This paper argues that Islamic
youth organisations should undertake organised and structured training programs to cover the performance gap that they experience.
It deals with the analysis of training needs, writing training objectives, designing course material, delivery skills and
technics. It presents the suggested curriculum content.
1.1 Performance gap
The performance gap is the difference
between the potential and actual performance of organisations and individuals. Many individuals and communities all over the
world are experiencing phenomena of revival and renewal. There is a new reawakening and a determination to make tomorrow better
than yesterday. However the zeal, commitment and efforts of the revival have not been perfectly or completely translated into
practical results that everyone can see in the society. The practical achievements fall far short of the potential. Success
in building and managing institutions, the backbone of real and sustained change, has been limited in several communities
and countries. The gap between aspirations and achievements is due to a relative deficiency of practical skills in leadership
and management. These skills are not in-born. They can be taught or developed through experience on the job.
Individuals and organisations
we pay a high price in terms of lost opportunities for the continued existence of the performance gap. On the job training
is needed to cover the gap. Training is an investment in people, the most valuable resource that an organisation has. Investment
in training has a very high future pay-off in terms of better performance, productivity, and growth. Preponderant majority
of workers and activists are either untrained or self-trained in the field of leadership and management skills. Rapid advances
in technology make skills obsolete. Continuous retraining is needed to maintain effectiveness
1.2 What is training?
To put training in perspective,
you should be able to distinguish it from 2 related concepts: education and development. Training is essentially learning
on the job. It aims at equipping the worker with practical skills that are usable immediately on the job. Training in this
sense differs from education and development. Education is acquisition of general knowledge. It is academic and may not necessarily
be usable in a practical work situation. Development is general improvement in knowledge and skills that occurs passively
as an individual belongs to a certain group and stays in it.
Leadership skills can be learned
by reading and thinking about leadership styles, and observing successful leaders, practical experience and learning from
failures and successes, and formal training programs. The present program concentrates on formal training. Participants are
taught specific practical skills at each training seminar. A word of caution is called for here. Leadership and management
can not be learned solely in a class-room. Formal training programs serve only to open the gate to the major learning that
occurs in the school of life and practical experience. learning from practical experience is enhanced by the guidelines provided
by the formal training.
1.3 Vision, mission, goals and
objectives of LTP
The vision we have set ourselves
is to bring about a major qualitative change in the leadership and management of Islamic organisations and projects: efficiency,
effectiveness, professionalism, and achievement of targets set.
The mission of the present Leadership
Training Program is to close the performance gap described above within the next 5-year period 1415-1420 AH. The program is
a serious attempt to improve the effectiveness of Islamic work over the long-term. It is not a quick-fix or a first aid measure.
The LTP program is being executed all over the world as a series of executive training seminars.
The LTP has the following goals:
(a) equip selected leaders with planning, organisational and managerial skills needed for the present stage of work (b) prepare
them as trainers of others so that these skills may be spread to all levels of Islamic work (c) provide an opportunity for
leaders of different backgrounds to analyse their programs using new leadership and organisational concepts that will be introduced
in the program (d) motivate workers to return from the program with new insights and drive for success. A trainee should leave
the training session with higher motivation and self-confidence.
The objectives of each training
seminar are: (a) teach a skill or a group of leadership and management skills, (b) apply the skills in practical work and
(c) teach the skills to others
1.4 Basic Philosophy of LTP
The basic philosophy of the leadership
training program is: Training trainers, teaching practical skills, repetitive continuous training.
Training Trainers: participants will be equipped with training skills that they will use in training programs that will be held later
in various parts of the country. Thus both content and the methodology of the training are important. It is expected that each participant will be able to repeat the training program in his local area or in
Teaching Practical Skills: the assumption is that the work has reached a stage of maturity
in which the basic philosophy, ideas and concepts of the work are well understood. We have to move to the next stage of starting
and managing institutions. This stage requires practical organisational and managerial skills. The training program will deal
exclusively with the acquisition of practical skills in leadership and management.
Repetitive continuous training to ensure continuing improvement in performance.
1.5 Targets of LTP
The program targets various categories
of leaders and managers. The material presented as well as the method of presentation differ and take the target group into
The following groups can benefit
from the program: community leaders, leaders and managers of organisations (women, youths, schools, students, labour &
professional), religious leaders, business leaders, parents and individuals who want to improve themselves.
