Lecture to 1st year students, Kulliyah of Medicine, International Islamic University, at Kuantan Pahang
on 19th November 1998 by Prof Dr Omar Hasan Kasule, Sr.
STRATEGIES AND APPROACHES
Basis for medical treatment in the Quran and sunnah: Every disease has a treatment (KS p. 338). Humans
are encouraged to seek treatment (MB#1962, KS p. 338). The Qur’an described cure, shifa
(p 637 , 5:110, , , 10:69, 17:82, 26:80, 41:44). The Qur’an
is a itself a cure (17:82). Honey is described in the Qur’an as a cure (16:69). The prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said in
an authentic hadith that Allah did not reveal any disease, bau, without also revealing
its cure, dawau, (MB #1962); some people may know the cure and others may ignore
it but it nevertheless exists. The Qur’an described disease in prophet Ayyub (PBUH) and its eventual cure (21:83-84,
38:41-44). The Qur’an described how Isa cured chronic diseases (, ).
Cure is from Allah: Humans try, but it is Allah who cures, allah huwa al shafi (p 1105 21:83-84, 26:80, 38:41-42). Humans should not be arrogant by attributing cure to themselves
and not Allah. In the same way humans can not refuse to take measures to cure disease claiming that Allah will take care of
it. It is true that Allah cures but in some cases that cure operates through the agency of humans. Sometimes the measures
that humans take to cure a disease may not be sufficient on their own to alleviate the condition; it is Allah’s divine
intervention and mercy that brings about the complete cure.
Disease treatment and qadar (KS p. 338): Seeking
treatment does not contradict qadar or tawakkul.
Disease treatment ispart of qadr.
The principle that applies here is reversal of qadar by another qadar (rad al qadr bi al qadr).
Preventive medicine (tibb wiqa’i): This
is a pro-active measure. The Qur’an has used the concept of wiqaya in many
situations to refer to taking preventive action against entering hell-fire, wiqaya
min al nar), against punishment, wiqaya min al adhaab (p 1316 2:201, 3:16,
3:191, 3:34, 13:37, 40:7, 40:9, 40:21, 44:56, 52:18, 52:27, 70:11),against evil,
wiqaya min al sharr(p 1316 86:11),
against greed, wiqaya min al shuhhu (p 1316 59:9, 64:16), against bad acts, wiqayat min al sayi’at (p 1316 40:9, 40:45), against injury/harm, wiqayat min al adha, (p 1316 16:81), against jealousy, wiqayat min al hasad),
against oppressive rulers, wiqaya min al taghoot (p 1316 3:28), against annoyance,
wiqayat min al adha (p 1316 16:81),and
against heat, wiqayat min al harr (p 1316 16:81). Prevention is therefore one of
the fixed laws of Allah in the universe, sunan llah fi alkawn. Its application
to medicine therefore becomes most obvious. Disease could be prevented before occurrence or could be treated after occurrence.
The concept of prevention (wiqayat) does not involve claiming to know the future
or the unseen (ghaib) or even trying ro reverse qadar. The human using limited human knowledge attempts to extrapolate from the present situation and anticipates
certain disease conditions for which preventive measures can be taken. Only Allah knows for sure whether the diseases will
occur or not. The human uses knowledge of risk factors for particular diseases established empirically to predict disease
risk. Preventive action usually involves alleviation or reversal of those risk factors. For example stopping cigarette smoking
can prevent lung cancer and ischemic heart disease. Obeying fire regulations can prevent fire accidents. Careful driving prevents
road traffic accidents and trauma. Immunization prevents viral and bacterial infections. The concept of prevention can be
understood at three levels. Primary prevention aims at making sure the disease does not occur at all. Secondary prevention
aims at limiting the impact of the disease once it has occurred; this is usually by attempting to detect the disease early
and instituting necessary treatment. Tertiary prevention aims at mitigating the long-term sequelae and complications of a
disease. Prevention also involves avoiding any act that can hurt good health or destroy life, halaak (p 1261 4:176 … 67:28). There are activites that promote good health and are part of preventive medicine
because they put the body in the best possible status to be able to fight and overcome any disease that occurs. Examples of
such activities are: physical exercise,rest and recreation, diet, dhikr llah,happy marriage and good family life.
