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ISLAMIC MEDICAL EDUCATION RESOURCES 04

9607-HOW TO RESOLVE CONFLICTS IN DAWA ORGANIZATIONS

Dr Omar Hasan Kasule, Sr. MB ChB, MPH, DrPH (Harvard) Professor of Medicine & Director, Training Center, International Islamic University PO Box 70 Jln Sultan PJ 46700 Telephone 60 3 755 3433 fax 60 3 757 7970 paper at 7th Regional Leadership Training Program Durban, South Africa 1-31 July 1996

Conflict among people is human and is natural. A conflict-free situation is unimaginable. A conflict is an expressed struggle among interdependent persons with perceived incompatible goals or perceived scarce resources in presence of interference of one by the other. People with no common activities or interaction do not conflict. All conflicts involve issues of self esteem and power. Low self-esteem vis--vis others is a cause of aggressive action meant to redress the balance. Those who wield power may misuse it to hurt others and a conflict situation is created. Negative perceptions/images associated with conflict are: war, explosion, trial, upward struggle, mess, game, adventure, destruction, win-lose. Positive perceptions/images associated with conflict are: bargaining, tide, productive, win-win

 

Conflicts have secondary effects that eventually weaken the group or the society. Both parties to a conflict bear responsibility for the bad turn of events. The degree of culpability varies.

 

Conflict can be lessened or can be managed positively; it can not be avoided. It is therefore necessary to learn how to manage conflicts. Conflict may be positive if it is managed well and the group learns from it emerging stronger. It may be negative and end with the break-up of the group. Any conflict situation should be a school. You learn from it to deal better with future conflicts. You should learn to move from conflict to creative solutions.

 

The cause of a conflict may not be easily identifiable. Prior bad experience may build up to a level that a minor incident triggers off a major conflict. The reaction may not be proportional to the perceived cause of the conflict. Negative behavior overdraws the emotional reserves exposing people to a major conflict even over a minor matter. Shaitan is always at the root of dissension. Develop the attitude of holding out against Shaitan's temptations.

 

The following are causes of conflict between groups: differences in goals, asabiyyah, group think, competition. Causes of conflict within a group are: differences of opinion or approach to problems, poor communication, unclear goals, and competition among members. The main causes of conflict between individuals are: unbalanced power relations, jealousy, competition poor communication,

 

A conflict may be healthy when it is resolved and all learn from it. It is dysfunctional if it remains unresolved and has secondary effects. Some conflicts are structural. They are there and are only waiting to happen. Other conflicts are personal and have a lot of involved emotional and psychological relationships that even those involved may not be aware of. Consequences of dysfunctional conflict between groups: (a) within group:  increased cohesiveness, emphasis on loyalty,  rise of autocratic leaders, more task orientation (b) between groups:  distorted perception,  negative stereotyping, decreased communication. A conflict situation progresses from having differences over some matter, emotional involvement, adds-ons, and resolution of the conflict.

 

There are two approaches to a conflict: avoid or engage. Reconciliation is the final aim of any conflict resolution process. No level of reconciliation can ever wipe out lingering doubts, suspicion, and bad feelings. Thus a conflict can never be completely reversed. The wise do not get into the conflict at all. Resolution of a conflict is affected by the size of the problem, how far the problem is personalized, hidden agendas and concerns, and attitude to a positive resolution. The conflict resolution process proceeds in stages: identifying symptoms of the conflict, identifying causes, identifying solution methods, and implementation of the ideal solution method.

 

There are principles that must be followed in conflict resolution: (a) Stick to and do not compromise basic principles (b) Contain the conflict. Do not allow it to go to extremes (c) Avoid emotions.  Exercise self-restraint (d) Do not quarrel, accuse, or abuse. This will increase the conflict (e) Control your anger, its expression does not help conflict resolution. Anger is a secondary emotion with underlying fear.

 

Any conflict must not be allowed to be permanent. Initiate or respond to reconciliation. The one who initiates reconciliation is the better one of the two. Initiate and maintain dialog. Look for options: change yourself, try to change others, change conditions of the conflict

 

Among the methods used in conflict resolution: avoidance, accommodation, smoothing, bargaining, collaboration, authoritarian, third party arbitration/mediation

 

Start by identifying the sources of conflict (aggressive personalities, conflicting roles, differences in values, objectives, and perceptions, unsatisfactory communication, poor leadership, seeking individual and not team recognition and credit), Identify consequences of conflict, negative and positive. Use conflict-resolution techniques to resolve the conflict.

 

If you are engaged as a third party to resolve a conflict proceed as follows: identify the need to intervene, decide to intervene, negotiate your role, assess the conflict, design intervention (consultation, arbitration, training, problem solving), select intervention tactic (communication, control process, transform, elements of communication).