1.6 Selection of participants
The following criteria are employed
in selecting participants for the training program: Leadership potential, Teachability, Teaching ability, Diffusion of ideas.
Leadership Potential: selection will be limited to those who have been involved in organising and leading others in the field. The program
is intended to enhance the practical skills of persons who are already leaders or managers. This is not a program on theoretical
Teachability since the program will be imparting new skills, methodologies and approaches; only those who are able to learn
and absorb new ideas and skills should be selected. Persons who hold some
concepts dogmatically and are not willing to consider alternatives will not benefit from the program
Teaching Ability: the program aims at training trainers. Participants will be expected to transfer the knowledge and skills acquired
to others. They must therefore be able to teach others. Only those participants who can teach and possess effective
communication skills will benefit from the program
Diffusion of ideas: participants should be selected in such a way that various parts of the country are represented. This will ensure
wide diffusion of the ideas and skills learned.
1.7 Methodology of LTP
As mentioned at the beginning
the aim of LTP is training. You have to avoid a situation of teaching without training.
The knowledge and skills imparted
in training are the same however the methods used differ according to circumstances of time, place, audience, and trainer.
What works in one setting may not work in another. Methods used for youths may not work with older persons.
The training program has been
planned to be used in an interactive classroom session with plenty of time for trainee participation in case studies, exercises,
and workshop discussions. The material has also been adapted for audio and video cassettes. It will soon be available as an
interactive computer training program.
Although this program has been
prepared specifically for interactive class-room presentation, it is easily adaptable for other training methods for example:
mentoring, traditional lecture format. In such cases only the basic concept section of the training material may be used.
Training aids enhance the quality
of training but are not in themselves a method of training. They can not be a substitute for good planning and presentation
of the training material.
The material for this program
can be used for mentoring as well. Mentoring is an excellent training method that has fallen into disuse over the years. It
generally operates informally but it is possible to set up formal organisational mentoring programs. Success of mentoring
depends a lot on the protege-mentor relationship. This relationship could have positive and negative aspects.
Interactive presentations and analysis of case studies are the main methods of instruction. The format will avoid the traditional
lecture type of presentation. The 'speaker' acts as a facilitator and the participants
are required to participate actively in the discussions. Since the participants are selected on the basis of demonstrated
prior leadership ability and experience, each one of them will have a contribution that will enrich the program overall. The
availability of a work-book with an outline greatly facilitates the interactive format. Presenters use overhead projectors
or flip-charts to enable the participants follow the presentations. An interactive presentation is made in the plenary sessions.
There are small group discussions of the topics and case analysis followed by a general workshop.
A work-book with outlines
of all the presentations is provided to all participants to encourage active participation. This is a work-along work-book
that is used throughout the training session. The outlines are written in such a way that they convey minimal information
and are therefore not a substitute for active listening and participation. Some of them are in the form of questions. The
participants have to listen carefully and attentively to the lecture or participate actively in the discussions to be able
to take down notes in the workbook. Note-taking is emphasised as a major pedagogical tool. The participants are trained to
be trainers. They are not the final 'target audience'. It is therefore be of utmost importance that they faithfully absorb
and record the material to be able to reproduce it faithfully in a training situation that they will lead later.
Reading material in the form of textbooks and selected articles is given to the participants. Some of the reading material has
to be read before the program.
Case-studies from Muslim history and contemporary experience are used to discuss and internalise the leadership and management
skills presented. In addition to the case studies from the seerah, participants analyse and discuss their contemporary experiences.
Exercises that test comprehension or that give the participant an opportunity to internalise the concepts taught are used.
These are exercises that provide an opportunity for participants to develop case studies from their local experience and analyse
them. The exercises help the understanding of basic concepts and their application to local issues and problems. Some sessions
will end with actual work-plans that participants can use in their organisations.
1.8 The Use of case studies from
The case studies enable a practical
simulation of a leadership or management context that will enhance learning. The cases also illustrate that the leadership
and management skills presented have a basis in Islamic history. They also provide an Islamic intellectual context for the
development of leadership-cum-management concepts and skills.
The use of case studies is in
conformity with the Qur'anic methodology of training. The Qur'an relies on examples and actual events in history to illustrate
many of its teachings (Qur'an 39:27). There are at least 39 parables that are used in this sense by the Qur'an.
The use of case studies should
not be understood as a call to manage affairs as was done in the golden Era. The principles are transferable but the details
have to correspond to the realities of our times. The case studies stimulate thinking and provide a historical basis upon
which to build leadership and management concepts.
