are: doing good, undertaking ‘ibadat, and avoiding bad actions. At a societal
level the practical manifestations of taqwa are enjoining good, amr bi al maruf, and
forbidding the bad, nahy ‘an al munkar. Among the consenquences of taqwa are: love of Allah (p 246 3:76, 9:4, 9:7, 45:19), success, falah
(3:130, 3:200, 5:35, 5:100, 24:52, 39:61),victory, nasr (p 246-247 2:212, 3:120, 3:123, 3:125, 7:128, 16:128), and good behaviour (p 248-249 2:2-5, 2:177, 3:133-135,
5:8, 5:100, 7:201, 21:48-49, 39:33, 43:67, 50:31-33, 51:15-19, 65:10).
B. IBADAT: CONCEPT
is the purpose of creation (51:56). It is a practical expression of taqwa. ‘Ibadat
in Islam is a comprehensive concept that embraces all human endeavours. Whatever humans do in sincerity and without disobeying
any of Allah’s commands is a form of worship and they will be rewarded for it. All human activities can be ‘ibadat. There must be a balance between these various activities for a harmonious life. No one act should
be done to excess to the detriment of others. For example prayer at night is ibadat. It should not be done to such an excess
that the ‘ibadat of looking for a livelihood the next morning is not possible.
Although every human endeavour can be ‘ibadat, only those undertaken with
the correct intention (niyyat) are rewarded as ibadat. An act of ibadat can therefore
not be accidental. It must be a consenquence of a deliberate choice and intention. All acts of ibadat are for Allah alone
(). Any act of ibadat for other than Allah brings punishment.
C. IBADAT: NATURE
can be structured or non-structured. Structured ‘ibadat can be obligatory
or non-obligatory. The obligatory prayers and paying of zakat are examples of structured ibadat. Recitation of the Qur'an,
supplication, dhikr, and the daily activities of living by humans are examples of un-structured ibadat. Acts if ibadat may
be mental such as meditation, physical such as salat, or verbal such as recitation of the Qur'an. Ibadat can also be by doing
nothing such as when a person desists from commiting an evil action. Ibadat must be constant and in all circumstances and
is not confined to certain places, times, or occasions.
PHYSICAL ACTS OF IBADAT:
The physical acts of ibadat must
be performed accurately. This is part of Islam’s teaching of excellence (ihsan).
Orderly and organised activity is conducive to spiritual growth and development.
OBLIGATORY AND NON-OBLIGATORY IBADAT:
Obligatory acts of ibadat are associated
with a reward if performed and punishment if neglected. Non-obligatory acts of ibadat are associated only with a reward if
performed; there is no punishment for their neglect. Thinking about or intending to do a good act has a reward even if it
is finally not done. There is no punishment for contemplation of a bad act that is eventually not carried out.
D. PURPOSE and FUNCTIONS OF IBADAT
PURPOSE OF IBADAT:
The whole purpose of human creation
is the worship of Allah. Only Allah is worthy of worship (. P 776 19:93, 39:36,
44:18). Ibadat is Allah’s right and He punishes those who do not fulfil it. Humans were given a free will to choose
what to do and not what not to do within the limited human capacity. Life is therefore a test for them whether they will choose
the right path of ‘ibadat or they will choose otherwise.
SOCIAL FUNCTION OF IBADAT:
Fulfilling acts of ibadat brings
a reward, thawab, to the worshipper in addition to societal advantages. All prescribed
acts of ibadat have a social purpose. Salat is best offerred in congregation with one leader (imaam). Adhan (, 62:9) has to be recited loudly to announce salat because salat is a public community event. Facing
one qiblat (2:144) in salat emphasises unity of the world community of believers. Salat al Jumat (62:9) is weekly gathering
of the whole community. Salat al eid is a bigger annual gathering. Hajj is the great assembly where once a year Muslims from
all nations and places get together and worship together. Zakat is a system of mutual social support that provides for everybody’s
welfare. Fasting is a voluntary experience of hunger that makes the rich sensitive to the plight of the poor who can not get
is the opposite of ibadat. It is neglect of prescribed duties or committing forbidden acts.
1.3.2 TAHARAT AND SALAT
A. CONCEPT and METHODS of TAHARAT
CONCEPT OF TAHARAT:
The concept of taharat in Islam refers to ritual, spiritual, and physical purity and cleanliness. It has social and civilizational
dimensions. The Qur’an has devoted many verses on taharat (, 5:6, 2:222). There is a link between physical and ritual purity. Physical purity is ridding one-self
of dirt and physical impurities, najasat. Being physically clean is conducive to
ritual purity. In many cases both physical and ritual purity occur at the same time for example bathing, ghusl after sexual intercourse, at the end of menstruation, and after birth. Wudhu purges sins (MB hadith # 475,
Physical purity for salat embraces the body, the clothes, the place, and the atmosphere. The prophet for example forbade eating of
food with strong orders and then coming to the mosque in order to keep the mosque atmosphere clean and pleasant.
embraces cleanliness. Cleaniliness has a lot of merit, fadhl, in Islam (MB hadith
# 432). A clean environment and a clean body are part of aesthetic beauty and are also necessary for sanitation and health.
