A project is a group of activities carried out with clearly defined time and cost to reach
specific objectives. A project is not routine or part of the day-to-day operations. The stages / life cycle of a project consist
of: conception, feasibility study, project planning, project implementation, termination, and evaluation. A hard project starts
off with a clear plan and objectives and all details worked out in advance. A soft project starts only with general and vague
objectives and concrete details are developed as you go along
Advantages of project planning are: Reduce risk, Clarify objectives, Set standards for
performance, Set up structure for implementation, Set up a control system.. The components of a project plan are: Objectives,
Methodology, Scheduling, Budget, Organizational structure, Procedures for control, Procedures for communication, and Performance
A project director must be appointed very early in the life of the project and should participate
in the planning process. Terms of reference and authority for the director should
be defined. A list of specific responsibilities should be drawn up for the director including: planning, organizing, directing,
and controlling. The project director must have the following leadership qualities: team leader, motivator, negotiator etc. Some large projects must have a project steering committee in addition to the director. A project team must be set up. Explain project to them and make sure they understand.
You may use a traditional hierarchical system or matrix system (skills matrix). Make sure that you balance personalities.
Identify internal and external stakeholders, analyze their open and hidden agendas, plan how to manage them. Define the project
stage that concerns every stake holder must be identified.
The scope of work statement describes the work to be performed including specifications.
Brain-storm to identify project tasks and group them as key stages of the project. Order key stages in a logical order taking
into account any dependencies. Assign duration to each stage. Break down key stages into several levels of detail. Develop
an operational plan for each key stage allowing for contingencies. Budget carefully and avoid the following mistakes in budgeting:
inaccurate scope of work statement, lack of standards, wrong work schedules, inaccurate time estimates, ignoring inflation.
Determine project milestones (start, end, and duration of each stage) and represent on a chart or graphically making sure
you allow for float time. Plan human resource allocation by day and assign tasks to individuals by name. A linear responsibility
chart shows the task, who is responsible, and the estimated time. Establish control procedures. You should not plan to the
last detail. Leave room for creativity of the implementors. The plan must be updated continuously during implementation.
Implementation is an important management function that is often neglected.
The components of Implementation are: Inputs, Transformation, and Outputs (products or services). You start with inputs and
transform them into outputs. Implementation is the process of transformation. Implementation thus has a beginning and an end.
Implementation involves breaking down the work into manageable steps or tasks, costing, scheduling, follow-up, control. Successful
implementation is an art that is learned through experience.
In our experience many group projects do not succeed not for lack of
insight or necessary resources but because of missing or poor implementation.. The reasons for things not getting done are
usually: Vision not clear, Goals too big, Task unpleasant, Indecision, lack of confidence, Poor planning , Time not enough,
and Distractions. In many cases, the problem is not poor implementation but lack of inertia and momentum to do something.
Lack of vision, purpose, objectives, and self confidence are causes of inertia. Action deficiency disease that is pervasive
in many communities. Failure to carry out things that have to be done leads to loss of credibility. Your actions must be consistent
with your words. Do not tell others to do things that you yourself fail to do. Action deficiency disease sometimes manifests
as an attempt to claim credit for work not done. The claim may be purely fabricated fantasies or taking credit for work done
by others. Being overwhelmed by too many projects may result in inaction. You succeed by trying, there is no movement without
trying. The more you try to exert yourself, the more likely is the success.
Take action to make sure that what you want to happen will actually happen.
Never wait for anything to happen on its own. Do not procrastinate when action is what is called for. When you have exerted
your maximum human effort in planning and preparation, act and rely on Allah for the results.
The implementation strategy must be built in the action plan. An implementation
team must be set for each project. Successful implementation requires good team management skills. You must learn dealing
with different personalities. The implementor has to make decisions constantly. Some are long-term strategic decisions. Others
are tactical/operational covering a period of 1 year. Others are day-to-day operational decisions. Paper-work and bureaucracy
are enemies of successful implementation if overused. Both effectiveness (achieving targets) and efficiency (doing things
right at minimum cost) are important in implementation. Successful implementation strikes due balance between the two.
A manager must have vision, good planning, follow-up and follow-through
for successful implementation. Successful implementation requires, in addition, proper
knowledge and skill, clear well written goals (specific, flexible, realistic), clear priorities, a clear plan of action, and
emphasis on quality control (QC), quality assurance (QA) and quality improvement (QI).