Given the international character
of the program, contemporary local case studies could have been very difficult to prepare for inclusion in the basic training
material. They would be inappropriate for people in some countries or some backgrounds. People may not relate well to experiences
that are radically different from theirs.
All Muslims can relate to the
seerah because it is a shared heritage. Many participants already know the facts of the case which makes the discussion and
Human nature and character are
constant and do not change with developments in technology. This is the basis for permanance of religion and its suitability
for all eras and all places. Religion deals with the human and it is the same human nature today and yesterday. Therefore
historical events of the seerah are very relevant to our situation today when we look at the human dimension and not the technology
or the environment. Real leadership is changing and improving the human being and not his technology.
1.9 Theoretical background
Leadership and management are
growing disciplines; there is a lot of practical and technical experience. The theoretical background is however not yet fully
This program does not tackle
the theories of leadership and management.
The main thrust of the program
is practical skills. Field experience has already shown this to be very effective and to respond to an actual felt need.
Islamic management sciences are
still in their infancy; they did not develop much after the basic fundamentals and rudimentary structures were set up in the
first century of the Hijri calendar.
There is a new movement to Islamise
various disciplines of knowledge. This is an attempt to recast them in such a way that they reflect the Islamic world-view
and the Muslim cultural and intellectual heritage. Some tentative work has been done; a lot remains to be completed.
Many aspect of management are
universal and reflect what is common in human experience across cultures, geographical areas, and historical eras.
Some concepts of leadership and
the paradigms of management science as well as the research tools reflect the European or American world-view that is different
in many aspects from the Islamic ones.
European of American concepts
that are based on objective research that is not culturally-biased are accepted by Muslims and have been used in this manual.
Some Euro-American concepts are
not acceptable altogether because they contradict Islamic teachings and world-view.
Many concepts and methods can
become acceptable when modified and framed in a proper and moral context.
A lot of the available leadership
and management literature is not a series of theoretical formulations but an empirical description of actual practical experience.
Muslims can benefit a lot from such descriptions provided they are careful to adapt them to their particular temporo-spatial
There are many aspects of leadership
and management that non-Muslim scholarship has not delved in adequately and Muslims can make original contributions in them
that all humanity will be eager to listen to. These fields include: understanding human motivation, building endurance in
the worker etc.
The need to develop Islamic management
sciences is still a challenge that Muslim scholars must face.
1.10 The tauhidi paradigm in
leadership and management
The tauhidi paradigm in Islam
can help address the issue of integration in organisations.
Modern organizations are experiencing
problems due to lack of a wholistic context in which they operate. The solution to one problem may create other problems elsewhere.
Too much specialisation in functional areas has reduced the ability of leaders to see the whole picture.
Islam and its paradigm of tauhid
has much to contribute to solving the dilemmas of today's management. Tauhid provides a center of gravity, a source, and a
unity that can help rebuild the holistic picture. This is because tauhid provides an intellectual framework for understanding
the unity of creation and existence. It teaches that everything has the same source and therefore in a natural state, harmony
2.0 THE TRAINING PROGRAM
2.1 Scope of training program
A training program can be summarized
as preparation, developing, delivering, practicing, and evaluating.
Designing a training program
covers the following: trainer, trainee, lesson plan, method of training, delivery of training, questions, and discussions
As a trainer you will be most
effective if you are genuine by retaining your natural personality. You must radiate enthusiasm. It will infect the trainees.
You can improve your presentations
by watching your previous sessions video tape.
In designing a session consider
the level of the trainees and their pace of understanding.
You must know the trainees and
deal with them as individuals. You must realise that trainees come from diverse backgrounds. They should not be dealt with
in a generic sense or as if they are anonymous.
Informal discussions before start
and at the end of the training session can help you know the trainees better. You must be aware of the trainee attitudes and
behaviour. However do not intrude on personal privacy as you discuss the material and trying to customise it to their backgrounds.
You must know the trainee expectations
are so that you may address them to satisfy them. In order to avoid disappointments about unfulfilled expectations, start
by telling the trainees what you will cover.
You should monitor trainee interest.
Sitting motion-less is a sign of paying attention. Moving about in the seat, fidgeting, restlessness, looking out of the window,
yawning, are signs of boredom
People who are established in
their positions and are comfortable with what they are doing are likely to resist training.
Praise progress however little.