There are some cases like tayammum in which taharat
is achieved without cleanliness as usually understood by humans.In tayammum the dust is blown off the hands before passing them over the face (MB # 226).
is in itself a form of ‘ibadat as well as preparation for other forms of
‘ibadat. Since worship is direct communication with Allah, taharat can also be viewed as a protocol preparation for an important event. Some forms of ‘ibadat like salat and hajj
can not be valid without taharat. The holy Qur’an can not be touched unless
one is in a state of taharat.
One of the unique bounties for the
ummat is that the earth was made a purifying agent. The cleaning agents are water
and solids like dust or stones. There are several types of water: not clean in itself and not able to cleanse, clean in itself
but not able to cleanse, clean in itself and also able to cleanse something else. Water that may appear clean may have filth,
infectious organisms, or chemical pollutants that make it unsuitable for cleansing. The level or amount of impurity is important.
A little impurity does not necessarily make water unsuitable for cleansing. When water is not available, tayammum, is carried out for both ablution, wudu, and ritual bath,
METHODS OF TAHARAT:
is the process of removing excrement from the body. It has its specific regulations and etiquette. Entry into the toilet should
be with the left foot reciting the following formula: 'Alahuymma inni a'udhi bika min
al khubth wa al kahabaith' (MB 116). It is forbidden to face the qibla when defecating or urinating (MB 118). Water is the best cleansing
agent (MB #121) but also solids can be used (MB #124). Salat is not accepted without
of fitrat (MB hadith # 495): The following hygienic measures are considered acts of fitrat because they lead to cleaniliness:
shaving pubic hair, clipping the hair in the arm pits, shaving the moustache etc
involves washing parts of the body exposed to the outside 1 or 2 or 3 times (MB #126, 127, and 128). Wudhu starts with washing the hands. Then the following are washed: the face, the lower arm to the elbow, and
the feet to the ankles. The hair should be wiped with the wet hand; this may be any part of the hair or the whole hair (MB#143).
The following are recommended additional cleaning but are not obligatory: rinsing the mouth, madhmadhat, putting water in the nose and the blowing it out, istinthar
(MB#130), and cleaning the external auditory meatus. One should start with then right side followed by the left (MB#133).
It is also recommended to follow the order: face, arms, hair, and feet. It is recommended to stay in a state of wudhu even in inter-salat times or when asleep (MB 184). Wudhu remains
valid as long as no flatus, urine, or stool is passed (MB #138). Sleep other than a very light one nullifies wudhu. When socks, khuffain, are worn when a person had wudhu, it is not necessary to wash the feet on subsequent wudhu (MB153,
154, 155) for 24 hours for the non-traveler and 3 days for the traveler.
is carried out when there is no water for both travelers and non-travelers (MB # 225). Ghusl
is washing the whole body after sexual relations (MB 202), at the end of the menstrual period, at the end of post-partum bleeding,
on becoming a Muslim or in relation to performing some types of ibadat such as hajj. It is necessary to separate the hair to make sure water reaches the skin of
the scalp (MB195). Nakedness should not be exposed during bathing (MB 199).
Oral hygiene by using a tooth pick,
miswak, is encouraged by Islam (MB
hadith #487). It is recommended to use a tooth-pick before each salat. The Prophet
nearly made this compulsory but did not want to make life difficult for Muslims.
B. IMPORTANCE AND ADVANTAGES OF SALAT
is the most important formal act of ‘ibadat (KS 237). It was ordained in
heaven; the prophet had to make a special journey for this on the night of isra
and miraaj (MB #228). Salat is direct communication with Allah (MB hadith # 331).
Salat is so important that it is considered a distinguishing characteristic of
Muslims. True Muslims keep it all the time, muhafadhat ala al salat (p 713 2:238,
6:92, 23:9, 70:54, 107:4-5). Deliberate refusal to pray puts the individual concerned outside the community of Islam. Neglect
of salat is a great sin (107:4-5). Salat
is obligatory on adult, sane Muslims.
