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ISLAMIC MEDICAL EDUCATION RESOURCES 04

9801-WORKSHOP ON THE ISLAMIC INPUT CURRICULUM INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY KULLIYAH OF MEDICINE

By Professor Omar Hasan Kasule

INTRODUCTION

0.1 VISION, MISSION, AND GOALS (RU’UYAT & RISAALAT )

0.1.1Background

0.1.2 Historical Evolution

0.1.3 Vision

0.1.4 Mission

0.1.5 Goals: Primary and Secondary

 

0.2 FIVE MAIN OBJECTIVES (AHDAAF ASAASIYYAT)

0.2.1 Concepts and Paradigms

0.2.2 Science and Iman

0.2.3 Fiqh and Medicine

0.2.4 The Social and Ethical Issues

0.2.5 Historical and Futuristic Perspectives

 

0.3 CHARACTERISTICS (KHUSUSIYYAT AL MANHAJ)

0.3.1 Tauhidi holistic comprehensive approach

0.3.2 Instructional

0.3.3 Use of Original Sources in Qur’an and Sunnat

0.3.4 Selectivity

0.3.5 Methodology of Analysis

 

0.4 HOW TO USE THE MANUAL (ISTIKHDAM AL MANHAJ)

0.4.1 Pedagogical Approach

0.4.2 Use of the Manual in a Class-room setting

0.4.3 Studying the Manual on Your Own

0.4.4 Ancillary Instructional Material

0.4.5 The Manual and Legal Ruling

 

CONTENTS OF THE 5-VOLUME SERIES ON THE ISLAMIC INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY AND PRACTICE OF MEDICINE

VOLUME ONE: BASIC CONCEPTS (MAFAHIIM ASAASIYAT)

1.0 The Creed (‘Aqidat)

2.0 Knowledge (‘Ilm)

The Universe (Kaun)

The Human (Insan)

5.0 Transitions In Human Life (Manazil al hayat)

 

VOLUME TWO: MEDICAL SCIENCE AND REVELATION (TIBB & WAHY)

6.0 The Human Body: A Biological Miracle (mu’ujizat al jism al insani)

7.0 Growth And Development (numuw al jism)

8.0 The Senses (hawaas)

9.0 The Organ Systems (a’adha)

10.0 The Human Mind (‘aql)

 

VOLUME THREE: MEDICINE AND JURISPUDENCE (TIBB & FIQH)

Law and Its Methodology (fiqh & usul al fiqh)

I2.0 Understanding Acts of Ibadat (fiqh al ibadat)

13.0 Normal Physiological Processes (wadaif al a’adha)

14.0 Disease Conditions (amradh al a’adha)

Court Procedures ( al qadha)

 

VOLUME FOUR: MEDICINE AND ETHICS (TIBB & AKHLAQ)

16.0 Societal Institutions (muassasaat al mujtamae)

17.0 Social  Issues (qadhayat al mujtamae)

18.0 The Physician (tabiib)

19.0 Bio-technology

20.0 Empirical Research (bahthi tajribi)

 

VOLUME FIVE: MEDICINE IN THE UMMAH: PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE

History (tarikh al tibb)

22.0 Current Status Of the Ummat’s Health (hadhir al sihat fi al ummat)

23.0 Medicine from the Qur’an (tibb Qur’ani)

24.0 Prophetic Medicine (tibb Nabawi)

Challenges (al tahaddiyaat

 

UNIT 1.0

THE CREED (‘AQIDAT)

 

1.1 ONE-NESS OF ALLAH (TAUHID)

1.1.1 Tauhid: The Islamic World-View

1.1.2 Tauhid Al Rububiyyat

1.1.3 Tauhid Al Uluhiyyat

1.1.4 Tauhid: Names Of Allah And Allah’s Attributes

1.1.5 Tauhid: Implications For Daily Life

 

1.2 FUNDAMENTALS OF RELIGION (USUL AL DDIIN)

1.2.1 The Religion Of Islam

1.2.2 Iman

1.2.3 Revelation (Angels, Messengers, Books)

1.2.4 The Last Day

1.2.5 Pre-Destination

 

1.3 WORSHIP (IBADAT)

1.3.1 Taqwa And Ibadat

1.3.2 Taharat And Salat

1.3.3 Fasting (Saum)

1.3.4 Giving (Infaq/Sadaqat)

1.3.5 Pilgrimage (Hajj)

 

1.4 SELF-PURIFICATION (TAZKIYAT)

1.4.1 Personality

1.4.2 Character, Habits, And Bahavior

1.4.3 Self-Improvement And Taking Charge

1.4.4 Constituents of A Good Character

1.4.5 Assertiveness and Self-confidence

 

1.5 SINNING (ITHM)

1.5.1 Nature & causes of sin

1.5.2 Nullification of ‘aqidat

Sins of the heart

Sins of the toungue

Transgression

 

UNIT  2.0

KNOWLEDGE (ILM)

 

2.1 NATURE OF KNOWLEDGE (TABI’AT AL MA’ARIFAT)

2.1.1 Basic Terminology and Concepts

2.1.2 History Of Human Knowledge

2.1.3 Sources Of Knowledge

2.1.4 Classification Of Knowledge

2.1.5 Limitations Of Human Knowledge

 