Curative medicine (tibb ‘ilaji): Every
disease has a cure that must be searched for and used (MB 1962). Curative medicine may be invasive or non-invasive. Where
possible non-invasive approaches are preferred because invasive disease treatment whatever its nature involves some element
of risk to the patient. This risk is higher the more invasive the treatment modalities are. A non-invasive approach that aims
at helping or assisting the body to fight the disease is the best. Many physicians forget the tremendous potential that the
body has to take care of itself and cure disease with the help of Allah. Medical treatment in most cases should be supportive
to the body’s natural healing processes. The body’s defenses against foreign bodies are in the immune system which
may be humoral or cellular. Given the chance to fight back, the body is able to repair damaged tissue with time.
Place of medical treatment: For millemia the home has been the site of treatment. Increasing sophistication
of medical treatment eventually led to opening hospitals. The first hospital in Europe was Hopital de Dieu opened in Paris in 600 AD. The first Muslim hospitals,
bamirstans, were opened before that. For a long time hospitals were looked at as
places where people went to die and not places for recovery. The bad reputation arose from the fact that most of those who
went to hospitals did not return. The situation has now improved. With available medical technology the hospital makes a major
MODALITIES OF TREATMENT
Spiritual: Among spiritual approaches to disease management is use of dua from the Qur’an (17:82) and hadith as ruqiy (KS p. 504). The
Qur’an is the best medicine (KS p. 338). Dua is medicine (KS p. 338). Asking
for protection from Allah, isti’adhat, is medicine (KS p. 338). A strong
iman and trust in Allah, tawakkul,play a role in the cure of diseases. Salat is a cure (KS p. 338).The spiritual approach to cure is mediated through the physical processes. Psychosomatic processes affect
the immune functions and other metabolic functions of the body. A believer who is spiritually calm will have positive psychosomatic
experiences and not negative ones because he or she will be psychologically healthy and at ease. Faith can change the very
perception of disease symptoms. Pain is for example subjective. A believing person who trusts in Allah may feel less pain
from an injury than a non-believer with the same injury.
Physical: Among physical approaches to disease management are: diet,natural agents (chemical, animal and plant products),manufactured
chemical agents, surgery(jiraha), and physical treatment e.g. heat. Physical approaches
can reverse disease pathology,mitigate its effects or just stop farther progression.
Multiple/combination of spiritual and physical: There should no dichotomy between spiritual
and physical. Both approaches should be used for the same constitution. Each cures the disease each using a different pathway.
There is no contradiction but there is always synergy. It is a mistake to use one and reject the other.
HALAL AND HARAM THERAPEUTICS
Some medicine is good and others is bad. Bad medicine is forbidden (KS p. 341). Bad medicine
causes more harm than benefit. While seeking treatment, the moral teachings of Islam must be respected. The end never justifies
the means. Haram material is not allowed as medicine except in special circumstances where the legal principle of necessity
(dharurat) applies. Alcohol is for example not an accepted cure for any disease;
it is actually itself a disease.
5.5.4 SIDE-EFFECTS OF MEDICATION VS BENEFITS
The discovery of antibiotics and other powerful agents and procedures effective against
disease has changed the face of medical care for the better in the past 50 years but has brought with it many iatrogenic problems.
They are always associated with side-effects or unwanted effects that a good physician should be aware of and should look
out for. These problems are two-fold: (a) introduction of new molecules in drugs into the body and the environment. The long-term
effect of such ‘unnatural’ molecules is not known. (b)Invasive technology
makes drastic changes to human anatomy and physiology with its long-term consequences still unknown.