Trainees need all the encouragement you can give them. remember that most will have completed their schooling years ago and
are no longer used to a class-room learning situation. Quite a number come with lot of apprehensions about their ability to
learn. It is your job to put them at ease by encouraging any fledgling efforts that they make.
Correct mistakes by restating
information later. Telling trainees directly and in front of their colleagues that they have got it wrong may hurt their ego
and self-confidence. Such a negative experience may discourage them from further participation in the session. By giving the
right answers without necessarily condemning the wrong ones, you can help adult learners correct their mistakes in a dignified
Fault-finding and criticising
trainees are negative. They humiliate and hurt without any tangible benefit. The self confidence of the trainee must be kept
at all the time.
Motivate the trainee to learn
by reinforcement, rewards for progress, flexibility, individualisation, and not censuring or punishing in case of mistakes.
You should help the trainees
take notes by speaking slowly and clearly, repeating, and emphasising important points. Sometimes you may have to tell them
directly to write down an important point.
Be careful in your verbal or
non-verbal communication never to make a trainee feel bad about themselves. They should not be made to feel that they asked
a stupid question or made an irrelevant comment.
2.4 Lesson Plan
Follow a prepared and written
lesson plan. Be flexible when the actual circumstances in the session are different from what you had anticipated. Try to
foresee and prepare for contingencies.
A good training session covers
a few things but with depth and inspiration for retention and change of attitudes and behaviours in the future.
A link with what was taught before
must be made at the start of a training session. This gives a sense of continuity.
A lecture requires balance between
general and detailed information, difficult and simple concepts, seriousness and fun.
Establish need/benefit of the
training program at the start. This raises expectations and motivates trainees.
Teaching by example is the best.
Qur 'anic stories are an effective teaching tool because they give examples
New ideas must be introduced
in a phased way. You should start with the simple and move on to the more complex.
There must be variety in content
Teach knowledge needed to perform
Give hands-on experience in the
form of exercises, case studies etc
Always review previous material
.Make sure that it was understood and make a link between it and the new material.
Use summary material and go into
details only after the basic ideas re understood.
Use the participatory method
to share past experience. Adult learners have a lot of field experience that could enrich the learning environment
Provide opportunities for putting
newly learned knowledge or skills to practical use. This may be by simulation
of actual situations, case studies or class room exercises
Encourage and benefit from feed-back.
Visualise the training process as a 2-way street
Let the learning be self-paced.
Do not move faster than the trainees. It may be better to cover less material in a given time and make sure it is understood
and internalised than to rush through lot of poorly digested facts.
Provide frequent breaks. This
allows material to sink. Trainees who may beginning to get bored may be rejuvenated by a break. The break need not be stopping
the session and going out. It may be just a change of activity, a joke, a story, or a class-room exercise. Letting people
watch a video tape may be a good break.
Good trainers talk about what
they want instead of attacking what they do not want.
Help the trainees improve their
study and learning methods. Concentration is very important. Some memory technics are needed
2.5 Training Methods
The following are methods of
training that can be used: one-to-one, Mentoring, Lectures, Discussion groups, Panel discussion, Debates, Dialogue, Brain
storming, Demonstration, In-basket exercises, Case Studies, Role Playing, Simulation, Assignment of projects, Entertainment/games,
Self-directed learning, Personal development plan, Interactive video, Computer-based/progammed learning, Multimedia,
One-to-one: This is the best
method because of the personal contact and interaction between trainer and trainee. It ensures immediate feed-back. It is
however very expensive since it requires a trainer for every trainee and there are usually not enough trainers
Mentoring: Involves assigning
a trainee to a senior and experienced leader or manager who in this case is called the mentor. The trainee works closely with
the mentor usually as an assistant. Training is passive, the trainee observes and asks questions. The mentor may also point
out special learning opportunities
Lectures: A lecture is a presentation
by one trainer addressing several trainees in a classroom environment. Its advantages are:: logical presentation, broad coverage,
and the trainer being in control. The disadvantages if a lecture are: trainees
are passive except during discussion at end,
Discussion groups: Trainees are
divided into small groups to focus on discussing assigned topics. They may or may not report back to a plenary session
Panel discussion: A panel of 3-5 subject matter experts makes short presentations and then answers questions from the floor.
