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ISLAMIC MEDICAL EDUCATION RESOURCES 04

9810-LEADERSHIP SKILLS MODULE GENERAL THEME: LEADERSHIP (PART I)

Workshops at the 15th International Leadership Training programme Islamabad Pakistan 01-31st  October 1998 by Prof Dr Omar Hasan Kasule, International Islamic University, Malaysia

 

GUIDELINES:

 

This module assumes the concept of performance gap which is the difference between the ideal and the actual in organizational performance. The performance gap is the difference between the potential and actual performance of organizations and individuals. Many individuals and communities all over the world are experiencing phenomena of revival and renewal. There is a new reawakening and a determination to make tomorrow better than yesterday. However the zeal, commitment and efforts of the revival have not been perfectly or completely translated into practical results that everyone can see in the society. The practical achievements fall far short of the potential. Success in building and managing institutions, the backbone of real and sustained change, has been limited in several communities and countries. The gap between aspirations and achievements is due to a relative deficiency of practical skills in leadership and management. These skills are not in-born. They can be taught or developed through experience on the job. Individuals and organizations pay a high price in terms of lost opportunities for the continued existence of the performance gap.

 

There is no one fixed system of Islamic leadership or management. As with many similar social phenomena, Islam defines the broad principles and leaves it to the people of each place and era to define the system most suited to their circumstances. The system must therefore change with changes of time and space. There is no utopia. Any human system will have strengths and weaknesses. The aim should be to decrease the weaknesses and increase the strengths. The best system are those based on empirical experience and that are open to changes if empirical evidence shows that they are not working well. The empirical experience must be within the moral context of Islam for it to bear fruits.

 

This module consists of 12 workshops each covering a leadership/management skill or issue. Each workshop requires 3-5 hours distributed as follows: pre-workshop preparation (30 minutes), facilitator presentation (30 minutes), group discussions (1-2 hours) and a plenary concluding session (1-2 hour). You have to prepare by reading the material before the day of the workshop. Start by studying the outline of the session. Then read the background and text. Scan through the discussion questions. On the appointed day, the workshop facilitator makes a presentation followed by a question and answer session. For discussion, groups made up of no more than 5 persons in each are formed. The discussion covers the background reading, analysis of the text, and the discussion questions at the end. Relate everything you read or discuss to your practical experience. In some cases the group has to undertake an exercise or a case-study analysis. Each discussion group presents a summary of its discussion to the plenary session. It is recommended that you supplement the material given by readings in books and other sources on the subject. Write down your all discussions, observations and conclusions

 

The following conceptual tools. Technical terms will be useful in your discussion: leadership (attributes, functions, skills, values, attitudes, authority, influence), model leaders, evaluation of leaders

 

WORKSHOP #1

LEADERSHIP: ESSENCE AND NATURE

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:

Definition of leadership

Importance of leadership

 

OUTLINES:

BACKGROUND READING

Importance of leadership

Understanding leadership

Everybody undertakes some leadership functions

Empowering followers

Leaders vs Managers

Selection, change or renewal of leaders

Problems faced by leaders

Problems faced by leaders

 

TEXT ANALYSIS

Leadership after trial

Good leader wants good followers

Leader to be given some privacy

Necessity/obligation of having leaders

Personal ambition for leadership discouraged

Everybody exercises leadership responsibility

Leadership authority in incompetent hands is a sign of doom

Disobedient followers

 

DISCUSSION

Leadership after trial

Good leader wants good followers

Leader to be given some privacy

Necessity/obligation of having leaders

Personal ambition for leadership discouraged

Everybody exercises leadership responsibility

Leadership authority in incompetent hands is a sign of doom

Disobedient followers

Incompetent leaders condemned

Omar was a great leader

Leader serves community

BACKGROUND READING

INSTRUCTIONS: THE DISCUSSION LEADER OR THE MEMBERS (IN TURNS) WILL PRESENT THE MAIN POINTS IN THE BACKGROUND READING SECTIONS PRE-ASSIGNED THE PREVIOUS WEEK

 

Importance of leadership: Leadership is a pre-condition for civilized existence. Absence of recognized leadership means chaos to the detriment of all. Any group of 3 or more must have a leader. Leadership is the single most important determinant of organizational success. Good leadership leads to success; bad leadership leads to frustration and failure. All members, supporters, and sympathizers of the organization are stakeholders who are concerned about success and failure of leadership.  One of the harbingers of doom is to place leadership authority in the wrong hands.