2.2 CRISIS OF KNOWLEDGE (AZMAT AL MA’ARIFAT)

2.2.1 Manifestations Of The Crisis: Quantity And Quality

2.2.2 Ummatic Malaise As A Result Of The Knowledge Crisis

2.2.3 Historical Background

2.2.4 Knowledge: A Pre-Requisite For Tajdid

2.2.5 Knowledge: Strategy, Obligation, and Etiquette

 

2.3 METHODOLOGY OF KNOWLEDGE (MANHAJ AL MARIFAT)

2.3.1 Historical background

2.3.2 Methodology From The Qur’an

2.3.3 Methodology From The Classical Islamic Sciences

2.3.4 Islamic Critique Of The Empirical Method

2.3.5 Towards An Islamic Methodology

 

2.4 ISLAMISATION OF KNOWLEDGE (ISLAMIYAT AL MARIFAT)

2.4.1 The Concept and History Of Islamisation

2.4.2 Reform Of Disciplines: Characteristics, Vision, Mission, And Goals

2.4.3 Misunderstanding Of The Discipline Reform Process

2.4.4 Practical Steps/Tasks Of The Reform Process

The Challenge

 

2.5 INTRODUCTION TO CLASSICAL ISLAMIC SCIENCES

2.5.1  Sciences of the Qur’an

2.5.2  Sciences of Hadith

2.5.3  Sciences of Sirat

2.5.4  Sciences of Theology

Fiqh and Usul al Fiqh

UNIT 3.0

THE UNIVERSE  (KAUN)

 

3.1 CREATION (KHALQ AL INSAN)

3.1.1 Nature And Purpose

3.1.2 The Ultimate Questions

3.1.3 Signs Of Allah In The Universe

3.1.4 Allah’s Will

3.1.5 Change And Permanence

 

3.2 ORDER (NIDHAM AL KAUN)

3.2.1 Order and Physical Laws

3.2.2 Self-Correcting Systems

3.2.3 Regulated/Constant Change

3.2.4 Complementation Of The Seen And The Unseen

3.2.5 Balance/Equilibrium

 

3.3 SUBSERVIENCE TO HUMANS (TASKHIR AL KAUN LI AL INSAN)

3.3.1 The Concept Of Taskhir

3.3.2 The Human Intellect: a Tool of Taskhir

3.3.3 The Food Chain

3.3.4 Natural Resources

3.3.5 The Eco-system

 

3.4 VICEGERANCY OF HUMANS (KHILAFAT AL INSAN)

3.4.1 Qur’anic definition of istikhlaf

3.4.2 Adam

3.4.3 The Prophets

3.4.4 The Righteous and the Reformers

3.4.5 Transgressors as examples of failure of khilafat

 

3.5 BUILDING CIVILISATION (ISTI’IMAR AL ARDH)

3.5.1 Qur’anic Definition of Isti’imar

3.5.2 The Concept and Use of Time

3.5.3 Planning, Implementing, and Evaluating Human Actions

3.5.4 The Life of the Prophet Muhammad as a Model

The Rise and Fall of Civilisations (al dawrat al hadhariyyat

UNIT 4.0

THE HUMAN (INSAN)

 

4.1 CREATION OF THE HUMAN (KHALQ AL INSAN)

4.1.1 The Creator Is Different From The Creation

4.1.2 Uniqueness Of Human Creation

4.1.3 Creation And Not Evolution

4.1.4 Special Cases Of Creation

4.1.5 Parity In Creation

 

4.2 NATURE OF THE HUMAN (TABI’AT AL INSAN)

4.2.1 The Natural State (Fitrat)

4.2.2 The Essence: nafs, qalb, ruh

4.2.3 Duality

4.2.4 Relation With The Unseen

4.2.5 Attributes

 

4.3 SUPERIORITY OF THE HUMAN (TAFDHIL AL INSAN)

4.3.1 Definition of Superiority

4.3.2 ‘Aql And ‘Ilm

4.3.3 Free Will And Accountability

4.3.4 Taskhir And Amanat

4.3.5 Akhlaq

 

4.4 VARIETIES OF HUMANS (TAFAUT AL BASHAR)

4.4.1 Common Biological Origin

4.4.2 Common Social Origin

4.4.3 Biological Similarities And Differences

4.4.4 Social Similarities And Differences

4.4.5 Individuality Of Every Person

 

4.5 MISSION OF THE HUMAN (RISALAT AL INSAN)

4.5.1 Definition

4.5.2 Scope

4.5.3 Duration

4.5.4 Success

4.5.5 Failure

UNIT 5.0

TRANSITIONS IN HUMAN LIFE

(MANAZIL AL HAYAT)

 

5.1 LIFE (HAYAT)

5.1.1 Definition

5.1.2 Nature Of Human Life

5.1.3 Criteria Of Life

5.1.4 Purpose of Life

5.1.5 Quality Of Life

 

5.2 DEATH (MAWT)

5.2.1 Definition Of Death

5.2.2 Nature Of Death

5.2.3 Attitude To Death

5.2.4 Causes Of Death

5.2.5 After Death

 

5.3 HEALTH (SIHAT & ‘AFIYAT)

5.3.1 The Concept Of Good Health

5.3.2 Gift Of Good Health

5.3.3 Iman And Good Health

5.3.4 Health Protection

5.3.5 Health Promotion

 