has advantages and a lasting impact on the individual (p 710-11 23:1-2, 29:45, 31:4-5, 70:19-35, 74:42-47, 87:14-15). Regular
salat protects the worshipper from committing evils ,fahishat and munkar, and transgression (29:45). Salat properly offered cleanses and expiates sins (MB hadith # 330). Salat
is direct communication between the worshipper and Allah. The actions of qiyaam, sujuud,
and rukuu (p 564 2:58, 2:125, 3:43, 3:113, 4:102, 4:154, 7:120, 7:161, 7:206, 9:112,
13:15, 15:98, 16:48-49, 17:107, 19:58, 20:70, 22:18, 22:26, 22:77, 25:60, 25:64, 26:46, 26:219, 27:24-25, 32:15, 39:9, 41:37,
48:29, 50:40, 53:62, 55:6, 68:42-43, 76:26, 84:4, 96:19) are all direct actions of respect and reverence that the worshipper
performs in front of the creator (23:1-2). Khushu (23:1-2) is necessary for validity
of salat otherwise it becomes a series of routine physical movements with no purpose.
has advantages for the society. Salat in congregation or in the mosque has the
social advantage of bringing people together in worship and to strengthen their brotherhood. The call to prayer, adhan, is necessary to make sure that the whole community congregates (MB#370). The spirit of brotherhood and
social organization is reflected in the requirement to straighten rows to stand shoulder to shoulder and to follow the imaam. The whole community meets five times a day in congregational prayer. The larger
community meets once a week on Friday. An even larger gathering occurs during the 2 festival prayers, salat al eidain. The biggest gathering is at the Kaaba in Makka. Praying in congregation is so important that
it is recommended that even if you have completed your obligatory prayer, you should repeat it as nafilat if there is a jamaat offering the same prayer.
C. SALAT: CLASSIFICATION and TIMES
Congregational salat(62:9) is always better than individual prayer (MB #390, 391, 392, 395, 397). Adhan must therefore be with a loud voice (MB #373) so that everybody can hear and come. The gathering for salat is so important that the sick are excused from congregational prayer for a short
time and must return to the mosque as soon as they feel a bit better (MB #399). Congregational salat is fardh kifayat for males resident in an area to establish the practice in public. It is sunnat for women and travelers. The smallest jamaat is 2 persons. Excuses
for congregational salat are: illness, physical difficulties, and domestic responsibilities.
Daily 5 obligatory salat: The 5 obligatory
prayers are an expiation of sins (MB #330). The 5 daily salat are: salat al fajr is 2 rakaats offerred nefore sunrise, salat
al dhuhr is 4 rakaats offerred at mid-day, salat al asr is 4 rakaats offerred at mid-afternoon, salat al maghrib is 3 rakaats
oferred at sunset, and salat al isha is 4 rakaats offerred at night-fall. Salat al
isha can be offered until mid-night (MB #353). Salat al fajr has special merit because it is offerred at a time when most
people would like to sleep (MB hadith # 354).
Salat al Jum'at: Friday is a special
day. The Friday prayer is personally obligatory, fardh 'ain. Women and travelers
are exempted from this obligation. The minimum number for holding salat al jumaat
is 40 adult male residents. Physical barriers like rain or illness can excuse from salat
al jumaat. On hot days salat al jumaat is delayed (MB 506). Bathing is recommended
(MB 502). Perfume can be used (MB 494) and the hair can be oiled (MB 495, 496). The teeth should be cleaned with siwaak (MB 498, 499). The best clothes should be worn on Friday (MB 497). It is recommended to come early and
to walk with tranquility towards the mosque. Dhikr should be made on the way to
and from the mosque. A person should not push a brother from his seat on Friday (MB 508). Two calls to prayer are made on
Friday (MB 509). The khutbah is given by the imam from the pulpit and the congregation
must listen attentively (MB 520). The khutbat has 5 pillars: (a) praising Allah
and the simplest formula for this is 'alhamdulillaahi' (b) enjoining the believers
to have consciousness of Allah, taqwah (c) reciting at least a verse from the Qur'an
(d) supplication, dua, for the believers in the second khutbat. The khutbat can be in any language. The speaker must sit between
the two sermons. The khutbat has the following sunnats:
the imaam (a) stands on the pulpit, (b) greets the congregation at the start with 'assalam
alaykum',(c) sits on the pulpit until the muadhin finishes the second adhan, (d) holds a weapon like a gun or
a sword during the khutbat, (e) faces the congregation. Salat al jumaat is 2 rak'at.