Project implementation proceeds through stages, also called the project
planning and control cycle: planning, mobilization of resources, definition of tasks, task assignments, communication.
Graphic representation is effective when used to display project activities,
duration of the various tasks, and an indication of the sequence of activities that are most critical at the time of project
completion (the critical path). PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technic) involves deciding what functions should be performed
and what activities will be necessary as well as estimating the resources needed. Continuous monitoring helps you identify
errors and take preventive or corrective action. In some cases the baseline plan may have to be changed. Modern computer technology
can be used to make project monitoring and control more timely and more efficient.
In many projects the implementor will have to deal with multiple priorities
successfully. Budgets get squeezed and time is tight. He must be on top of all the different schedules and work-loads.
Timing and sequencing of tasks and activities is important. Tasks well
done but in the wrong sequence can wreak havoc on the whole project. Tasks once started must be completed. Work must be continuous;
a bust of activity followed by long periods of inactivity is a recipe for failure. It is better to do little at a time, do
it well, and do it all the time.
Deadlines must be kept. Whenever a deadline is not reached or when there is a deadline
crisis in project implementation, an audit must be carried out to find the causes and learn from the experience for the benefit
of future projects. The following questions must be asked of every deadline crisis: What did I do to create the crisis? What
was the distraction? How was time wasted? Will problems recur? What was the role of conflict? What did I learn?
Each situation requires a specific approach, we can not use a manual.
Emergency situations do occur. They may be occasional or may occur at expected milestones. Anticipation of as many problem
as possible and preparing contingency plans for them is the secret of successful Implementation. You must always have well-worked
out contingency plans to deal with the usual problems that usually occur. Despite
the best of anticipatory planning surprises always occur. Successful implementation requires highly developed skills in improvising
to deal with unexpected surprises.
Implementation routines have advantages and disadvantages. You must know
when to use a routine. Application should be automatically triggered by the relevant situation. The implementor must understand
the routine in order to use it well.. Implementation is not time for thinking about actions and their motivations. There is
no time to think about alternative courses of action. All thought must be about implementing the set plan.
Thinking, planning, and information collection must finally reach a point
of no return and must be followed by action. Knowledge and information do not
lead automatically to action. Many knowledgeable and creative people are not effective. Initiative, the ability to make choices
are necessary for action.
Project management is a pro-active effort. If you wait for things to
happen and you only react you will fail very rapidly.
Simplicity is a key to successful implementation. Any procedure that
requires involved explanation is likely to fail. Actions must be simple, doable and with a potential to be effective.
Project implementation requires a lot of pragmatism and being practical.
Everything is possible. You have to take the best action in a given situation. A successful implementor is both practical
and pragmatic. Pragmatism means being in tune with the environment and pursuing the art of the possible. Sometimes he word
pragmatic takes on a negative coloration to mean lack of principles. You can be pragmatic while being principled and walking
in the moral lane. You will need to remember that the end never justifies the means.
Project implementation requires a lot of pragmatism and being practical.
Everything is possible. You have to take the best action in a given situation.
After a lot of implementation experience you may develop your intuition
to the point that you can guess right and be "street smart"
Incrementalism is an implementation method appropriate for situations
with uncertain information. You assess the situation as you go along and do what is possible and is practical.
In order to be effective we have to accept some degree of risk. Trying
to play safe and be perfect may destroy initiative for action.
You must maintain a project diary in which all significant project events
are written. Good documentation reduces errors and misunderstandings.
Projects involve managing people. Interpersonal relations are crucial.
You have to delegate many of the responsibilities in order to have time
to carry out leadership functions such as planning and control.
Good communication is needed. You must make sure that instructions are
understood and are carried out in time.
Negotiation ability is necessary. You have to negotiate win-win with
many people to obtain cooperation and finish the project
The terminal stages of the project are as important as the start. You
must plan the termination carefully. Fix a termination date in advance and advertise it. Plan for the post-project period.
Control is assuring that plans are carried out effectively and efficiently.
It is an important management function because it helps overcome some of the problems of human limitations by providing a
systematic and methodological approach to ensuring compliance.
Planning and control are interdependent. The project control system is
determined by the plan. The plan will be changed from the findings of the control system. Plan implementation will be modified
in case of mistakes.