5.4 DISEASE (MARADH)

5.4.1 Definition

5.4.2 Classification Of Disease

5.4.3 Nature Of Human Disease

5.4.4 Causes Of Disease

5.4.5 Disease And Qadar

 

5.5 MEDICAL TREATMENT (TATBIIB)

5.5.1 Strategies And Approaches

5.5.2 Modalities Of Treatment

5.5.3 Halal And Haram Therapeutics

5.5.4 Side-Effects Vs Benefits

5.5.5 Superstition

UNIT 6.0

THE HUMAN BODY: A BIOLOGICAL MIRACLE (MU’UJIZAT AL JISM AL INSANI)

 

6.1 PERFECTION (KAMAL) and OPTIMALITY (AHSAN TAQWIM)

6.1.1 Concepts

6.1.2 Manifestations: Anatomy

6.1.3 Manifestations: Physiology

6.1.4 Manifestations: Biochemistry & Pharmacology

6.1.5 Manifestations: Biophysics

 

6.2 CONTROL

6.2.1 Concepts

6.2.2 Anatomy

6.2.3 Physiology

Biochemistry & Pharmacology

6.2.5 Bio-physics

 

6.3 EQUILIBRIUM (TAWAZUN) and HOMEOSTASIS (‘I’ITIDAL)

6.3.1 Concept

Cardio-vascular homeostasis

Renal excretory homeostasis

6.3.4 Respiratory homeostasis

6.3.5 Homeostatic control of chemical reactions

 

NO COMPARABILITY (NAFIYU AL MUQARANAT)

6.4.1 Concept

6.4.2 Biological systems

6.4.3 Chemical systems

6.4.4 Mechanical systems

6.4.5 Energy systems

 

6.5 INTERACTIONS WITH THE ENVIRONMENT

6.5.1 Concept

6.5.2 Physical Environment

6.5.3 Biological environment

6.5.4 Micro-biological environment

6.5.5 Chemical environmentUNIT 7.0

GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT

(NUMUW AL JISM)

 

7.1 INTRA-UTERINE (RAHIM)

7.1.1 The Origins: clay, nutfat, water, and conception

7.1.2 Conception/fertilisation

7.1.3 Embryological correlations

7.1.4 Stage of Establishment (nash’at)

7.1.5 The external and internal environments

 

INFANCY  &  CHILDHOOD (TUFUULAT)

7.2.1 Definition

7.2.2 Dependency on parents

Children in the Qur’an

Growth: physical

7.2.5 Growth: psychological & social

 

7.3 YOUTH (SINN AL SHUDD)

Definition

Youths in the Qur’an

Adolescence

The young adult

Challenges to youths

 

7.4 MIDDLE AGE (SINN AL RUSHD)

7.4.1 Definition Of Middle Age

7.4.2 Middle Age As The Productive Age

7.4.3 Biological Aspects

7.4.4 Psychological Aspects

7.4.5 Social Aspects

 

7.5 OLD AGE (SHAYKHUUKHAT)

7.5.1  Definition

7.5.2  Decline: Physical

7.5.3  Psychological Aspects

7.5.4  Social Aspects

7.5.5 Actualisation

UNIT 8.0       

THE SENSES (HAWAS)

 

8.1  VISION (BASAR)

8.1.1 Concepts

8.1.2 Anatomical aspects

8.1.3 Limitations and deception of the human eye

8.1.4 The eye as a seat of emotional expression

8.1.5  Blindness (‘ama)

 

8.2  HEARING (SAM’U) AND EQUILIBRIUM (ISTIWA)

8.2.1 Anatomy

8.2.2 Physical aspects

8.2.3 Human hearing

8.2.4 Deafness: physical and meta-physical

8.2.5 The Sense of Geo-balance

 

8.3  CHEMICAL SENSATIONS

8.3.1 The nose and smelling

8.3.2 Taste

8.3.3 Chemo-receptors

8.3.4 Osmo-receptors

8.3.5 Glucoceptors

 

8.4 SURFACE SENSORY SYSTEM

8.4.1 Pressure and touch (lams)

8.4.2 Propioception

8.4.3 Pain

8.4.4 Heat

8.4.5 Cold

 

8.5  OTHER SENSORY MODALITIES

8.5.1 Hunger

8.5.2 Thirst

8.5.3 Visceral sensation

8.5.4 Muscle sensation

8.5.5 Baro-receptors

UNIT 9.0       

THE  ORGAN SYSTEMS (A’ADHA)

 

9.1 URO-GENITAL SYSTEM (JIHAZ BAWLI & JIHAZ TANASULI)

9.1.1 Excretion

9.1.2 The Genitalia

9.1.3 The Nutfat

9.1.4 Sex Determination

9.1.5 Heredity

 

9.2 MUSCULO-SKELETAL SYSTEM (‘IDHAAM & ‘ADHALAAT)

9.2.1 External Organs Described in the Qur’an

9.2.2 The Upper Limb and Manipulation

9.2.3 The Lower Limb and Mobility

9.2.4 Social Interaction

9.2.5 Vocalisation and Language

 

CARDIO-RESPIRATORY SYSTEM (DDAM & TANAFFUS)