Non-obligatory, supererogatory salat
that are sunnat mu'akkadat: Most salats are voluntary or supererogatory and are
of several types. It is better to offer them at home than in the mosque.
al nafilat before and after the 5 prescribed prayers: 2 before fajr,2 before dhuhr, 4 after dhuhr,
4 before asr, 2 after maghrib, and 2
al tahajjud or qiyam al layl (p 713 17:78-79, 25:64, 51:17-18, 52:49, 73:1-6,
73:20, 76:26, 17:79, 73:1-7, 73:20, 51:17): The Prophet prayed at night and encouraged others to do so (MB #590, 593). It
is recommended to prolong the standing, qiyam (MB 600) and to pray in the last
half of the night (MB 607).
al tarawih is 20 rak'at prayed in Ramadhan on nights preceding each day of
al witr is recommended as the last prayer of the night (MB 539, 540, 541, 542). The minimum for witr is one rak'at and the maximum is 11 rak'ats.
al dhuha is prayed in mid-morning and is at the least 2 rak'at but can be 8 or 12 rak'at.
al eid(MB 532, 533). Salat al eid
is sunnat muakkadat. Its time begins from sunrise. It is recommended to be held
in a mosque but if the space is not enough it can be held outdoors. It is recommended to eat a little before salat eid al fitr but not to eat before salat eid al adha. Among other
recommendations are: bathing, ghusl, wearing the best available clothes, using
perfume, coming early to the place of prayer, and returning by a different route. The imaam should arrive just before the
start of the salat. The call for salat
is al salat jamiat repeated twice. The salat
itself is two rak'ats with 7 takbirs
in he first rak'at and 5 in the second. Two khutbahs
are given with 9 takbirs in the first and 7 in the second. It is recommended to
repeat takbir throughout the days of eid.
The short form is 'allahu akbar allahu akbar la ilaaha illa llahu wa allahu akbar allahu
akbar wa lillaahi al hamd.'. The longer form is: al hamdu li laahi kathiiran wa
subhana llaahi bukratan wa asiilan la ilaaha illa allaahi wa la na'abudu illa iyaahu mukhliswiin lahu al diin was law kariha
al kafiruuun. La ilaaha illa allaahu wahdahu sadaqa wa'adahu, wa nasara 'abdahu wa a'azzza jundahu, wa hazama al ahzaab wahdahu
la illaha illa al llaahu wa allaahu akbar".
al janazat is a special type of prayer on burial of a dead person. It is fardh
kifayat fulfilled on behalf of the whole community by at least one male. If there are no males, females can fulfil the
obligation. It is offensive, makruh, to offer this salat in a cemetery. The corpse
is washed and is shrouded. It is then placed on its right side with the face facing the qiblat.
The imaam stands by the head of the male corpse and at the posterior end of the female corpse. One salat can be offered for several corpses at the same time. Salat al janazat
for an absent corpse, salat al gahib, is
allowed. There is no bowing or prostration in salat al janazat. There are 4 takbirs. The first is followed by recitation of the al fatiha. The second is followed by prayer for blessings to be on the Prophet, al salat ala al nabi. The third is followed by supplication, dua, for
the deceased (umdat p. 232). The 4th is followed by taslim and a dua as follows: allahumma la tahrimuna ajrahu
wa la taftinna ba'adahu..
Non-obligatory, supererogatory salat
that are for special reasons or situations
Prayer of peril/fear (salat al khawf (MB 524, 525) is prayed when in legally-sanctioned military action. Some fighters pray while the
others engage the enemy. If the fighting is very intense, prayer can be by nodding instead of bowing and prostration.
Consultation (salat al istikharat),is prayed when there is a matter that requires decision and the right solution is not known.
After praying 2 rak'ats a special prayer is said: allahumma inni astakhiruka bi 'ilmika wa astaqdiruka bi qudratika wa as 'aluka min fadhlika al adhiim fa innka taqdiru
wa la aqdiru wa ta'alamu wa la a'alamu wa anta allaamu al ghuyuub. Allahumma in kunta ta'alamu anna hadha al amr khair li
fo diini wa ma'ashi wa aqibat amri fa aqdiruhu li wa yassiruhu li thumma barik li fiihi. Wa in kunta ta'alamu anna hadha al
amr sharru li fi diini wa ma'ashi wa aqibat amri fa asrifuhu anni wa asrifni anhu wa aqdir li al,khair haith kaana thumma
radhini bihi'. (umdat p. 161)
Drought prayer (salat al istisqaa (MB 547) it is 2 rak'ats like those of eid followed by 2 khutbahs.
Solar eclipse, salat al kusuf (MB 561) has no adhan or iqamat. It consists of 2 rak'ats but each rak'at has 2 fatiha recitations and 2 bowings. Two sermons like those
of the Friday prayer are recommended at the end of the salat
of greeting the mosque,tahiyyat al masjid
(MB #279) is offered as 2 rak'ata on entering the mosque. However the best greetings for the Makka mosque is circumbulation
of the kaaba.
on starting a journey is 2 rak'ats
on return from a journey is 2 rak'at
sunnat al I'iktikaaf 2 rak'ats
al wudhu 2 rak'ats at conclusion of the wudhu.
TIMES OF SALAT
Obligatory prayers have fixed times
(4:103, MB # 325). The prayer times for each city are computed for all days of the year and are available all over the world.