Project monitoring is checking to make sure that everything is going
well and according to the set plan. It aims at making sure that work is progressing according to schedule and that costs are
within the approved budget. Tracking is use of monitoring information and results to update the base plan
Steering control is continuous monitoring of performance with corrective
measures being taken as soon evidence predicts deviation from the desired target. Observation and monitoring of performance
should be continuous; anecdotal observations do not help.
Seeds and symptoms of organizational decay or project failure can be
detected early and corrective action taken if efficient control mechanisms are in place.
Many people and organizations commit mistakes and are on a failure path
without realizing it. They think that they are doing well. Deviations from the plan that are insidious in onset and progress
slowly are more likely to me missed than sudden and dramatic ones.
Control can not discover or prevent all mistakes. Any human system is
liable to error. What is important is to detect as many errors as possible and as early as possible so that corrective action
can be taken.
The project control system may uncover problems. Care must be taken not
to take symptoms as primary problems. The underlying problems must be unraveled. The problem must de identified, described,
and analyzed. Data should be collected to better define the problem in more detail and identify primary and secondary causes.
Problem solving requires action plans to address the problem. The action
plan should define the strategy and objectives as well as the tactics to achieve the objectives. The action plan should be
implemented immediately. Its impact should be evaluated. Some apparent problems may be the tip of an iceberg of many underlying
problems to be uncovered and resolved.
While studying and resolving problems, you should not stop project execution
because that will demotivate the project team members. In practice this implies that problem solving must be quick to make
sure that necessary corrections are made before the project proceeds too far.
Project costs must be controlled. Every project team member must be conscious
of cost control. The accounting system should be set up in such a way that data is available for each key stage and for each
activity. The operational budget must be compared to the approved budget.
Monitoring project costs must be done in detail. If the general organizational
accounting system can not provide the level of detail required you should consider setting up a separate system for the project.
The system should be simple and straightforward and should not be a generator of unnecessary paperwork. The following parameters
are considered: actual cost of work performed, budgeted cost of work performed, and
budgeted cost of work scheduled. Cost overrun is computed as the difference between the actual cost of work performed and
the budgeted cost of work performed
The most important factor in project implementation are human resources.
No amount of control however judicious will get good results out of demotivated, weak-willed workers. Thus control should
not be a substitute for good planning, selection of qualified workers and training them, and providing the right environment
for successful work. Each worker should be treated as an individual. There should be no expectations of performance beyond
individual capacity. Control is sometimes misunderstood to mean personal control over individuals. If used in this way it
leads to negative results. You control systems and not people. You seek to understand problems so that you may solve them.
You are not going after individuals, apportioning blame and punishing.
Control should not be seen as an end in itself. The overall goals of
the organization should always be kept in mind. Too much or wrong misguided control could appear successful in the short run
but destroy the organization in the long run. Over-control destroys creativity, results in a negative atmosphere within the
organization, and demotivates workers.
Control may be internal or external. Internal control is achieved by
instilling consciousness of Allah in the worker, instilling pride in good workmanship, and hope for thawab. Control intrinsic
within the worker (self control) is more effective and permanent than external control. External control depends on bureaucratic
control tools, rewards and punishments.
Control activities may be described by their timing, by the planning
level, management functions or organizational unit. Control activities may be pre-action, ie before start of implementation.
They may be concurrent with project implementation. They may also occur at the end of the implementation. Control may be at
the level of strategy or at the level of tactical plans or at the level of day-to-day operational plans. Control may concentrate
on particular management functions such as problem solving, or planning. Control may also concentrate on particular departments
of the organization such as finance, personnel, dawa, education etc
A good control system must be flexible, timely, accurate, cost-effective,
understandable, acceptable, and objective.
Control proceeds in 4 stages: setting objectives and standards, measuring
actual performance, comparing actual to expected performance, and taking the necessary corrective/reinforcement measures
The control program can not ensure perfect performance in everything
and trade-offs may be accepted. Trade-offs can be among the following: costs,
time, resources, and performance
Possible reasons for change of base plans: Overoptimistic estimates,
Omissions, Lack of resources, Loss of resources , Change of strategic plans during implementation, Poor team work
The following factors must be considered in making changes in plans:
Budget implications, Time implications, Impact on objectives, Impact on resources, Impact on other projects
Control requires setting up an efficient and timely reporting procedure.
The project team and stakeholders must be involved in setting up the reporting system.. Written progress reports are superior
to oral reports. They are more concise, formal, and force the reporter to be more organized. A standard format could be established
for each project. The nature of the project determines the frequency of reporting. The report should not be a secret document.