9.3.1 Blood as the Essence of Mammalian Life

9.3.2 The Heart

9.3.3 The Circulation

9.3.4 Lymphatic Drainage

9.3.5 Respiration

 

9.4 ALIMENTARY SYSTEM (MAIDAT)

9.4.1 Food

9.4.2 Digestion and Absorption

9.4.3 Elimination

9.4.4 Metabolism

9.4.5 Nutritional Disorders

 

9.5 PROTECTIVE SYSTEMS

9.5.1 Surfaces and Membranes

9.5.2 Connective Tissues

9.5.3 The Immune Defence System

9.5.4 Hemostasis

9.5.5 Endocrine System


UNIT 10.0

THE MIND (‘AQL)

 

10.1 THE NERVOUS SYSTEMS (JIHAZ AL ASABI)

10.1.1 Central and Peripheral Systems

10.1.2 Conscious & Unconscious Functions

10.1.3 Information: Input, Storage, Processing, Output

10.1.4 Motor Co-ordination

10.1.5 Human Behaviour

 

10.2 THE INTELLECTUAL FUNCTION (‘AQL)

Human Thought

Sensory perception

Consciousness

Human knowledge

Human language

 

10.3 THE SLEEP FUNCTION (NAWM)

10.3.1 Biological Clock

10.3.2 Purpose of Sleep

10.3.3 Normal Sleep

10.3.4 Sleep Disturbances

10.3.5 Dreams

 

10.4 THE LEARNING (TA”LLUM) MEMORY (DHHAKIRAT) FUNCTIONS

10.4.1 Learning

10.4.2 Nature of Human Memory

10.4.3 Forgetting and Remembering

10.4.4 Reminding

10.4.5 Improving Memory

 

10.5 HUMAN EMOTIONS and MOTIVATION

10.5.1 Concepts

10.5.2 Pleasant

10.5.3 Un-pleasant

10.5.4 Stress

10.5.5 Control & Regulation

0.1 VISION, MISSION, & GOALS (al-RU’UYAT & al-RISALAT)

 

0.1.1 BACKGROUND

The idea of writing this manual arose when I was asked by the dean of newly-established faculty of medicine at the International Islamic University in Malaysia to suggest the Islamic input into the medical curriculum. I submitted some suggestions that were accepted and were subsequently approved by the university senate.

 

Library search and discussions with colleagues revealed that there was no published text or ready reference material that could be used by medical students and medical teachers. I sought Allah’s guidance and sustenance is starting what turned out to be a challenging yet immensely rewarding task. I relied a lot on what I have learned from my peers, my students, and my seniors over the past 15 years involvement in Islamic Dawa, Islamic Thought, and Islamic Medicine projects, to all of them I owe a big debt of gratitude.

 

0.1.2 HISTORICAL EVOLUTION

In the course of planning the manual, several colleagues at IIU, medical teachers from other universities and general medical practitioners expressed the need for a manual that they could refer to in their practice and teaching. A suggestion was made to prepare the manual for a wider audience extending beyond medical students. I accepted this idea and embarked on this task after asking for Allah’s sustenance and guidance. Expanding the scope of the work for a wider audience was a challenging task but it was worth the effort.  I had to cater for the needs of a diverse audience by trying to be comprehensive but not boring.

 

This is the first edition of the manual published jointly by the International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) Press and the Institute of Human Development (IHD). It is written with the Malaysian reader in mind. The preferences of the Shafite school in definition and use of fiqh concepts has been used without mention of alternative views of other schools of jurisprudence. Subsequent editions for use in other parts of the world will INSHALLAH be published by IHD and other publishers all over the world with some modifications.

 

0.1.3 VISION

The vision of the manual has two separate but closely-related components: Islamisation and medical ethics. Islamisation deals with putting medicine in an Islamic context in terms of epistemology, values, and attitudes. Medical ethics deals with issues in the ‘grey area’ for which simple categorisation as good & bad, legal & illegal is not easy.

 

The manual contributes to the Islamisation of medical sciences by bridging the dichotomy between traditional Islamic sciences and the medical sciences. The manual can be used as a basis for further development of Islamic Medicine concepts. It is hoped that students of medicine who use this manual will be inspired to write and develop new concepts of Islamic Medicine.

 

The manual also contributes to the evolution of an ethical system or ethical guidelines that can help the Muslim physician and the patient make the best decisions in difficult circumstances that arise out of the recent developments in medical technology.

 

0.1.4 MISSION

The mission of the project is quite modest. It aims at placing in the hands of the medical student and the medical teacher a manual that is easy to read and to use in a class-room situation. The manual contains all the information that a teacher and student needs for purposes of the medical curriculum. The medical practitioner will also be able to have a manual that is easy to refer to in dealing with day-to-day problems that arise. A sophisticated index has been prepared to enable the practitioner  use the manual as a ready reference.

 

0.1.5 GOALS: PRIMARY AND SECONDARY

The project has primary and secondary goals. The primary goal is summarised in the five objectives mentioned below. These 5 objectives are mainly pedagogical. They are closely inter-related. Their formulation reflects the comprehensive approach of Islam which combines the material and the spiritual into one harmonious entity for the service of humanity and the universe as a whole.