 

Understanding leadership: Leadership is the process of influencing people and making them do certain things. It is both an art and a science. It may be formal and legalistic or informal. It has rational, emotional, intuitive and instinctive dimensions. Leadership involves moving followers in a certain direction mostly by non-coercive methods. Successful leaders get voluntary cooperation from followers. Good leaders persuade and do not command. Fear and authority are not leadership. Leaders who depend only on authority and coercion do not go very far. Poor leaders by contrast manipulate their followers. Manipulation is getting a person to do what they are not aware of or do not want to do. A few leadership skills are innate but most are acquired by experience and education. There is a dynamic interaction between the leader, the followers, and the situation. A leader of one group of followers may not be able to lead a different group. A leader in one situation may fail in another one. Roles of leaders and followers can be interchanged. A leader may be a follower of a more powerful leader. A good leader must therefore also be a good follower. True leadership is more service than domination. The leader is the servant (sayyid al qawm khadimuhum). Good and effective leadership is a source of greatness (ab'qariyyah). Great movements and changes in history are always associated with great leaders. Intended here is real, genuine, moral, and competent leadership based on character and integrity and not the phoney leadership that thrives on propaganda, deceit, and manipulation. Bad leaders are motivated by power alone. They just like the exercise of power. Good leaders have higher motivation. They want to use leadership power to improve and make a change.

 

Everybody undertakes some leadership functions: Leadership is a function exercised by almost everybody each in his or her own sphere; you are at least leaders of yourself or leader of your family. Leadership can be in the community, the work place, and in public organizations. Since everybody has some leadership roles, each one can become a more effective leader by formal training or gaining experience on the job. Not everyone wants to be a public leader. There are many people who are just not prepared to invest the energy necessaru to shoulder the responsibilities of public leadership. Leadership involves the following specific functions: setting and communicating visions, goals, and objectives; representing followers; directing, coordinating, and integrating; influencing, mobilizing, motivating, creating enthusiasm and optimism; providing services and making a difference.

 

Empowering followers: There is no leadership without followership. The quality of the followers determines the quality of the leaders. A good leader may fail with bad followers. An average leader may succeed if he has good followers. In the long run it is follower quality that determines the nature of a particular leadership situation. "The way you are is the way of your leaders". Followers get the leaders they deserve. Incongruence between followers and leaders is usually temporary and hardly exceeds a generation. Successful leadership requires that followers obey the leader. There are, however, limitations and conditions for that obedience as will be discussed later. Good leaders teach leadership, they pull and do not push. Good leadership involves empowering followers by coaching them and then sharing leadership power with them through delegation. Followers must be given real authority, information and resources but must be held accountable for what they do. Empowered followers have heightened self-efficacy and self-confidence. They will have higher performance, exhibit more cooperation, achieve higher personal growth, and in the end all ensure the survival of the organization.

 

Leaders vs Managers: Leadership calls for different skills from management. Managers are not necessarily leaders. The reverse is also true. An organization may be well led but poorly managed and vice versa. In practice, management and leadership functions overlap. An individual can exercises both leadership and management functions in varying proportions. You have to know when to lead and when to manage. Leaders are concerned with effectiveness; they are intuitive and visionary; they like change, innovation, challenging the status quo, and development; they are original; they focus on vision and its importance; they have a long-term view and inspire others to achieve and excel. Managers are rational problem-solvers whose concern is efficiency, process, and mechanics of achieving objectives. They administer for maintenance of stability, harmony, and the status quo. They follow and do not innovate. Their view is generally short-term.

 

Selection, change or renewal of leaders: Successful public leadership is always directly or indirectly dependent on the consent of the followers. Good selection of public leaders requires participation of the followers. Leaders can not be imposed. Imposition of leaders can work for only a short time or is associated with unsuccessful leader-follower situations. The exact method of expressing the follower's view varies according to the circumstances of each group. Follower input whatever its nature can not be ignored. There is no correct answer to the question how long should one individual stay in leadership? It is better to leave this matter open and decide according to circumstances. Staying too long discourages the emergence of younger leaders and infusing new blood and new ideas into the organization. It may also result into inefficiency as the leader loses effectiveness with time. Frequent changes of leaders may on the other hand result in lack of continuity and instability. There are situations in which one long-serving leader is the only one with the skills and charisma to hold the organization together. In such a case you should not insist on change for the sake of change.