The best of 'ibadat is prayer in its time (MB #329). It is preferable to offer
salat at the start of its respective time interval (MB #393). To ensure this and
to avoid late-coming, it is recommended to sit in the mosque and wait for the prayer (MB # 396). Salat times are set in such a way that there is continuous communication with the creator (MB #331). Each of the
5 obligatory salats is offered at any time somewhere on the globe thanks to the
different time zones.
There are times in which salat can not be offered. Salat is not allowed at sunrise and sunset
to avoid confusion with worshippers of the sun. In practice this means that no salat
is offered after salat al asr (MB #358, 359, 360, and 361) and after salat al fajr until sunrise (MB #357). Prayer just before sunset is discouraged (MB #361). Salat is also not allowed when the sun is exactly overhead, ie at the highest point of the horizon at mid-day.
These rules are relaxed for make-up prayers, salat al qadha (MB #362, 363) and
supererogatory prayers performed for a specific purpose like sunnat tahiyyat al masjid
or sunnat al wudhu. Time restrictions are also not observed for salat al janazat. There are no restrictions at all on prayer at any time in the sanctuary, haram, of Makka. Salat should also be delayed if the physical conditions
will not allow undivided attention and concentration for example conditions of extreme heat, extreme cold, or hunger is the
presence of food. Salat al dhuhr is delayed on hot days (MB #332, 333).
Salat is such an important communication
with Allah that it requires complete concentration. Salat should not be offerred bya hungry person when food is presented
(MB hadith # 403).
D. METHOD OF SALAT (KAIFIYAT AL SALAT)
PRELIMINARIES FOR SALAT
Clothing: Before prayer attention
must be paid to clothes, the place, and the direction. Covering of awrat is obligatory
even if praying alone because the angels and the jinn are also watching. The color
of the clothes does not matter (MB#248). Shoes could be worn in salat (MB #254)
but this is frowned upon when prayer is in the mosque. Prayer in leather socks, khuff,
is allowed and is encouraged especially for travelers (MB #255). It is offensive, makruh,
for men to wear tight clothes that reveal the shape of the body. Clothing that reveals the shape of the body is strictly forbidden
for women. Men can not wear silk or gold ornaments but women are allowed to do so. Prayer is not valid in any cloth that has
any form of najasat.
Place: Among the bounties of Allah
on the ummat is that salat can be offered
anywhere on earth and not necessarily in prescribed places. Any place used for salat
takes on a special significance. There must be a sutra to demarcate it (MB 312,
313). Walking within the sutra is forbidden because it interrupts the worship (MB 320, 321).It does notmatter what object is used as sutra: animal, trees, or a human
(MB 318, 319, 322). Obligatory prayers can be offered at home but the mosque is preferred (MB #270). Being in the mosque,
itikaaf (2:187) even without active engagement in salat is a source of reward. Muslims are encouraged to offer supererogatory prayers in their homes so that the
houses do not become graves. Prayers in cemeteries are discouraged (MB #275, 276).It
is offensive to pray in the following places: bathhouse, middle of the road, rubbish dump, slaughter-house, church, and towards
a tomb. Prostration is allowed on wood or a mat (MB #250). It is allowed to pray on a bed (MB #251 & 252).
Direction: The direction of Makka
must be ascertained before start of salat. Prayer must always be in the general
direction of the qiblat (MB#257, 2:142-144) but not necessarily the accurate compass
point. Non-obligatory prayers offered while on a moving vehicle are valid even if not facing the qiblat (MB #267).
Call to salat: (, 62:9).Adhan
has a lot of merit, fadhl al adhan (MB hadith # 372). Adhan and iqamat are sunnat even for an individual praying alone. They are also
required for a second jamaat held in the same place for those who come late. If
women are praying in a group they only need recite the iqamat without the adhan. Adhan for salat al fajr
can be pronounced before the time for salat; for all other prayers adhan can only be pronounced when the time for the salat enters. Wudhu and facing the qiblat are both required
for validity of adhan. The words of adhan
are repeated twice. The words of iqamat are the same as those of adhan and are repeated only once with the exception of 'qad qaamat al salaat'
which is repeated twice. On hearing the adhan you should repeat after the muaddhin with the exception of qad qaamat al salat for which you respond
'la hawla wa la quwat illa billah. The response to the adhan is required even if reciting Qur'an, in a state of ritual impurity following sexual intercourse,janabat, or in menstruation, haidh. If in the midst of another salat or during copulation, the response to the adhan is after the
conclusion of that act. At the end of adhan the following dua is recited: allahuma rabba hadhihi al dawat al taamat, aati sayyidna
muhammad al wasiilat wa al fadhilat wa irfa'uhu maqamat mahmudat allati w;adatuhu innaka la takhlifu al mi'ad (MB #377).