It should be widely distributed among members of the project team. Exception reports should be generated in cases of deviation
from the plan. A standard format could be used for them as well. All changes
to the base plan should be documented: details of the change, reason for the change, financial and other implications of the
change, revised forecasts of project milestone and completion dates. All various reports generated should be logged so that
they are easy to retrieve.
Managers must be given enough authority to resolve control issues in
areas of their responsibility. Not having sufficient authority to put things right is very frustrating.
Evaluation of individual performance is a type of control. People should
be ranked according to their performance. Individual workers are judged by outward actions; the inner intentions can not be
known. A good worker produces results of the quality expected. A bad one does not. The following methods can be used in performance
appraisal: rating scale, ranking, descriptive essay, check-list, and critical incidence analysis. Only objective criteria
should be used in performance appraisal. You should avoid any emotional considerations. The following factors/criteria are
considered: effectiveness, efficiency, thoroughness, initiative, perseverance, loyalty, responsibility and commitment, and
technical skills. Feed-back is very important to let the worker know where he stands. Positive feedback if consistent and
timely is a powerful motivator. Negative feed-back should be specific, and fair.
Criticism is directed to the bad actions and not the individual. At no time should the person criticized feel that he is attacked
Incompetence in whatever form should not be tolerated because it will
eventually hurt the organization. Performance problems will not disappear on their own. They have to be confronted head-on
immediately. Hard decisions may have to be taken. No action should be taken against a non-performing employee until the cause
is carefully diagnosed.
Types of project meetings: Informal one to one, Informal short team meetings,
Formal project progress meetings, Formal project review meetings (involve stakeholders), Negotiations with functional managers
Purpose of project progress meetings: Review action plans from previous
meetings, Update processes,
Discuss and solve problems, Anticipate problems, Assess, Forecast, Motivate,
Deal with grievances
Leaders and managers of public organizations must feel accountable to
Allah, their superiors, the governing boards, the members, and the stakeholders. leaders and managers may be tempted to corruption.
Some may confuse private with personal interest. Others may even turn subversive. It is therefore important to keep a close
watch on them. They can avoid close scrutiny because they have custody of the information. People in a bureaucracy protect
one another in cases of scrutiny. Transparency of the organization provides an opportunity for followers to play a watch-dog
role by continuously observing all what is going on in the organization so that they can intervene when an abuse is detected.
Project review meetings require good preparation. Written reports should
be given to the participants in advance to study. During the meeting oral presentations should be brief and should concentrate
on the following points: what is going well, what are the problems encountered, what action is planned to correct the problem,
what decisions need be made, and what are the problems anticipated in the future. An action list from the meeting should be
The control program can fail for one of the following reasons: resistance, inaccurate information, rigid bureaucracy, negligent
management, too rapid changes, and when the organization is overstretched
Objectives of evaluation are: Assess whether objectives were achieved,
Assess efficiency, Assess effectiveness, learn from experience
Benefits/uses of evaluation are: Identify success and reinforce, Help
management see areas of weakness and improvement, Reassure workers that they are moving well, Reassure stake-holders, Gain
confidence of supporters and donors. If the results of an evaluation process are not used to improve future performance the
evaluation has not achieved its purpose
Types of evaluation are: (a) What is evaluated?: Evaluation may be of
the process or the end-results (b) Who does it: internal or external (c) When is done: active throughout the project - post
project after the declared finish date (helps future projects)
Contents of Project final report are: Objectives, Project schedule, Review
of project process, Problems encountered and how resolved, Recommendations
Criteria for project success are: Keeping the schedule, Finishing within
budget, Meeting all project objectives, Meeting stakeholder expectations
Evaluation has several limitations: Evaluation is post action. It answers
the question whether the objectives of the plan are achieved. Evaluation is too late to be of use to the current project.
Its findings are however useful for future projects that are of a similar nature. Evaluation tends to be affected a lot by
the activities towards the end of the project. A project that has been performing badly may get a good evaluation when it
ends well; all is well that ends well. A project that was performing well throughout its life may get a bad evaluation when
it fails towards the end. Evaluation is judgment by what you see. The inner intentions and motivation can never be known.
There are a few cases when evaluation is unfair. The outward results may not reflect all the intentions, sincerity, and commitment
of the worker. There is little that can be done to alleviate this unfairness because the factors involved cannot measured
objectively by humans.