 

The secondary goal is to contribute to the general Islamic understanding and awareness of the reader. Properly used, the manual serves more than the teaching of Islamic concepts in medicine. The reader can get a lot of general knowledge about Islam. Many verses of the Qur’an and hadiths have been quoted with their interpretations. Readers can learn a lot about Muslim historical contribution to the development of medical sciences. The keen reader can also acquire a lot of Islamic terminology. An attempt has been made to introduce Islamic terminology so that readers and trainees can start using it in their work and discourse.

 

0.2 FIVE MAIN OBJECTIVES (AHDAAF ASAASIYYAT)

0.2.1 CONCEPTS AND PARADIGMS

The first objective is the introduction of islamic paradigms and concepts related to medicine (Mafahiim Islamiyat fi al Tibb). The Muslim physicians must have some general concepts deriving from Islamic teachings that can guide their work and research. These concepts can be grouped in five major categories: (a) The Islamic creed (aqidat Islamiyyat) (b) General concepts of knowledge (ilm & marifat)  (c) The universe (kaun), (d) the human (insan) (e) Concepts relating to transitions in the human condition: life (hayat), death (mawt), health (sihat), disease (maradh), and medical treatment (tatbiib).

 

0.2.2 SCIENCE AND IMAN

The second objective is strengthening iman through study of Allah’s sign in the human body (al tibb mihrab al iman). This study leads to the conclusion that there must be a powerful and deliberate creator because such a sophisticated organism could not arise by chance. Contemplation of the structure and functioning of the human body lead a normal person to appreciation of the power of the Creator and to believe in Him. The following are ways in which this can be achieved: (a) Appreciating the order and harmony of human growth and development (b) Appreciating organ systems as a gift from Allah (c) Appreciating the tauhidi integrating paradigm as reflected in the well coordinated body physiology.

 

0.2.3 FIQH AND MEDICINE

The third objective is understanding the fiqh aspects of health and disease (al fiqh wa al Tibb). There is a close interaction between injunctions of Islamic law, fiqh, and medical practice. Muslim physicians must be aware of the general concepts so that they can give preliminary advice to the patients. Diseases and their treatment interfere with the patient’s duties to Allah and also to other humans and sometimes difficult choices must be made. A well trained physician should be able to understand the various options available and to explain them well to enable the patient make an informed decision. Fiqhi aspects of medicine can be categorized in groups: (a) Medical and health issues of iman, salat,  saum, zakat, hajj, dhikr, tilawat al Qur’an (b) Fiqh issues in normal physiological processes: female issues (breast-feeding, menstruation, pregnancy), excretion of waste (urination, defecation, flatus, toilet hygiene), nutrition (eating and drinking), mental/psychological processes (sleep, memory, fatigue, moods), and sexual relations (c) Fiqhi  issues in disease conditions: (understanding the impact of disease on ibadat obligations and the impact of disease on human and social obligations) (d) Understanding medical aspects of applying shariat: medical forensic  evidence and punishments.

 

0.2.4 SOCIAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES

The fourth objective is understanding the social and ethical issues in medical practice and research (al qadhaya al ijtima’iyat wa al akhlaqiyat fi al tibb). Medicine is not taught or practised in a social or ethical vacuum. Good physicians must understand how social issues impact on health, disease and medical treatment. They also must appreciate how medical practice can create or solve social and ethical problems. The physician is the first recourse to patient and their families in trying to make an informed decision when confronted by an ethical issue. The physician while not expected to make a legal ruling (fatwa), must know and understand the issues involved from Islamic and medical perspectives and guide the patients to the most appropriate choices.

 

The socio-ethical issues involved here can be divided into 3 categories: (a) Social issues: Understanding medicine from the context of a social system, eradication of social root causes of disease (b) The physician and professional ethics: The amanat of being professionally competent, etiquettes with patients and colleagues, medicine as service and not exploitation Ethical issues in medicine and research: ethical issues due to technological advances in medicine, ethics of research and violation of human and animal rights.

 

0.2.5 HISTORICAL AND FUTURE PERSECTIVES

The fifth objective is understanding medicine in the ummah from historic and futuristic perspectives (tarikh wa mustaqbal al tibb). The medical student is motivated and inspired by appreciating the medical heritage of the Islamic civilization. The following issues are covered under this objective: The evolution of medical knowledge and practice since the first century of hijra, achievements of Muslims in medicine, tibb Qur’ani, tibb nabawi, tibb Islami, and islamization of medical sciences.

 

0.3 CHARACTERISTICS (KHUSUSIYYAT AL MANHAJ)

0.3.1 TAUHIDI HOLISTIC COMPREHENSIVE APPROACH

The manual is written from a wholisitic tauhidi paradigm that does not look at medicine as a science and art isolated from the rest of society. When medical issues are discussed, reference is made to relevant social and spiritual aspects.

 

A basic paradigm of this manual is that medicine and medical treatment are comprehensive involving physical, psychological, social and moral aspects. It therefore tries to be inclusive and discuss all factors that directly or indirectly affect human well-being or ill health. This paradigm is a practical consequence of the integrative  tauhidi paradigm that is the basis of the Islamic civilization.