 

Problems faced by leaders: Leaders experience problems. Being at the top can be lonely. They take responsibility for failures. Followers may be disloyal to the leaders or the organization. Subordinates may have poor values that the leaders can not stand. There may be dissent. The leaders may be ahead of the followers in vision and thinking. External threats are always looming on the horizon. A leader is a public figure and has to accept more invasion of his privacy than an ordinary person. It is important that people know enough about leaders' private life to be assured that they are not involved in any activity that is incompatible with their leadership position. The leader must be accessible at all times and can not claim privacy as a reason for not carrying out leadership functions. The followers must however have some consideration for the leader and his family. They must give him some privacy so that he can lead an ordinary life

 

TEXT ANALYSIS

INSTRUCTIONS: READ OUT EACH TEXT ALOUD TWO TIMES. MAKE SURE YOU UNDERSTAND THE MAIN POINTS RAISED. WRITE DOWN THE MAIN LESSON(S) YOU HAVE LEARNED FROM THE TEXT.

Leadership after trial: And remember that Abraham was tried by his Lord with certain Commands, which he fulfilled: He said: " I will make you An Imam to the Nations. He pleaded: " And also ( Imams ) from my offspring!" He answered: " But My promise is not within the reach of evildoers. Qur'an 2:124

               

Good leader wants good followers: And those who pray, Our Lord! Grant unto us wives and offspring who will be the comfort of our eyes, and give us (the grace) To lead the righteous. Qur'an 25:74

 

Leader to be given some privacy: O you who believe! Enter not the Prophet's houses until leave is given you for a meal, (and then) not (so early as) to wait for its preparation: but when you are invited, enter; And when you have taken your meal, disperse, without seeking familiar talk. Such (behavior) annoys the Prophet: he is ashamed to dismiss you, but Allah is not ashamed (to tell you) the truth. Qur'an 33:53

 

Necessity/obligation of having leaders: “Abu Said al Khudri reported the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) as saying: When three are on a journey, they should appoint one of them as their commander." Abu Daud 2:721, Chapter 933, hadith # 2602 …. "Salamah daughter of al Hurr and sister of Kharshah b. al Hurr al Fazari said 'I heard the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) say one of the signs of the last hour will be that people in mosques will refuse to act as imam and will not find an imam to lead them in prayer." Abu Daud 1:153, Chapter 153, Hadith # 581

 

Personal ambition for leadership discouraged: "Abd al Rahman b Samurah said: The Apostle of Allah ( may peace be upon him) said to me: Abd al-Rahman b. Samurah, do not ask for the position of commander, for if you are given it after asking you will be left to discharge it yourself, but if you are given it without asking you will be helped to discharge it." Abu Daud 2:827, Chapter 1090, hadith # 2923

 

Everybody exercises leadership responsibility: “Abdullah b Umar reported the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) as saying: Each of you is a shepherd and each of you is responsible of his flock. The amir (ruler) who is over the people is a shepherd and is responsible for his flock; a man is a shepherd in charge of the inhabitants of his household and he is responsible for his flock; a woman is a shepherdess in charge of her husband's house and children and she is responsible for them; and a man's slave is a shepherd in charge of his master's property and he is responsible for it. So each of you is a shepherd and each of you is responsible for his flock". Abu Daud 2:827, Chapter 1089, hadith # 2922 …. "It has been narrated on the authority of Ibn Umar that the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him ) said: Beware, every one of you is a shepherd and every one is answerable with regard to his flock. The Caliph is a shepherd over the people and shall be questioned about his subjects (as to how he conducted their affairs ). A man is a guardian over the members of his family and shall be questioned about them (as how he looked after their physical and moral well-being) A woman is a guardian over the household of her husband and his children and shall be questioned about them (as to how she managed the household and brought up the children). A slave is a guardian over the property of his master and shall be questioned about it ( as to how he safeguarded his trust ). Beware, every one of you is a guardian and every one of you shall be questioned with regard to his trust." Muslim 3: 1017, Chapter 758, Hadith # 4496