They may also exchange ideas about their separate presentations on points of agreement and disagreement
Debates: Two sides to an issue
are presented and are defended by two debaters. Sometimes a debate can occur between teams of 2-4 debators. The trainees who
are the audience may ask questions or make comments. The aim of the debators is to convince the audience that their views
Dialog: This method can be used in a one-to-one setting or could be carried out by 2 or more individuals in front
of an audience of trainees.
Brain-storming: This is an open
expression of various view-points. It involves listing ideas initially without having to screen them. After that discussions
are held to sieve through them and conclusions are reached at the end
Demonstration: This is the best
training method. It involves direct experiencing of the skills being taught .
Teaching by demonstration can occur in 4 different ways. (a) The trainer makes the action, explains, and the trainees observe
(b) The trainees read the instructions while the trainer does the action (c) The trainer gives instructions while the trainee
does the action (d) The trainees do the action and finish then the trainer gives feed-back at the end.
In-basket or in-tray exercises:
Specific questions or topics are written on pieces of paper and participants are asked to pick the papers at random. They
then speak on any topic chosen. The trainer and other participants may make comments or additions. This method can be fun.
Case studies: The case-study
method is a method for learning about a complex instance based on a comprehensive understanding of that instance obtained
by extensive description and analysis of that instance taken as a whole and in context.
A case is a write-up of an actual
real-life event or experience. It may have actually happened or may be a mere simulation. The trainees study and analyse the
case and they have to answer some questions on understanding the events and proposing solutions to the problem or problems
Case studies can be used in research
and evaluation in addition to their use in training
Several types of case studies
can be used: illustrative/descriptive, exploratory, critical instance, program implementation, program effects, and cumulative.
A word of caution is needed in
the study of cases based on historical material. Our purpose is not to engage in specialised and detailed historical analysis.
The historical material is used for illustration and learning purposes only. We can not pass final judgements on the decisions
made in the past because we have the advantage of hindsight. Some of the decisions were made with knowledge that we may not
have now such as revelation or contextual details that were not recorded .
Role-playing: A trainee is asked
to play out an assigned role in a given situation. The trainer and other trainees then make their comments.
Simulation: This method is similar
to role-playing. A real-life situation is recreated and the reactions and behaviours of several people involved are observed
and are critiqued. The method is best used in crisis management training.
Assignment of projects: Trainees can learn a lot from working on a practical project under guidance of the
trainer. The project is presented at the end . The trainer and the other trainees have the opportunity to comment
Entertainment/games: A lot of
learning for both young and adults can occur during activities that are normally considered entertainment. The informal atmosphere
relaxes the trainee and helps internalisation. This method may not be appropriate for subjects that require a lot of concentration.
2.6 Training Opportunities
The following are opportunities orsettings for training: workshops, Conferences, Seminars, and Camps
Workshops: A workshop involves
discussions, exchange of views, solving problems or exercises by a group of 5-10 persons. It is usually used in conjunction
with another training method, for example a lecture may be followed by a workshop session
Conferences: A conference can
be planned to include lectures, workshops, seminars, debates etc. A lot of learning at a conference arises from the interaction
that occurs among many people of various backgrounds and experience.
Seminars: A seminar, a smaller version of a conference, offers an opportunity for lectures, panel discussions, workshops,
dialogue and debate.
Camps: Youths may find the camaraderie,
informal and down to earth atmosphere of the camp very conducive to learning. Camps have also proved successful in training
senior executives in areas like stress management, endurance, working with others etc
2.7 Structuring a presentation:
A presentation consists of 3
main parts: introduction, body, and conclusion.
The introduction: The introduction
is fast-paced, non-threatening, and audience-specific. It must have a subject-free ice-breaker, an opener related to the subject
matter, statement of objectives / expectations, and preview of the training program,
The body: The body is the main
part of the presentation and consists of the major learning facts to be taught
The Conclusion: The conclusion
should be motivational, power-packed, and personal. It is a summary and evaluation
of the material covered. The conclusion should be linked to the introduction and an attempt should be made to indicate whether
objectives stated at the beginning were achieved. The conclusion should also include a plan for implementation. The trainer
should carefully plan to use the concluding remarks as an opportunity for a nice closure.
As a trainer you should ask questions
in the course of the session. This gives you feed-back and also makes the participants attentive and more involved. Questions
can also be used as a break.
The question must be about a
relevant issue, it must be asked at the right time in the flow of the presentation so that it is not out of context, and you
must ask the right person.