 

The medical curriculum for which this manual is prepared aims at producing a physician who is not only skilled in scientific medicine but also understands the spiritual and social aspects of disease. Such a physician looks at the patient as a whole person living in a social and spiritual milieu and not just as a collection of symptoms and signs. The physician’s approach to medical problems is not only scientific and technical but extends to other aspects of the patient’s life that affect overall well-being.

 

0.3.2 INSTRUCTIONAL

The manual is primarily a text book to be used in the Kulliyyah of Medicine at IIUM.  It covers the approved Islamic input in the medical curriculum. It contains all the information that the student and the lecturer need. It has comprehension questions, discussions and exercises. An attempt has been made to make it easy to read and use. The vocabulary, style of writing are selected in such a way that the manual is easy to read and to translate into other languages as well as to adapt for interactive computer-based instruction and educational multi-media. Illustrations in the form of computer-generated line drawings and tabulations have been used liberally to ease understanding.

 

The manual has been written in such a way that it can be used by nursing, dental, pharmacy, and other allied medical professions in addition to practising physicians, jurists (fuqaha), and other non-medical persons who have a general scientific background. Simple vocabulary has been used, medical terminology has been simplified to make the manual easy reading for the non-medical specialist. Summarized background information on anatomy, physiology, and pathology of diseases is included. The medical specialist can skip the background sections that are included for the non-specialist.

One of the instructional objectives of the manual is to introduce as much Islamic terminology as is possible into the ordinary professional and concersational vocabulary of the student. As a consenquence many Arabic terms are used being trabslated the first time they are encountered and left untranslated subsequently.

 

The manual is organized in 5 volumes each containing 5 units and each unit consiting of 5-10 subunits. The 5 volumes of the manual are: Basic Islamic Concepts, Science and Faith, Fiqh and Medicine, Social and Ethical issues in Medicine, and Medicine in the Ummah: Past, Present, and Future. An overview at the start of each volume gives the main ideas and themes in that part. These volumes are published as separately each corresponding roughly to each of the 5 years of the medical course.

 

The first volume presents basic Islamic concepts and main paradigms that form the premises for the arguments presented in subsequent volumes of the manual. The second volume, Science and Faith, shows the student the power and majesty of Allah’s creation by analysing organs and tissues of the human body (embryology, anatomy and physiology) to show that there is order and harmony. The third part presents fiqhi issues that students will encounter in their daily life as practising physicians. The fourth part presents social and ethical issues that are encountered in medical practice especially with the rapid advances in medical technology. The fifth part presents the history of medicine in the ummah and uses it as an inspiration to the young physician to work for a distinct Islamic expression in medicine that will lead to Islamization of medical sciences.

 

Each sub-unit is self-contained, can be studied alone, and has enough material for a 2-hour class-room session. The sub-unit is divided into several sections: outlines, line drawing illustrations of the medical facts, short quotations from the Qur’an and seerah under the title ‘pearls of wisdom’, basic concepts,  texts from the Qur’an and hadith to be analyzed, key words, discussion questions and exercises, a summary in the form of a table, references, recommended additional readings, and end-notes.

 

The outlines’ section gives the basic concepts in an outline form that can be used as transparencies or slides during presentations. These transparencies and slides are sold separately as ancillary instructional material. The ‘Basic Concepts’ section is the longest section of each unit. It can be the basis of a lecture presentation on the topic before discussion of the case. It is written in easy-flowing prose almost conversational so that it can be recorded on a video on audio cassette and used in instructional programs. The ‘Texts’ section is a collection of verses of the Qur’an, hadiths, and sayings of the companions of the Prophet that relate to the subject being discussed are presented as 10-20 word quotes that help drive home the concepts being presented. The Arabic original is placed alongside the translation. This spares the reader the trouble of looking up reference material in another volume. Each text or group of texts is accompanied by comprehension and discussion questions. The ‘discussion’ section consists of issues for discussion in addition to practical exercises. These exercises are an integral part of the learning process and have to be taken as serious as other parts of the unit. The exercises are based either on the student experiences or on reports and data specifically selected for the purpose. The students have to analyze such data in the light of the concepts covered in the unit. The ‘unit summary’ is a concise statement of the main concepts of the unit. It is presented in the form of tables or diagrams that are easy to review quickly for recapitulation of the material. The list of ‘key terms’ is provided to aid memory and recollection. References to the paragraphs in which the term appears are given to facilitate review and discussion. These key words are used in searching for particular information in the computerized version of the manual. Basic ‘references’ used in preparing the material are provided. An attempt is made to povide a complete bibliographic citation where possible.

 

An attempt has been made to include as many relevant Muslim writings as possible. A list of ‘recommended additional readings’ is provided for those interested in more advanced understanding. This list will be continually up-dated. The ‘end-notes’ give sources of texts used. In case of verses of the Qur’an, the occasion of revelation (sabab al nuzul) is given and an explanation of how it relates to the subjects is given unless it is an obvious case. Commentaries on both Qur’an and hadith from the most reliable and famous commentaries are provided. Other explanatory notes are also given on all sections of the unit. ‘Indexes’ of ayats, hadith, proper names, subject are provided at the end of the manual for easy reference. A ‘glossary of Islamic and medical terminology’ is provided.

 

0.3.3 USE OF ORIGINAL SOURCES IN QUR’AN AND SUNNAT

The manual is written using original sources  from the Quran and Hadith as well as established medical knowledge.