 

Leadership authority in incompetent hands is a sign of doom: "Narrated Abu Huraira: While the Prophet was saying something in a gathering, a Bedouin came and asked him " When would the Hour (Doomsday) take place?" Allah's Apostle continued his talk, so some people said that Allah's Apostle had heard the question, but did not like what that Bedouin has asked. Some of them said that Allah's Apostle had not heard it. When the Prophet finished his speech, he said, " Where is the questioner, who enquired about the Hour (Doomsday)?" The Bedouin said, " I am here, O Allah's Apostle " Then the Prophet said, " When honesty is lost, then wait for the Hour (Doomsday). The Bedouin said, " How will that be lost?" The Prophet said, " When the power or authority comes in the hands of unfit persons, then wait for the Hour (doomsday)". Bukhari 1;50-51, hadith # 56

 

Disobedient followers: Musa and Isaelites: Qur'an 2:51-61, 5:22-29, 7:148-156, 7:159-162 Talut, Daud, and Banu Israil.

 

Incompetent leaders condemned: "It is narrated on the authority of Abu Malih that Ubaidullah b. Ziyad visited Maqil b. Yasar in his illness. Maqil said to him: I am narrating to you hadith which I would have never narrated to you had I not been in death bed. I heard Allah's Apostle ( may peace be upon him ) say: A ruler who has been entrusted with the affairs of the Muslims, but he makes no endeavors ( for the material and moral uplift ) and does not sincerely mean ( their welfare ) would not enter Paradise along with them"       

Muslim 1: 82, Chapter 44, Hadith # 264

 

Omar was a great leader: The Prophet said, “In a dream I saw myself drawing water from a well with a bucket.  Abu Bakr came and drew a bucker or two weakly.  May Allah forgive him.  Then Umar bin Al Khattab came and the bucket turned into a very large one in his hands.  I had never seen such a might person as he in doing such hard work till  all the people drank to their satisfaction and watered their camels that knelt down there. Bukhari 5:23 Hadith #31, Bukhari 5:24 end of Hadith.

 

Leader serves community: I heard Abu Hurayrah say, “God have mercy on Ibn Hantamah.  I saw him in the Year of the Destruction carrying on his back two provision bags with a skin of olive oil in his hand.  He and Aslam were taking it in turns.  When he saw me, he said, ‘Where are you coming from, Abu Hurayrah?’ I told him from near at hand, and I began to take my turn to carry.  So we all eventually came to Sirar where there were abut twenty isolated tents of Muharib.  ‘Umar said, ‘What has brought you here?”  They replied it was exhaustion.  They brought out for us some broiled carrion skin that they were eating and some powdered old bones that they were scooping into their mouths with their hands.  I saw ‘Umar throw his upper garment [over his shoulder], then adjust his waist wrapper.  He continued cooking for them until they were satisfied.  Then he sent aslam to Medina and he brought some stallion camels on which he counted them and set them down in al-Jabbanah.  HE then gave them clothes, visiting them and others [in similar circumstances] frequently until God relieved the people of this drought”. Tabari 14 : 119

 

 

DISCUSSION:

LEADERSHIP AND MANAGERIAL FUNCTIONS

Read texts of the events of the 2nd and 10th years of Hegira. Identify 2 actions of the Prophet that were leadership functions and 2 that were management functions in the second year of hijra. Do the same for the 10th year of hijra.  Complete the following table.

 

A. SECOND YEAR OF HIJRA

 

Function, event, or decision

leadership?

Managerial?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

B. TENTH YEAR OF HIJRA

 

Function, event, or decision

leadership?