A non-obligatory prayer, nafilat, can be offered between the adhan and iqamat (MB #382). When iqamat
is called you should not stand up until you see the imaam (MB #387). No non-obligatory salat
can be offered after iqamat (MB #388) but emergencies should be attended to (MB
385, 398). When several people are encamped in an area and they all hear the adhan
and iqamat, they can pray each in their respective places (MB #385)..
PHYSICAL ACTS OF SALAT
The physical actions of salat must be done exactly in order to get spiritual involvement. Islam being a complete civilization emphasizes
perfection, excellence and order. Disorderly salat is not conducive to spiritual
elevation. Salat has pillars, arkaan al
salat, conditions for validity, shurut al salat, and actions that nullify it,
mubtilaat al salat.
There are 17 pillars of salat explained
Intention, niyyat: the intention
to pray is implicit and pronouncing it in words is a sunnat but is not necessary
for validity of the prayer.
al ihraam: The hands are raised to the level of the shoulders while reciting Allahu akbar or allahu al akbar. The takbir is repeated at all major movements during the salat: bowing,
rukuu (MB 451),rising up from bowing
(MB 452), prostration, sujuud (MB462) and rising from prostration (MB 468).
Standing up, qiyaam: Men should stand up on both legs and with feet separated. Women can hold their legs together. While standing
up the right hand is placed over the left hand (MB 426) with the position of both hands over the chest wall or the abdomen
being variable. The supplication to open the salat, dua iftititaah al salat is variable (MB 428), the most popular in South-East Asia being:Allahu akbar kabiirat, wa al hamdu lilaahi
kathirat wa subhana llahu bukratan wa asila. Wajjahutu wajhiya lilladhi fatara al samawaati wa al ardh hanifan musliman wa
ma ana mina al mushrikin. inna salati wa nuski wa mahyaaya wa mamaati li lllahi la sharika lahu wa bidhalika umiritu wa ana
min al muslimiin. A child can be carried while praying (MB #323).
Recitation of surat al fatihat
is compulsory in each rak'at (MB 434). Al
fatihah is followed by verses or a complete surat
of the Qur'anin the first 2 rak'ats
(MB 437).Only al fatihat is recited
in the last 1 or 2 rak'ats (MB 447). The recitation is loud in salat al maghrib (MB 440), salat al fajr (MB 444), salat al isha (),salat al juma'at,salat al tarawiih, salat al kusuuf, salat al istisqa, salat al eidein. Recitation is loud for missed day prayers that are offered at night and is soft for missed night
prayers offered during the day. It is obligatory for the follower to recite al fatiuhah
for himslef and not rely on the imaam's recitation. He however can listen to the imaam's recitation ofthe Qur'an. The recitation of al fatihah requires ta'awudhu and basmalah at the beginning. Both the imaam and the followers
repeat the formula amiin at the end of the recitation of al fatihah (MB 448, 449).
Bowing, rukuu:You should bow as much as is necessary to be able to put hands
on the knees (MB 453). The bowing is at waist.The formula repeated during the
bowing: 'subhana rabbi al adhiim'3,
5, 7, 9, or 11 times. The back must be straightened at the end of the bowing (MB 454)
Being momentarily stationary, tama'aninat, after bowing.
Standing straight'itidaal: is required after bowing (MB 461). The head is raised to the position before start of the rukuu while
saying 'samia allaahu liman hamidahu.. rabbana laka al hamd mil'a al samawaati wa mil'a
al alrdh wa mil'a ma shi'ita min shay'I ba'adahu.
being stationary after raising from the bowing. Must remain stationary momentarily after rising from bowing.
Prostration, sujuud: prostration is on 7 bones (MB 464): the forehead, the 2 hands, the 2 knees, and the 2 feet.. The forearm
should not be stretched out on the ground during sujuud as dogs do. The ground
must bear the weight of the head during sujuud. The rear of he trunk must be higher
than the front. The uncovered forehead must touch the ground. It is not obligatory for the nose to touch the ground. During
sujuud the following formula is repeated: 'subhana
rabbi al a'ala three times. In sujuud the men separate the knee and feet but
the women keep them together. Men can separate their arms away from the trunk during prostration but this is discouraged for
stationary in prostration, tama'aninat.
between the two prostrations, juluus bayna al sajdatayn: A brief sitting is required
between the two prostrations (MB 465)
Being stationary in the sitting posiiton,
Reciting the last tashahhud: The tashahud at the end of the first 2 rak 'ats is brief
and is not obligatory; the one at the end of the salat is longer and is the one
that is obligatory. (MB 472). There is a supplication, dua, after the last tashahhud
(MB 473, 475).The minimum for tashahhud
is: al tahiyaat li laahi al salaam alayka ayyuha al nabiy wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuhu
salaam alayna wa ala ibaad laahi al salihiin. As'hadu al la ilaha illa llah wa shhadu anna muhammamdan rasulullahi. The
complete tashahhud is: 'al tahiyaat al mubarakaat al salawaat al tayibaat li laahi.