The practitioners of homeopathic medicine rightly criticize allopathic medicine for its
aggressive approach that is associated with many side-effects and unwanted effects in the long and short terms. Homeopathic
medicine,practized in some societies and thought to have less side effects,
is clearly less effective for most conditions.
Harmful treatments are not allowed in situations in which the cure is worse than the disease.
Choice of what treatmentmodality to use should involve a careful weighing of
benefits and possible harm or injury. It is a principal of Islamic law (sharia)
to give priority to preventing harm over accruing a benefit.
The equilibrium between benefit and harm of treatment modalities should be looked at using
three Islamic principles: tauhid, wasatiyyat, & shumuliyyat. The concept of
tauhid motivates looking at the patient, the disease, and the environment as one
system that is in equilibrium; thus all factors that are involved with the three elements are considered while making decisions.
The concept of wastiyyat motivates the need for moderation and not doing anything
in excess. The concept of shumiliyyat extends the tauhidi principle by requiring
an overall comprehensive bird’s view of the disease and treatment situation.
Many people with disease conditions resort to superstition, magic, sorcery and divination.
These superstitions nullify ‘aqidat al tauhid. Superstition is distraction
from seeking true treatment. Patients delay coming to hospital and by the time they come the disease is too advanced for easy
Shirk: Manifestations of shirk practices in disease treatment include: amulets, ,tamaim,, divinations, kahanah, and worshipping or asking cure from
humans calledsaints, awliyaa,, by visiting their graves. Other superstitious practices usually associated with shirk are: claiming knowledge of the unseen and claiming supernatural powers by any human. A fortune teller (kahin) is a liar who pretends to know the future or the unseen and provides information
to the gullible clients.
Dreams, ru’yat manamiyat (p 516 8:43, 12:4-6, 12:36,
12:43-44, 12:100, 21:5, 37:102, 37:105, 48:27, 52:32) Superstition could also be in the form of dreams and their interpretation
(tafsir al ahlam). It is true that humans dream. Most dreams are related to the
daily human experiences. Sometimes because of the state of sleep the facts become distorted such that a person can not relate
the dream or understand it. In such cases the Qur’an tells us that only Allah knows for sure the correct interpretation
of dreams. Limited ability to interpret dreams was given to some prophets (p 221 12:6, , -37, -49, 12:100-101). Other humans do not this ability.
Sorcery (sihr): Some people practice witchcraft
or sorcery, sihr. The Qur'an condemns and forbids sorcery in all its forms and
manifestations (p 1248 113:4, p 566 2:102, 2:102, 5;110, 6:7, 7:109, 7:112-113, 7:116, 7:120, 7:132, 10:2, 10:76-77, 10:79-81,
11:7, 15:15, 17:47, 17:101, 20:57-58, 2:63, 20:66, 20:69-73, 21:3, 23:89, 25:8, 26:34-38, 26: 40-41, 26:46, 26:49, 26:153,
26:185, 27:13, 28:36, 28:48, 34:43, 37:15, 38:4, 40:24, 43:20, 43:49, 46:7, 51:31, 51:52, 52:15, 54:2, 61:6, 74:24). Sorcery
and its practice are supertitions that believers should avoid.
Talismans: There are people who hang objects on their body (azlaam)for protection instead of relying on Allah (p 97 5:3, 5:90).
Such actions are very demeaning to humans. How can a human who possesses an intellect rely for protection on a small object
that he manufactures himself and hangs around his neck?
Involvement of jinn: Jinn possess power that is used to
misguide and give credibility to shirk and
superstition. The jinn do not know the unseen ( p 289-9 -18, 34:14, 37:6-10, 67:5, 72:8). A good Muslim should not be involved with jinns and should ask Allah for protection against them (p 288 , 7:200, 16:98, 114:1-6).
Astrology (tanjim): Astrology is the belief
that movement of planets, stars, the sun, the moon can affect peoples’ lives. The astrologer uses these phenomena to
make predictions about disease or its cure. The astrologer (munajjim) is a liar
because he or she is trying to appropriate Allah’s prerogative of knowing the unseen (ghaib)