Managerial?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LEADERSHIP SITUATIONS

Describe the following leadership situations. Make sure to identify the leader(s), the followers, the leadership activities, and the relation between the leader(s) and the followers

 

Musa and bani Israel

 

Talut and bani Israel

 

David and bani Israel

 

Sulaiman and animals

 

YOUR NOTES:

Workshop-2

 

LEADERSHIP POWER

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:

Types and use of leadership power

Misuse of leadership power

 

OUTLINES:

BACKGROUND READING

Leaders defined by actions

Definition of power

Types of power

Use of leadership power

Credibility

 

TEXT ANALYSIS

Leadership power

Being gradual in obtaining compliance

Omar was feared

Omar’s sensitivity

Toughness and softness

 

DISCUSSION

Comparing types of power

 

BACKGROUND READING

INSTRUCTIONS: THE DISCUSSION LEADER OR THE MEMBERS (IN TURNS) WILL PRESENT THE MAIN POINTS IN THE BACKGROUND READING SECTIONS PRE-ASSIGNED THE PREVIOUS WEEK

 

Leaders defined by actions: Leaders and followers are better defined by what they do than what they are or what they say. Actions can not deceive over time; reputation and nice words often do. Every leader has to expose himself through his actions since there is no leadership without activity.

 

Definition of power: Power is capability or potential to get something done. Influence is exercise of power to get something done. Authority is formal power that a leader has as a virtue of the position. Power and leadership are interdependent but are not interchangeable. A leader needs power to succeed and influence others but power alone does not make an effective leader.

 

Types of power: There are 2 types of leadership power: personal and positional. Both are used in varying proportions depending on the leadership situation. Personal power is based on character, expertise, charisma, and personal relations. Positional power is based on formal authority that includes decision-making, reward, punishment, and control of information and organizational resources.

 

Use of leadership power: The leader has to make a correct judgement of which source of power to use in a particular leadership situation. Influence is exercise of leadership power. Powerful leaders have more influence. They have credibility and can get more compliance from their followers. Leaders can get follower compliance by rational persuasion, appeal, pressue, promise of rewards, negotiations (win-win, compromise). Leader get followers to do things either by making small demands followed by big ines, or by starting with big demands followed by small ones of the big ones are not possible

 

Credibility: A leader gains more power and influence by building credibility. Credibility is based on competence (experience, knowledge, skills), character (honesty, kindness, sympathy), self-confidence, activity and drive, boldness and assertiveness. The followers must trust the leader if he is to lead them well. Building credibility starts with self-assessment to know your strengths and use them, to identify your weaknesses and compensate for them. You have to listen to and learn from the followers. Keeping promises and being predictable are very important for credibility.

 

TEXT ANALYSIS

INSTRUCTIONS: READ OUT EACH TEXT ALOUD TWO TIMES. MAKE SURE YOU UNDERSTAND THE MAIN POINTS RAISED. WRITE DOWN THE MAIN LESSON(S) YOU HAVE LEARNED FROM THE TEXT.

Leadership power: Sulaiman Qur'an 27:15-44

 

Being gradual in obtaining compliance: Narrated Ibn 'Abbas: Allah's Apostle said to Mu'adh bin Jabal when he sent him to Yemen. "You will come to the people of scripture, and when you reach them, invite them to testify that none has the right to be worshipped except Allah and that Muhammad is His Apostle. And if they obey you in that, then tell them that Allah has enjoined on them five prayers to be performed every day and night. And if they obey you in that, then tell them that Allah has enjoined on them Sadaqa (i.e. Zakat) to be taken from the rich amongst them and given to the poor amongst them. And if they obey you in that, then be cautious! Don't take their best properties (as Zakat) and be afraid of the curse of an oppressed person as there is no screen between his invocation and Allah. Bukhari:

 

Omar was feared : “Narrated Saad bin abi Waqqas Umar bin Al Khattab asked permission of Allah’s Apostle to see him while some Quraishi women were sitting with him, talking to him and asking him for more expenses, raising their voices over the voice of Allah’s Apostle,  when Umar asked for the permission to enter, the women quickly put on their veils.  Allah’s Apostle allowed him to enter and Umar came in while Allah’s Apostle was smiling, Umar said, O Allah’s Apostle !  may Allah always keep you smiling.   The Prophet said, These women who have been here, roused my wonder, for as soon as the heard your voice, they quickly put on their veils.  Umar said, O Allah’s Apostle !  You have more right to be feared by them than I”.  Then Umar addressed the women saying.  O enemies of yourselves !  Your fear me more than you do Allah’s Apostle?  They said, Yes, for you are harsher and sterner than Allah’s you going on a way, but he takes another way other than your”. Bukhari 5:23 - 24, Hadith # 32

 