 

Qur’an: Verses of the Qur’an were quoted from Yusuf Ali’s translation of the Holy Qur’an in English were used with some language editing to make the meanings clear. Old unfamiliar words were replaced by new and modern ones. Two authors of tafsir through reports (tafsir bi al ma’thur) were used to interpret verses: al Tabari (d. 311 AH/923 AD) and Ibn Kathir (d 774 AH).  Additional tafsir references used were: Al Qurtubi (d.   AH), al Bukhari (d    ), al Shawkani, Sayyid Qutb (d     ), al Maududi (d     ). The tafsir of each verse is in the end notes.

 

Hadith: Hadiths were from the following recognised  compilations of hadith: Sahih al-Bukhari (d. 256 AH/870 AD), Sahih of Muslim (d. 262 AH/875 AD), Sunan Abu Daud (d....) , Sunan al Tirmidhi (d....), Sunan Ibn Majah (d....), Sunan al Nisae (d....), Musnad Ahmad (d. 241 AH/855 AD), Muwatta Malik (d. 179 AH/794 AD), Sunan of Aldaylami (d....), Kitab al sunana al kubrah of Bayhaqi, and musnad al Darimi, . Published English translations were used where available but they were always checked against the original Arabic.

 

Hadith commentaries: The following hadith commentaries were consulted: Fath al Bari (commentary on Sahih al Bukhari) by Ibn Hajar al Askalani, Umdat al Qari Sharh Sahih al Bukhari by Shaikh Badr al Dddiin al Olayni, Commentary on Sahih Muslim by ...., Commentary on Sahih al Tirmidhi by Abu Bakr bin al Arabi, commentary on Musnad Abu Daud by Abu Taib Muhammad Shams al Haqq and Al hafith Ibn al Qayyim al Jawziyyah, commentary on Muwatta Malik by Zarqani. The commentary on each hadith is given in the end notes

 

Fiqh: It has been assumed throughout the writing of this manual that each generation produces its own corpus of fiqh by interpreting the revelation and making ijtihad in the context of its spatial and temporal situation. The fiqh of the great scholars of Muslim history was the best for their times and would not always be relevant to our times. We therefore have gone back to the original sources, Qur’an and sunnah, and looked at them from the problems and challenges of our times. Very few of the conclusions of ancient writings have been quoted. However their methodology of analysis has been most useful and has been employed.

 

Medical science: The most up to date material available in reputable journals and books in Malaysia at the time of writing has been used. The usual textbooks for medical students were used as basic references on medical matters. Journal artciles were used as supplements for the most up to date information

 

0.3.4 SELECTIVITY

The manual does not have the slightest pretension to cover all the details of Islamic Medicine. It provides basic principles and guidelines upon which further developments can be built. This manual is selective. It reflects the author’s experience and reading. Included are issues that the author considers important. There may be other issues that are equally important but have not been included because the author either has no knowledge or experience of them. No attempt is made to expose, compare, or discuss different points of view as is customary in academic papers. The material in this manual has to be supplemented and has to be continuously adapted to changing circumstances.

 

0.3.5 METHODOLOGY OF ANALYSIS

The manual has followed a consistent methodology in analysis of medical phenomena in the light of the Qur’an and sunnat. Biological phenomena are presented as a miracle of the human body. The student is led to appreciate the majesty of Allah’s creation by pointing out the following recurring patterns in all organ systems: parity, symmetry, reserve functional capacity, functional adaptation, harmony and coordination

Fiqh and ethical issues are analysed based on original sources in the text (nass) of Qur’an and hadith as well as two Purposes of the Law (maqasid al sharia) and Principals of the Law (al qawaid al fiqhiyyat al kulliyat) that are directly derivable from the primary textual sources

 

0.4 HOW TO USE THE MANUAL (ISTIKHDAM AL MANHAJ)

0.4.1 PEDAGOGICAL APPROACH

Interactive discussion: The interactive/discussion approach is used and not the traditional lecture format. The aim is to raise curiosity, interest, consciousness, and not to indoctrinate. The student should come out of the course knowing what the real issues are, why they are important issues, and can intelligently discuss the available solutions alternatives and choose the best.

 

Text/case analysis method: Verses of the Qur’an, hadiths, and texts of cases are the basis for each class session discussion.  They are selected in such a way that they convey the Islamic concept(s) on the topic(s) being taught in the general medical course. The verses of the Qur’an and hadiths concerned are written directly in the manual in both Arabic and translation.

 

0.4.2 USE OF THE MANUAL IN A CLASS-ROOM SETTING

Time Allocation For the Curriculum (tawqiit al manhaj): Regular sessions are envisioned. The Islamic input is regular throughout the 5-year course of study. It is estimated that about 25% of the curriculum can be taught as special sessions on the Islamic input. The rest will be taught as part of the regular medical lessons by the lecturers concerned. The lecturer will mention the Islamic aspscts of whatever topic they are teaching.

 

Relation to general curriculum: The Islamic input closely follows the relevant topics that are being taught in the general medical course. This  enables the student to integrate information from more than one source in order to achieve a comprehensive understanding without being confused.