There are several ways of posing
a question. It may be with a limitation eg "briefly describe...", hypothetical eg "If you were...", elicit a summary eg "
The question may be factual ie
ask for specific information, classification and retrieval, or it may be interpretive ie evaluation and synthesis.
Avoid leading questions. They
waste your time and do not contribute to the education of the trainee
When you are directing questions
at particular individuals try to personalize them but do not make them personal.
Trainees should be given a chance
to ask questions even during the progress of the lecture. You need not answer all of them. You may reframe them and ask other
trainers to comment on them or even provide answers.
A discussion has three components:
content, process, personalities, and participation.
Content is usually well done.
The process may have the following
problems: diversion and involvement with extraneous matters, domination of the discussion by some members, some members being
too quiet and uninvolved or not contributing, some members being too argumentative, some wandering into abstracts.
You have to understand the personalities
of the discussants and how to deal with each one of them: fast thinkers, deliberative, abstract thinkers, concrete thinkers,
listeners, talkers, non-talkers, empiricists, theoreticians, those who get attention, those who are ignored
You must ensure that everybody
participates in the discussion. You may have to coerce by calling upon non-volunteers to contribute. You however must do this with tact so that they do not become too anxious and fail to make their point.
One technic is to ask them a question and then take 1-2 minutes making some comments around it so that they have time to put
their thoughts together. Do not get into the tendency to always pick those who are aggressive and are the first to raise their
2.9 Training Aids
A-V aids help understanding and
retention of the material taught. They maintain trainee interest and prevent boredom
A-V aids are not an end in themselves.
They can not be a substitute for well prepared and well researched material. They only help in making the presentation better
A visual image must be created
in the mind of the trainer. The image should be describable in words. Then it is transferred in the form of A-V aids. A-V
aids that do not reflect a clear and relevant mental image do not succeed in conveying the message
The following are types of A-Vs:
Oral, Transparencies, Slides, Video and film strips, Pictures, Actual objects, and Computer screens
Oral A-Vs are sometimes neglected.
A good description that brings a vivid image to the mind of the trainee is an excellent way of helping understanding. We need
to emphasize oral/verbal A-Vs. Their imagery sticks more and they challenge the mind more.
It is a mistake for A-Vs to predominate.
You should be speaking and interacting with the trainees for about 75% of the time. A-Vs are brought in at specific times
to illustrate a point.
It is a mistake to base the whole
presentation on a set of A-Vs so that you just keep putting them up, making short comments and moving on.
Audio-visuals must be big, bold,
Plan the use of slides very well.
Common problems are using too many and not being well synchronized with the rest of the material
A-Vs can be misused in the following
ways: Making an impression without substance, A-Vs too visual, too stimulating the senses and not the addressing the mind,
Too many A-Vs, Irrelevant A-Vs, A-Vs that do not add to what was explained orally
Evaluation of A-Vs: An evaluation
should be made of A-Vs continuously. Successful ones should be continued while unsuccessful ones should be discontinued or
3.0 PLANNING AND EXECUTION
3.1 Training in organizational
Training should be systematic
and part of the strategic plan
3.2 Department of training
A big organisation may set up
a separate department for training. This department does not consist of trainers. Its job is to plan and execute training
programs. It calls upon part-time trainers to help each according to expertise.
3.3 Acknowledge need for training:
Acknowledging the need for training
is the beginning of the training process. You must ask yourself some fundamental questions: do you have performance problems
? are performance problems significant? what are the causes of the performance
problems ? (4) what is needed to solve the problems?
Performance problems may be due
to deficient skills, poor attitudes, deficiency of resources, or a combination of these
Solving problems may require
training to provide the missing skills. Sometimes approaches other than training are needed.
3.4 Assess training needs
Assessing training needs is establishing
the gap between actual and expected.
Training needs are assessed empirically
by systemic collection of data and its analysis.
Collect data using performance reviews, assessing & testing of workers, human resource audit, review of strategic plans,
review of critical incidents, questionnaire surveys, interviews, group discussions & brain-storming, job analysis & job evaluation (time-motion studies, observation), and research using national
or industry statistics
Analyze data collected to identify
specific areas of deficiency
3.5 Prioritizing needs
Training needs identified above
are not all of the same importance. Since resources are always limited, some prioritization is needed to identify the most
important needs to start with.
Two criteria are used in prioritization: cost of meeting need and cost of ignoring need
Cost of meeting the need may
be so low that the necessary measures must be undertaken immediately. Sometimes the cost is so prohibitive that the problem
is best ignored and in a practical sense it ceases to be a problem.