Omar’s sensitivity: According to Ahmad b. Umar : Umar b. al-Khattab passed through the market carrying his whip.  He death me a blow with it and caught the edge of my garment, saying “Get out of the way”, the following year he met me and said, “Are you intending to go on the pilgrimage, Salamah?  When I told him that I was, he took me by the hand to his house and gave me 600 dirhams, saying, use them to make your pilgrimage, and you should know that they are by way of compensation for the lash that I gave you. “I replied, But I had not remembered it”  Commander of the Faithful.  “But I had not forgotten it! “exclaimed”.Tabari 14 : 138 - 139

 

Toughness and softness : Abu Ja’far [al-Tabari] said : (‘Umar) was hard on those dubious reputations and severe in [seeking out] God’s truth until he extracted it, but easygoing in what was owed to him until it was handed over to him and compassionate and full of pity for the weak. …. According to ‘Ubaydallah b. Sa’d al-Zuhri-his paternal uncle-his father-al-Walid b.  Kathir-Muhammad b. ‘Ijlan-Zayd b. Aslam-his father: Some Muslims had a word with ‘Abd. al-Rahman b. ‘Awf and said, “Speak to ‘Umar b. al-Khattab, for he has inspired so much fear in us that indeed we cannot look him in the face”.  ‘Abd. al-Rahman b. ‘Awf mentioned this to ‘Umar and he said, “Did they really say this? !  I was indeed lenient with them to such as extent that I was afraid of God.  I became severe with them to such an extent that I was afraid of God.  I swear an oath in God’s name that I am more afraid of them than they are of me!”. Tabari 14: 111 - 112

 

DISCUSSION:

COMPARING TYPES OF POWER

Fill the following table comparing types of leadership power. Write down 1-3 advantages/disadvantages for each type of power

               

TYPE OF POWER

ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

REWARD

 

 

PUNISHMENT

 

 

EXPERT

 

 

PERSONAL RELATIONS

 

 

               

YOUR NOTES:

 

WORKSHOP #3

TYPES OF LEADERS

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:

Classification of leaders according to various criteria

Behavioral patterns of different types of leaders

 

OUTLINES:

BACKGROUND READING

Model leaders

Types and styles of Leaders

Classification based on decision-making style

Classification based on orientation: people vs task

Transformational and transactional leaders

Charismatic leaders

Assessment of leaders

 

TEXT ANALYSIS

The 5 rightly-guided khulafa: a model

Omar brought dignity and strength to Islam

Ali Ibn Ali Talib on Omar’s honesty

 

DISCUSSION

Comparing types of leaders

Comparing leader and follower roles in various leadership styles

Characteristics of charismatic leaders

Comparing advantages and disadvantages of charismatic leadership

Comparing charismatic and non-charismatic leadership

Leadership styles

Choice of leadership style for different situations

Comparing task vs people-oriented leaders

 

BACKGROUND READING

INSTRUCTIONS: THE DISCUSSION LEADER OR THE MEMBERS (IN TURNS) WILL PRESENT THE MAIN POINTS IN THE BACKGROUND READING SECTIONS PRE-ASSIGNED THE PREVIOUS WEEK

 

Model leaders: The Prophet Muhammad and the 5 rightly-guided khulafaha after him as well as other illustrious leaders in history are a model of ideal leadership. They led according to the dictates of the noble teachings, maintained justice, avoided oppression and promoted the welfare of their immediate followers and generations to come. The Prophet's character was patience and perseverence, wisdom and foresight, kindness and empathy, concern and care for others, honesty and truthfulness, justice and fairness, courage and firmness, love and mercy, forgiveness, simplicity and humility, and good humor. Abubakr is remembered for his piety, wisdom, gentle character, honesty, principled behavior, and justice. Abubakr was gentle and kind in most cases but when the need arose he would be very firm and decisive. Omar Ibn al Khattab is remembered for his courage, justice, hard-work, seriousness, and generosity. Uthman b Affan is remembered for his piety, gentle character, modesty and benevolence. Ali b Abi Talib is remembered for his bravery, scholarship, learning and justice. Khalid Ibn al Walid is remembered for his bravery and his military strategy. Omar Ibn Abdul Aziz is remembered for his righteousness and piety. Imaam Ibn Taymiyyah led a great reform movement. Salahuddin al Ayyubi liberated al Quds. Muhammad al Fatih liberated Constantinolople and renamed it Istanbul