 

Hours needed: It is estimated that 10.0 hours suffice for each of the 25 units in the manual. Each unit is covered in 5 class-room sessions each lasting 2.0 hours. The student needs 30 minutes for each session to study the material before class. In the class the instructor leads discussions for 30-60 minutes and summarize the main points in the remaining 30 minutes. The manual consists of more material than is needed for the purposes of the curriculum so that students interested in more detailed aspects can read on their own.

 

Non-specialist Instructors For The Curriculum (muddaris al manhaj): The material is presented at an introductory non-specialised level.  Any Muslim lecturer with basic knowledge of Islam can teach the material using the manual and teaching guidelines that are provided. A workshop will be held for instructors at the start of each block to prepare them.

 

Integration with the general medical curriculum: It is proposed that the teacher of each medical subject should also teach its Islamic input to be able to integrate the material well.  Guest speakers may be brought in for specific topics that require more specialist handling.

 

Assessment Of Student Progress: Questions on the Islamic input are included in the written and oral tests and examinations that are given to students. The questions are not put in a separate section but are fully integrated with the rest of the medical questions. These questions however can not be more than 5% of the total grade points for the examination in order to preserve the professional integrity of the questions. The assessment will not look for retention of specific facts. It will assess general understanding of the concepts and methodological approaches to be used in practical situations outside the class-room when the future physician encounters actual practical problems and conceptual challenges.

 

0.4.3 STUDYING THE MANUAL ON YOUR OWN

Readership: The manual has been written in such a way that it can be used equally well by the specialist and non-specialist readers. The medical specialist can skip the basic medical facts in each unit. The specialist in fiqh can skip the sections on the basics of the sharia. Each unit is free-standing so that a reader can read only those topics that interest him or her.

 

Method of reading: Scan the outline at the beginning of each unit and the summary at the end of the unit. Then read quickly through the questions and discussion items. Read the basic concepts section carefully because it has the major points to be learned. The text should then be skimmed through to get an idea of the contents. This should be followed by a careful reading involving underlining important words and phrases. A third reading of the text should aim at identifying the issues/problems being raised, whether information is complete, what additional information and/or assumptions are needed. After that an attempt should be made to answer the questions at the end.

 

 

0.4.4 ANCILLARY INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL

Audio-visual aids: The manual is published with slides and coloured acetate transparencies that can be ordered separately; they are basically outlines of the units. They can be used directly by a trainer who does not have the time to prepare. The manual has been recorded both on video and audio tapes. Each unit has been condensed to a 1-hour live presentation with interaction, questions, and workshop sessions. In case of audio tapes the listener will have to use a work-book with the outlines to be able to follow.

 

Instructor’s manual: An instructor’s manual with suggested answers to case-studies, comprehension and discussion questions is provided separately to instructors. It is accompanied by a follow-along work-book, and complete lesson plans.

 

Multi-media: The manual is being adapted for multi-media and interactive computer use. It is also available on-line so that students can access it any time.

 

Further reading: Selected articles from recognized journals are available for further reading. Those who will have purchased the manual will get regular updates of this list.

 

0.4.5 THE MANUAL AND LEGAL RULINGS

Not a manual of legal rulings: This manual does not present ready solutions for practical medico-legal or medico-ethical problems and should not be used as a source of legal opinion (hukm & fatwa). Its main purpose is to present the issues involved, discuss the various options available from the Islamic and medical perspectives and leave it to the reader to make his/her choices.

 

Holistic thinking (tafkiir shumuuli): The manual does not pesent issues as isolated problems. Each issue is presented in its social, legal, medical, and spiritual-religious perspectives so that an informed solution can be formlated. Attempts have been made to avoid the crisis of partial solutions (juz’iyyat) that has paralyzed the Muslim mind for a long time and has prevented it from being creative and innovative.

 

Final choice with patient and family: A basic assumption of the manual is that in complicated matters involving ethics and shariat, it is the individual (s) involved (the patient or close family) who should make the decision and choice. The role of physicians and fuqaha is to make sure that the choice made is an informed one based on correct facts and a clear understanding of the various options involved and the implications of each.

 

0.5 OVERVIEW OF VOLUME ONE OF THE MANUAL

The first volume clarifies 5 basic themes/concepts relating to medicine: the creed,  the 3 fundamentals of religion, concepts of knowledge, concepts of the universe, concepts about the human being, and concepts relating to transitions in human life (life & death, health & disease) as well as medical treatment.

 

There is a logical sequence in the presentation of the 4 themes. ‘aqidat al tauhid’ is the basis of human civilisation and is the integrating concept for all phenomena of the universe. Knowledge, its essence and methodology is needed to understand religion and the universe. From there we move to understanding the universe, its creation and the fundamental laws that assure that it is orderly and harmonious. The human being is a unique creation that has to be understood within the context of the universe and is at the same time the subject-matter of medicine. Finally we deal with transitions or changes in human life. Humans are born and die. They are healthy and fall sick and could become healthy again. Medicine and medical treatment are intimately concerned with these transitions in human life.

 

0.6 GENERAL ARABIC REFERENCES

The following works have been used as references throughout the manual. The complete bibliographic citations are given here and will not be repeated in each unit. The references are arranged in alphabetical order according to the author’s last name

Omar Hasan Kasule, Sr. January 1998