The cost of meeting a need should
be contrasted with the cost of ignoring it. A performance problem costs the organization a lot in terms of work not performed
or performed with mistakes.
Poorly done work has to be repeated
or effort has to be expended in correcting mistakes.
3.6 Analyzing needs
This is a complete and detailed
description of the training needs
Training needs identified as
priorities must be described in detail: what are they, why they arise, how they arise, who is responsible etc
3.7 Ranking needs
Priority needs can not all
be addressed at the same time. This may be due to resource constraints or to the fact there is a logical order in solving
problems. Some have to be addressed as a pre-requisite for others
A list of criteria must be drawn
up and must be used in ranking the needs
3.8 Describing profile of trainees:
Little progress can be made in
planning a training program before determining who the trainees will be.
Description of trainee profile
includes: age, work experience, previous training, awareness of short-comings, and attitude to training
3.9 Define objectives of the
Each training program must have
definite objectives. It is these objectives that must be used as criteria for evaluating the training
3.10 Determining contents of
the training program
The syllabus of curriculum must
be based on the training needs analysis, availability of training resources, and the trainee profile.
3.11 Choosing the training method
Choice of training method is
determined by cost and results
The method of training chosen
must be customized to the training needs and the trainee profile. Costs, expected results and the time required must also
3.12 Plan evaluation
The evaluation must be planned
at the same time as the training program.
Evaluation criteria must be based
on results expected
3.13 Deciding the site of training
A decision must be made on whether
training will be in-house or externally
In-house training is preferred
if training resources are available since in-house trainers will be more familiar with the work situation
An external training facility
sometimes is taken more seriously by the trainees. Going out may also be an incentive or a work benefit that workers appreciate
All direct and indirect costs
must be carefully estimated with a reserve of 10-15% for unexpected expenses
3.15 Training plan document
All items discussed above must
be summarized in one document called the training plan or document
Finalize and get approval of
training design document. It should show objectives, content, methodology, trainers, and budget.
3.16 Carrying out training
Training should be executed soon.
Any delays in addressing performance problems is a loss to the organization. Problems may grow and get out of control to the
extent that a different training program may have to be designed to address them.
3.17 Physical environment:
A training program that is well
designed with talented trainers and motivated trainees may fail because of poor physical facilities
Check the following: enough space,
lighting, access to board, access to PA equipment, comfortable seating
4.0 EVALUTION OF TRAINING PROGRAMS
4.1 What is evaluation?
Evaluation is establishing impact
of the training program on the trainees and the organization as a whole
Evaluation is both a science
and an art
Evaluation should be included
in the training program plan
4.2 Purpose of evaluation:
Identify weaknesses for better
Reassure and motivate workers
Reassure supporters and stake-holders
Assess impact of training on
Assess impact of training on
4.3 Who evaluates:
Speaker or trainer
Participants or trainees
Outside experts (less biased
and more objective)
Internal evaluators, and supervisors
Evaluation may be by individuals
or by committee
4.4 Who uses results of evaluation
4.5 Use of evaluation results
The results of evaluation should
not be kept in a closet. There should be feed-back
4.6 Scope of evaluation
The following are evaluated:
training session, speaker, trainees, program, and training material
Evaluation of the training session
should generally cover the following: length, content, facilities, presentation, visual aids, trainer, cost, and overall benefit
Evaluation of trainees includes: attitudes and behaviours, knowledge & learning, skills, reaction, practical results,
meeting training objectives, and overall benefit.
Evaluation should also include
an assessment of whether the results justify the investment made. The cost of not training can be computed and be compared
with the cost of training. While evaluating a training program we have to remember that training is an investment with more
long-term returns rather than short-term ones.
It is not enough for the trainee
to learn all the material and to fulfil all the training requirements. There must be a definite impact on performance
4.7 Evaluation criteria
In preparing a training program,
you must decide which criteria you will use to determine whether the program has been successful. You must be able to answer
the question about the benefits of the program in the affirmative.
The evaluation criteria must
be realistic, relevant, and quantifiable
4.8 Timing of evaluation:
The evaluation can be immediate,
intermediate or long-term. The evaluation process should not interfere with normal working activities
4.9 Two approaches to evaluation
Process evaluation assesses the
processes and mechanisms of the training with no regard to the results. A good process evaluation result does not imply good
results since there are factors that could intervene to make the results less than desired.