Continuous quality improvement (QI) is a management philosophy that is
committed to continuous and consistent improvement in quality. It involves training for quality, making the necessary changes
in the organizational structure, It is both long-term and short-term. Long-term QI should be the main aim. QI is consistent
with the Islamic concept of IHSAAN. Improvement must be continuous. Humans can never reach perfection and rest on their laurels.
They must always strive to approach it; the nearer the better. Quality assurance or quality improvement is a type of control.
Muslims must be leaders of quality because this is the very essence of their creed. The concept of IHSAN is the basis of quality.
A Muslim tries to achieve excellence in whatever he does. He seeks to improve every day. We talk of quality improvement rather
than quality control or quality assurance. The aim is not to perform at a pre-set standard but to constantly improve and get
Quality requires a change in organizational culture so that all members
take pride in quality work. Material incentives or punishments are not sufficient to assure
quality. Free exchange of information and ideas without fear of censure, a non-judgmental approach, sharing authority,
cooperation and not competition help foster a culture of quality improvement.
The debate over which is more important, quantity or quality, is irrelevant.
Both are important. Good management does not trade one for the other. It has the skill to produce the optimal quantity needed
at the optimal quality desired. Of course both quantity and quality are affected by the resources available to management.
"Aisha reported the Apostle of Allah ( may peace be upon him ) as saying: Choose such actions as you are capable of
performing, for Allah does not grow weary till you do. The acts most pleasing to Allah are those which are done most continuously,
even if they amount to little, Whenever he began an action, he would do it continuously"
Abu Daud 1:358, Chapter 468, Hadith # 1363
CONTINUITY OF WORK:
"Aisha reported Allah's Messenger ( may peace be upon him ) as saying: The acts most pleasing to Allah are those which
are done continuously, even if they are small, and when Aisha did any act she did it continuously" Muslim 1: 377-378, Chapter
273, Hadith # 1713
BE READY TO CHANGE COURSE IN CASE OF MISTAKES
"Narrated Aisha : Abu Bakr As-Siddiq had never broken his oaths till
Allah revealed the expiation for the oaths. Then he said, " If I take an oath to do something and later on I find something
also better than the first one then I do what is better and make expiation for my oaths" Bukhari 8:404, hadith # 618
EVERY ACTION HOWEVER SMALL WILL BE ACCOUNTED FOR:
Then shall anyone who has done an atom's weight of good, see it! And
anyone who has done an atom's weight of evil, shall see it. Qur'an 99:7-8
EVERYONE IS PERSONALLY ACCOUNTABLE:
Namely, that no bearer of burdens can bear the burden of another. That
man can have nothing but what he strives for. That (the fruit of) his striving will soon come in sight. Then will he be rewarded
with a reward complete. Qur'an 53:38-41
EVALUATION OF UHUD:
Allah did indeed fulfill his promise to you when you with his permission
were about to annihilate your enemy until you flinched and fell to disputing about the order and disobeyed it after he brought
you in sight (of the Booty ) which you covet. among you are some that hanker after this world and some that desire the hereafter.
Then did he divert you from your foes in order to test you. But he forgave you for Allah is full of grace to those who believe.