 

Types and styles of Leaders: Leadership is highly individualized and is very specific for the situation and the type of followers. Each circumstance calls for different skills and style of leadership. The only constant un-varying dimension is that whatever style or skills are employed, they must conform to the leader's basic personality, values, and attitudes otherwise there will be inconsistencies that will eventually lead to leadership failure. Several types of leaders and styles of leadership can be described: autocratic, democratic, and laissez-faire. Leaders can be transactional, transformational, or charismatic. Some leaders are task oriented whilst others are people-oriented. Choice of type or style must be flexible. The choice is determined by: the situation, leader personality, follower personality, type of organization, and type of work carried out. Some situations call for use of a combination of leadership styles.

 

Classification based on decision-making style. Leaders can be autocratic, democratic, or laissez-faire: Autocratic leaders are dictatorial. They set goals, make all the decisions and just give followers orders to carry out. They personally direct tasks. There is very little follower feed back. Democratic leaders on the other hand involve followers in decision-making, listen to them, and give them a chance to participate. There is feed back from both the leaders and the followers. Laisser-faire leaders neglect their role. They have little interaction with the followers. They do not care about what the followers do. The followers ae free to do what they want, how and when they want. Laisser-faire leaders exercise hands-off management.

 

Classification based on orientation: people vs task: Leadership may be task-oriented or people-oriented. A good leader has the right mixture of the two for the particular leadership situation he may find himself in. The correct synthesis is to concentrate first on the people, make them believe in themselves, trust them, train and nurture them and then let them produce superior results. Task-oriented leaders are mainly interested in production and results. They often have poor interpersonal skills. Some leaders perform well with structured tasks whereas others are best with unstructured tasks. People-oriented leaders are interested in the welfare of the followers and try to make them happy and contented. It this is take to the extreme productivity, quality, and results may be forgotten.

 

Transformational and transactional leaders: Transformational leaders empower, inspire, innovate, and raise passions. They have a vision and communicate it effectively. They raise followers to higher levels of motivation and morality. They give their followers a feeling of well being and imbue new confidence and blow a new spirit in them. There is an emotional bond between the leaders and the followers. Their power is person-centered. Transactional leaders fulfil the followers' current material and psychological needs in return for performance. Their outlook is managerial. Transformational leadership is a type of transaction leadership that focuses on higher goals instead of immediate material rewards for followers.

 

Charismatic leaders: Charismatic leaders arise in certain circumstances and are not selected. They are characterized by their commitment to values, enthusiasm and energy. They have person-centered authority which ends with their exit from the stage. They are revered and followers are devoted to them. They are invariably dynamic public speakers. They evoke strong emotions, display self-confidence and competence, serve as role models, communicate high expectations with transcendental goals, and embody in their person the hopes, aspirations, and frustrations of the followers. Positive charismatic leaders use their authority to improve society. Wise leaders are never fooled by the charisma. Negative charismatic leaders use that authority for their own self-aggrandizement. Charismatic leaders have a tendency to think of themselves as indispensable and to know all. They may develop egoistic and dictatorial tendencies. They can easily misuse their great authority and power. They usually do not prepare others to take their place. When they disappear from the stage they leave behind a void and instability.

 

Assessment of leaders: Leaders, being human, are not always perfect. They have strengths and weaknesses. A correct assessment of a particular leadership situation requires looking at both strengths and weaknesses. Expectations generate a power and a momentum of their own and are a very powerful motivator. A leader who effectively communicates expectations gets what he expects. Only self-confident leaders can communicate expectations effectively. Practical life tests leaders in various ways; the strongest emerge successful from the tests. A leader must be able to stand up to emotional and psychological pressures, must maintain his calm and objectivity in face of personal insults and abuse directed at him or what he stands for and loves. He must be able to deal fairly with people he is not emotionally comfortable with: opposers, those who abuse, and disparage him.

 

TEXT ANALYSIS

INSTRUCTIONS: READ OUT EACH TEXT ALOUD TWO TIMES. MAKE SURE YOU UNDERSTAND THE MAIN POINTS RAISED. WRITE DOWN THE MAIN LESSON(S) YOU HAVE LEARNED FROM THE TEXT.