Outcome evaluation looks only
at the results. Correct interpretation of outcome evaluation requires the results of process evaluation
4.10 Types of evaluation
Evaluation of whether training
objectives were achieved
4.11 Methodology of evaluation
Evaluation must be of all stages
and not just the end. Evaluate input, reaction, and outcome
The training program can be evaluated
by use of performance indicators before and after the program
The scope of evaluation methodology
includes: design, sample selection, data collection, data analysis
4.12 Evaluation design:
Repeated measurement in a prospective
Pre and post training testing
Use of a control group with/without
pre and post assessment
4.13 Choosing a sample of trainees:
It is ordinarily not feasible
to obtain evaluation information from all the trainees. A representative sample could suffice.
Samples can be drawn in the following
ways: random, stratified random, systematic random, cluster, and purposeful
The sample size should be as
large as is practical
4.14 Types of data needed for
Data may be hard (eg units of
performance) or soft (satisfaction, attitudes, complaints). It may be qualitative or quantitative. It may be about performance
or costs (cost-benefit analysis). It may be existing data or data collected for
the express purpose of evaluation.
4.15 Tools of data collection
Tests: written tests
Surveys by questionnaires: attitude
surveys, post-training surveys
Reports: productivity reports
4.17 Use of tests as a data collection
Written tests are used to assess
the following: recall of information, understanding of ideas, application of
knowledge, and analysis of complex information
Written tests are scored either
by using pre-set criteria or by use of reference norms.
4.18 Use of questionnaires as
a data collection tool
Design of questionnaires requires
training and understanding.
Questionnaires have the advantages
of being easy to administer and easy to analyze.
The disadvantages of questionnaires
are: inherent bias due to self reporting,
Questionnaires are best used
for qualitative data on feelings and attitudes
A variety of question formats
may be used: open-ended, check-list, yes/no, true/false, multiple choice, ranking
You should take the following
measures to use the questionnaire well: cover all major areas of training, restate the objectives before questions, give clear
instructions, to ensure that each item should have one question and that the question format reflects the planned analytical
method. You should pilot test the questionnaire and make modifications as necessary.
4.20 Methods of data collection
Qualitative: observation, interviews,
focus groups, case studies, action plans, productivity reports, performance appraisal, attitude surveys, self-reflection.
Quantitative: questionnaires or written tests
Observation: An evaluator watches the trainee performance. Thus method has two sources of bias: subjectivity of the
observer and observer effect. Observation can be subjective since the observer can not be completely objective when involved
in the process. Pre-judgment may prejudice the observation. Presence of the observer affects result since the person tested
performs differently when someone is watching than when no one is watching. The following measures can be taken to avoid the
biases mentioned above: use of a video camera and analyzing the video tapes later and use of a check list (can be structured
or unstructured )
Interviews: Can be informal conversations.
Structured interviews follow a preset order of asking questions. Unstructured interviews are flexible and allow the interviewer
to change questions, content and order, according to the feed-back received so far. Interviews assess feelings and attitudes.
For best results, a question should not have more than one response. Encourage negative responses. Frame questions ie by providing
a background to put the question in correct context. Ask for clarification where value judgments are made
Focus groups: This is interviewing
small groups instead of one individual
Case studies: This is analysis
of actual or simulated events. The trainee competence can be judged from ability to understand the case and provide appropriate
solutions to problems. case studies are good "why" , "how" problems and not good
for "how many' "how much" problems.
Action plans: Action plans can
be reviewed to see impact of training
Quantitative evaluation methods:
Quantitative methods normally collect productivity in quantifiable terms. Quantitative methods can use questionnaires, written
tests, or cost-benefit analysis. Quantitative methods can be pre or post tests. Analysis of quantitative data involves: summarizing
data and establishing causal relations. Summarize data as statistics: histogram, mean, median, mode, standard deviation, correlation,
statistical significance. Establish causal relation by hypothesis testing
4.22 Calculation of the cost
of the training program:
The direct costs of the training
program includes: personnel (trainers and assistants), training material, equipment, cost of hours lost from work, transport,
Calculation of the benefits of
program: Benefits of the training program can be calculated as savings in the work place as a result of the training program.
This requires pre and post training data.
Savings can be realized in the
following: material, time, equipment, and personnel turnover
4.23 Structure of the evaluation
The evaluation reports should
consist of the following sections: background, research questions, methodology , findings,
conclusions / recommendations, and attachments