Al salaam alaika ayyuha al nabiy wa rahmat al llaahi wa barakatuhu. Al salaam alayna wa ala ibaad al laahi al salihiiin. Ash'had an la ilaaha illa al laahi wa ash'had
anna Muhammadan rasuuul al laahi'
Sitting during the last tashahhud.
Prayer for the prophet, salat ala
al nabi: The brief form is Allahumma saklli ala muhammad.. The more extensive one
is: allahumma sali ala muhammad wa ala aali muhammad kama sallayita ala ibrahima wa
ala aali ibrahima wa barik ala muhammad wa ala aali muhammad kama baarakta ala ibrahuma wa ala aali ibrahima fi al alamiin
innaka hamidun majiid.
The first salaam, al tasliim al awaal: signifies the formal end of the prayer (MB 476, 477). The second taslim is sunnat. The minimum taslim is: assalam alaykum. The more complete one
is: assalamu alaykum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuhu.
Carrying out the above acts in order,
ACTS AFTER SALAT
before taslim is recommended as followed: allahumma
ighfir li ma qadamtu wa ma akkhartu wa ma asrartu wa ma a'alantu wa ma asraftu wa anta 'a'alamu bihi minni anta al muaqaddimu
wa anta al muakkhiru la ilaaha illa anta.
after taslim is recommended but is not obligatory (MB 478, 479, 480). The dhikr is silent unless the imaam wants to teach people in which case he will repeat the dhikr aloud. The recommended dhikr consists of the following: (1)ayat al kursi verse 2:225, (2) surat al ikhlaas S.112,(3) surat
al falaq S.113, (4) surat al naas S.114, (5) astaghfirullah(6) alahumma
anta al salaam wa mijka al salaalu wa ilaika ya'udu al salam ta 'alayita wa tabarakta ya dha al jalal wa al ikraam (7)
allhuma la mania lima a'atayita, wa la mu'tiya lima mana'ata wa la raddan lima qadhayta
(8) subhana laah x 33 times (9) alhamdulillahi
x 33 times (10) allahu akbar x 33 times (11) la
ilaaha illa laahu wahdahu la sharika lahu al mulk wa lahu al hamdu wa huwa ala kulli shay'I qadiir.
The following qunuut supplication is repeated in salat al fajr after rising from bowing in the second rak'at: allahuma ihdini fiman hadayta wa afini fiman afayta wa tawallani fiman tawallayta wa barik li fiman a'atayata, wa
qini sharra ma qadhayta, fa innakia taqdhi qa la yuqdha alayka wa innahu ;la yadhillu man aalayta wa la ya'izzu man adayta
tabarakta rabbana wa ta'alayta falaka al hamdu ala ma qadahyta astaghfiruka wa atuubu ilayka.
Prostrations of forgetting: Mistakes
can occur in prayer; they may be mistakes of omission or mistakes of commission. They should be corrected immediately and
a prostration of forgetfulness, sajdat al sahaw, is oferred at the end (MB #262,
631).Two prostrations are made just before tasliim.
The imaam must be followed even if he makes a mistake and the prostration of forgetfulness is offered at the end. The follower
may prostrate for his personal mistakes after the taslim of the imaam. When a salat is forgotten, it should be offered in total whenever it is remembered (MB #366).
Sujuud al sahaw is not necessary in such cases. Adhan (MB#364) and salat al jamaat are allowed in make-up prayers (MB
# 365). The missed prayers should be made up in the order in which they were missed and there is no need for sujuud al sahaw.
al tilawat is prostration on reciting any verse of the Qur'an with the word sujuud
or any of its conjugates. This prostration does not require facing the qiblat.
It is sunnat for the reader, the active listener, mustam'u, and the passive listener, samiu,. The prostration starts
with takbir and ends with taslim unless
it is in salat in which case the taslim
is not necessary. The rules for sujuud al shukr are the same as those for sujuud al tilawat.
E. REGULATIONS OF SALAT (AHKAAM al
CONDITIONS (SHURUUT AL SALAT):
Conditions for validity of salat
(shurut al salat) nullify the salat if left out: (a) taharat, (b) covering the awrat, (c) facing the qiblat, (d) avoiding extraneous speech & movements (e) avoiding eating (e) ascertaining the entry of salat time before starting to pray (f) knowing the obligation of prayer and (g) and knowing the method of prayer.