EVALUATION TOO LATE FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION
"Ali bin Abi Talib said, " The world is going backwards and the Hereafter
is coming forwards, and each of the two has its own children; so you should be the children of the Hereafter, and do not be
the children of this world, for today there is action ( good or bad deeds ) but
no accounts, and tomorrow there will be accounts, but ( there will be ) no deeds to be done". Bukhari 8:285
JUDGE BY WHAT YOU SEE; THE INSIDE IN UNKNOWN:
"Narrated Umar bin al Khattab : People were ( sometimes ) judged by the
revealing of a Divine Inspiration during the lifetime of Allah's Apostle but now there is no longer any more ( new revelation
). Now we judge you by the deeds you practice publicly, so we will trust and favor the one who does good deeds in front of
us, and we will not call him to account about what he is really doing in secret, for Allah will judge him for that; but we
will not trust or believe the one who presents to us with an evil deed even if he claims that his intentions were good". Bukhari
3:491, hadith # 809
THE LAST ACTIONS DETERMINE HOW GOOD JOB IS
"Narrated Sahl As-Sadi: The Prophet looked at a man fighting against
the pagans and he was one of the most competent persons fighting on behalf of the Muslims. The Prophet said, " Let him who
wants to look at a man from the dwellers of the ( Hell ) fire, look at this ( man )" Another man followed him and kept on
following him till he ( the fighter ) was injured and seeking of die quickly he placed the blade tip of his sword between
his breasts and leaned over it till it passed through his shoulders ( i.w. committed suicide)." The Prophet added, " A person
may do deeds that seem to the people as the deeds of the people of Paradise while
in fact, he is from the dwellers of the ( Hell ) fire; and similarly a person may do deeds that seem to the people as deeds
of the people of the ( Hell ) fire while in fact, he from the dwellers of Paradise. Verily the ( results of ) deeds done,
depend upon the last actions". Bukhari 8:330-331, hadith # 506
UHUD: THE ARCHERS' FAULT:
According to Harun b. Ishaq--Mus'ab b. al‑Miqdam--Isra'll; and
lalso) Ibn Waki'--his father--Isra'll--Abu Ishaq--al‑Bara': When it was the day of Uhud and the Messenger of God met
the polytheists, he stationed certain men as archers and put them under the command of 'Abd Allah b. Jubayr, with the
order, "If you see us victorious over them, do not leave your position, and if you see them victorious over us, do not come
to our assistance." When battle was joined, the polytheists were put to flight, and I saw the women tucking up their skirts
in flight and exposing their anklets. A cry went up of "Booty, booty!" 'Abd Allah said, "Not so fast! Do you not know the
orders the Messenger of God gave you?" They refused to listen to him, however, and left. When they reached the others, God
turned away their faces and seventy of the Muslims were killed. Tabari 7:113
EVALUATION OF JISR DEBACLE
Rustam asked, "Which of the Persians is the strongest in fighting the
Arabs in your opinion?" They answered, "Bahman Jadhuyah." Therefore he dispatched him along with elephants. He also sent back
al‑Jalinus with him and said to him, "Send al‑Jalinus ahead. If he returns to the like of his defeat, then cut
off his head." Bahman Jadhuyah advanced, having with him the Great Standard (dirafsh kabiyan) the standard of Kisra, which
was made of tiger skins to a length of eighty cubits by a width of twelve cubits. Abu 'Ubayd advanced to stop at al‑Marwahah,
where the tower and the bend in the river are. Bahman Jadhuyah sent a message to him, "Either you cross over to us, and we
will allow you to cross, or else you let us cross over to you." The men said, "Do not cross, O Abu 'Ubayd! We will prevent
you from crossing." They also told him, "Say to them that they should cross over." Among the harshest of the people against
him regarding that was Salit. But Abu 'Ubayd was unyielding and left aside the [wise] opinion, saying, "They will not
risk death more than we. Rather, we will cross over to them." Thus, they crossed over to the enemy, who were in a narrow site
with regard to both pursuit and flight. They fought for a day, Abu 'Ubayd having with him between six and ten [thousand men]
until, when it was the day's end and a man from among the Thaqif considered the victory to be slow [in coming], he drew
the men Icloser] together. The two sides struck each other with swords. Abu 'Ubayd struck the elephant, while the elephant
hit Abu 'Ubayd. The swords had worked quickly among the Persians of whom six thousand were struck down in the melee. Only
defeat remained and was expected [by them]. But when Abu 'Ubayd was hit and the elephant stood upon him, the Muslims fled
and then continued in flight. The Persians rode down on them. A man from the Thaqif, getting to the bridge first, cut it.
The troops tben reached it, while the swords were taking them from behind and fell into the Euphrates. They struck down four thousand of the Muslims on that day between those drowned and killed. Al‑Muthanna
protected the troops, as did 'Asim, al‑Kalaj al‑Dabbi, and Madh'ur, until they repaired the bridge and brought
the men across. Then they [themselves] crossed in their traces. They stayed at al-Marwahah, while al‑Muthanna lay
wounded, and also al‑Kalaj, Madh'uri and 'Asim, who were the protectors of the troops along with al‑Muthanna.
Many of the men fled, taking their own way, and so disgraced themselves and felt ashamed of what had happened to them. [News
of] it reached 'Umar from certain of those who had sought refuge in Medina. He said, "Worshippers of God! O God, every Muslim is absolved of his oath to me. I am the party
of every Muslim May God have mercy on Abu 'Ubayd; if he had crossed and then taken refuge on the riverside or had he retreated
to us, not trying to defy death, we would have been his party [of supporters]."