 

The 5 rightly-guided khulafa: a model: "Sufyan al Thawri said: The Caliphs are four: Abu Bakr, Umar Uthman, Ali and Umar Ibn Abd al Aziz". Abu Daud 3:1300, Chapter 1684, hadith # 4614

 

Omar brought dignity and strength to Islam: “Narrated Abdullah ibn Mas’ud : We have been powerful since Umar embraced Islam” Bukhari 5:24, Hadith #24 …  Abdullah Ibn Masu’d said: kaana Islam Umar fatihan, kaanat hijratuhu nasran, wa kaanat imaratuhu rahmat.

 

Ali Ibn Ali Talib on Omar’s honesty: Innaka afafta fa affat raiyatuka wa law rata’ta la rata’at.

 

 

DISCUSSION:

COMPARING TYPES OF LEADERS

Fill the following table defining different types of leaders. Score each criterion as high, medium, or low.

 

ACTIVITY

TRANSACTIONAL

TRANSFORMATIONAL

Creativity

 

 

Communication

 

 

Vision

 

 

Empowering followers

 

 

Passion

 

 

Task-achievement

 

 

 

 

COMPARING LEADER AND FOLLOWER ROLES IN VARIOUS LEADERSHIP STYLES

Complete the following table showing the roles of leaders and followers under 3 styles of leadership (autocratic, democratic, and laissez-faire) and by function (goal setting, debates, decision-making, feed-back, implementation). For each function write ‘L’ if if it is done mostly by the leader, ‘F’ if it is done by the follower and “L&F’ if it is done by both.

 

 

Autocratic

(directive)

Democratic

(participative)

Laissez-faire

(Not involved)

 

Goal setting

 

 

 

 

Debates

 

 

 

 

Decision

 

 

 

 

Feed-back

 

 

 

 

Implementation

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHARACTERISTICS OF CHARISMATIC LEADERS

Think of a charismatic leader that you have known and score the following characteristics as high, medium, and low.

 

 

CHARACTERISTICS

SCORE

Personalized leadership

 

 

Followers identify with leader

 

 

Followers willing subordinates

 

 

Followers feel empowered

 

 

Leader articulates future vision

 

 

Leader has rhetorical skills

 

 

Leader projects positive image of success

 

 

Emotional bond between leader and followers

 

 

Crises help emergence of charisma

 

 

 

 

COMPARING ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP

Think of a particular charismatic leader you know or have read about. For a specific context of time, place, and circumstances score the advantages and disadvantages as high, medium, or low

 

                                                                Score                                      example

                               

Advantages

   transform

   empower

 

Disadvantages

  irrational behavior

  emotional manipulation

  havoc or destruction

 

COMPARING CHARISMATIC AND NON-CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP

Complete the following table comparing a charismatic and non-charismatic leader. Think of two leaders you have read about or have known, one charismatic and the other non-charismatic. Score each criterion as high or low.

 

CRITERION                                                          CHARISMATIC   NON-CHARISMATIC

Accept status quo              

Personal popularity

Sensitivity to environment

Articulation of goal/vision

Use of personal power

Use of positional power                                     

Change people                                    

 

LEADERSHIP STYLES

Fill in the following table comparing directive, participative, and laissez-faire leadership on various performance criteria (indicate high, average,low)

 

                                                Directive                Participative          Laissez-faire

Quantity

Quality

Innovation

Group cohesion

Conflict in group

Satisfaction

 

 

CHOICE OF LEADERSHIP STYLE FOR DIFFERENT SITUATIONS

Fill in the following table about choice of leadership styles in given situations

 

                                                                                Directive                Participative          Laissez-faire

Crisis/emergency

Leader has superior knowledge

Followers mature and knowledgeable

Time is of essence

Tasks requiring creativity

 

COMPARING TASK VS PEOPLE-ORIENTED LEADERS

Fill the following table comparing task-oriented to people-oriented leaders

 

                                                                Task-oriented                       People-oriented

Productivity

Sharing information

Accepting follower ideas

Open informal communication

Listening to others

Facts and data

Feelings, emotions, and attitudes

 

Go to PART II

Omar Hasan Kasule Oct 1998