INVALIDATORS (MUBTILAAT AL SALAT):
is invalidated by mubtilaat al salat: extraneous speech, extraneous movements,
and eating. Speech of any kind is forbidden in salat (MB 624, 625). Greetings are
not returned during prayer but can be returned at the end (MB 629).
OFFENSIVES (MAKRUHAAT AL SALAT):
Among the offensives, makruhat al salat, to pray when holding onto urine or stool and when
food or drink are presented and the person praying is hungry or thirsty. When food is served it is preferable to start with
food and pray later to ensure complete concentration during prayer (MB 403).
The following sunnats of salat if left out require sujuud al sahaw: .(a) the first tashahhud (b) sitting in the first tashahhud (c) prayer for blessings
on the prophet in the first tashahhud (d) prayer for blessings on the relatives
of the Prophet in the first tashahhud (e) recitingal qunuut (f) standing up in qunuut.
ETIQUETTE OF SALAT:
Salat should be short and perfect
(MB hadith #419). There is no point in praying so many rakaats of nafilat hurriedly to achieve quantity without thinking about
quality. Salat should have calmness, sakiinat (MB hadith # 864). Salat should be approached with dignity (MB hadith # 1249).
SALAT IN DIFFICULT CIRCUMSTANCES
is so important that it can not be left even in difficult circumstances. While on a journey the salat can be shortened, qasar al salat,or offered before or after its prescribed time (4:101). Only 2 rak'at of
a 4-rak'at salat are offered while on a journey (MB 575). Maghrib and fajr are 3 and 2 rak;at
respectively whether at home or on a journey. Qasar can be made for dhuhr, asr, and isha. Dhuhr and
asr can be offered together at the time of dhuhr,
jam'u taqdiim, or at the time of asr, jam'u
ta'akhir. Maghrib and isha can be
offered at the time of maghrib or the time of isha
(MB 581, 586).
Joining, jam'u, can be done in case of rain preventing return for another salat,
for a nursing woman, for a woman with a chronic vaginal discharge who is not sure she will be in a clean state for the next
salat, fear of urinal contamination for those with urinary incontinence, fear for
life, fear for property, and fear for honor. In the cases mentioned above, the joining of salat
can be only apparent and not real, jam'u suuri.The first salat is offered at the end of its time while the next one is
offered at the start of its period. The shortest journey for which salat is shortened
is 81 km (MB 580). What matters is the distance and not the time required to cover that distance.
is carried out during the journey and only for 3 days after arriving at the final destination. On arrival at the destination
with the intention of travelling again, qasar can be continued for 18 days and
The sick are permitted to abridge
or modify the physical movements of the salat. If a sick person can not stand he
can sit down (MB 587) and bow down or prostrate to the extent possible or just nod. It is also possible to pray lying on the
back or on one side. If all is impossible, bowing and prostration can be done by the eyes only.
Soldiers on the battle field can
pray abridged prayers and physical movements are changed. Women are excused from salat
during the period of menstruation because of the associated physiological stress (MB 216).
in congregation requires a leader, imaam, for cordination. The most-learned person should be given preference (MB 406).Additional criteria in order of importance are: memorization of the Qur'an, the older
in age, good moral reputation muru'at, cleanliness of person and clothes, and a
good voice. Usually the owner of the home, the regular imaam of the mosque, and sultan have precedence in leading salat. It is offensive for a person to lead others who he knows dislike him. The imaam must be followed in all
actions. It is a sin to make any step ahead of the imaam (MB 412).Lagging behind
the imaam is excusable only for short durations. The followers must stand behind the imaam but if there are only 2 the follower
stands to the right of the imaam (MB 415). The rows must be straightened (MB 421) with the forward ones being filled first.The rows of men are first followed by boys then the women. If a woman is leading women
she should stand in the middle of the row. The imaam must not prolong the standing (MB 417, 418).The imaam should not prolong the Qur'anic recitation unless he knows that all the followers are people
who do not mind or can manage a lengthy salat. If the imaam forgets what comes next in a recitation of the Qur'an, the followers
remind him by saying it. If the imaam forgets an action, men can draw his attention by saying' subhana al laah'and women
by clapping hands. If the imaam omits a pillar of salat the followers can cease
following him. If however the imaam omits a sunnat, the followers can perform it
on their own provided it does not lead to a considerable lag behind the imaam. If the imaam has to leave the salat for an
emergency like urinary urgency, he can choose a successor from the followers who leads the salat to its completion. A wall could separate the imaam from the followers (MB 423). The imaam sits facing the
congregation after taslim. (MB 481, 482).It is permissible for the imaam to lead followers praying a different salat
for example supererogatory & obligatory prayers and vice versa. The imaam may pray qasar
while the followers are completing the prayer, the converse is not valid. The imaam may pray salat al dhuhr while the follower is praying salat al asr. The imaam
may pray a make-up prayer while the follower is praying a current prayer.