 

Conflicts can be prevented primarily by avoiding them and taking measures to prevent their growth if they are imminent.  Avoidance is not cowardice. It is strength. It means taking the higher road.

 

TEXT

 

DIFFERENCES ARE A CAUSE OF DESTRUCTION FOR NATIONS:

"Narrated Abdullah that he heard a man reciting a Qur'anic Verse which he had heard the Prophet reciting in a different way. So he took that man to the Prophet ( may peace be upon him ) ( and told him the story ). The Prophet ( may peace be upon him ) said, " Both of you are reciting in a correct way, so carry on reciting." The Prophet ( may peace be upon him ) further added, " The nations which were before you were destroyed ( by Allah ) because they differed" Bukhari 6:522, hadith # 582

 

WHAT TO SAY WHEN ANGRY:

"Narrated Sulaiman bin Surad: A man from the companions of the Prophet ( may peace be upon him ) said, " Two men abused each other in front of the Prophet ( may peace be upon him ) and one of them became angry and his anger became so intense that his face became swollen and changed. The Prophet ( may peace be upon him ) said, " I know a word the saying of which will cause him to relax if he does say it. " Then a man went to him and informed him of the statement of the Prophet ( may peace be upon him ) and said, " Seek refuge with Allah from Satan." On that, angry man said, " Do you find anything wrong with me? Am I insane? Go away!" Bukhari 8:45-46, hadith # 74

 

MUSLIMS CAN NOT FIGHT ONE ANOTHER

"Ahnaf bin Qais said: I came out with the intention of ( participating in ) fighting. Abu Bakrah met me and said: Go back, for I heard the Apostle of Allah ( may peace be upon him ) say: When two Muslims face each other with their swords, the killer and the slain will go to Hell, He asked: Apostle of Allah, this is the killer ( so naturally he should go to Hell ), but what is the matter with the slain? He replied: He intended to kill his companions". Abu Daud 3:1184, Chapter 1583, Hadith # 4255

 

DIFFERENT WAYS OF DOING THE SAME THING RIGHT:

"Umar ibn al Khattab said, " I heard Hisham bin Al-Hakim reciting Surat al-Furqan during the life time of Allah's Apostle ( may peace be upon him ). I listened to his recitation and noticed that he recited it in several different ways which Allah's Apostle ( may peace be upon him ) had not taught me. So I was about to jump over him during his prayer but I waited till he finished his prayer whereupon I put, either his upper garment or my upper garment around his neck and seized him by it and asked him, " Who has taught you this Sura?" He replied, " Allah's Apostle ( may peace be upon him ) has taught it to me." I said ( to him ), " You have told a lie! By Allah, Allah's Apostle ( may peace be upon him ) has taught me this Sura which I have heard you reciting." So I dragged him to Allah's Apostle ( may peace be upon him ). I said, " O Allah's Apostle! I have heard  this man reciting Sura al Furqan in a way which you have not taught me, and you did teach me Sura al Furqan. On that Allah's Apostle ( May peace be upon him ) said, " O Umar, release him! Recite, O Hisham." So Hisham recited before him in the way as I had heard him reciting. Allah's Apostle ( may peace be upon him ) said, " It has been revealed like this." Then Allah's Apostle ( may peace be upon him ) said, " Recite, O Umar. So I recited it.  The Prophet ( may peace be upon him ) said, " It has been revealed like this." And then he added, " This Qur'an has been revealed to be recited in seven different ways, so recite it which ever way is easier for you".  Bukhari 9:54-55,

 

DISPUTES ASSOCIATED WITH THE DEVIL

"Abu said al Khudri ( Allah be pleased with him ) reported: The Messenger of Allah ( may peace be upon him ) observed itikaf in the middle ten days of Ramandan to seek Lailat ul Qadr, before it was made manifest to him. When ( these nights ) were over, he commanded to strike the tent. Then it was made manifest to him that ( Lailat ul Qadr ) was in the last ten nights ( of Ramadan ), and commanded to pitch the tent ( again ). He then came to the people and said: O people, Lailat ul Qadr was made manifest to me and I came out to inform you about it that two persons came contending with each other and there was a devil along with them and I forgot it, So seek it in the last ten nights of Ramadan. Seek it on the ninth, on the seventh and on the fifth. I ( one of the narrators ) said: Abu said, you know more than us about numbers. He said: Yes, indeed we have better right than you. I said: What is this ninth, seventh, and fifth? He said: When twenty one ( nights are over ) and the twenty second begins, it is the ninth, and when twenty three ( nights ) are over, that which follows ( the last night ) is the seventh, and when twenty five nights are over, what follows it is fifth. Ibn Khallad said: Instead of the word Yahiqan ( contending ) he said, Yakhtasiman ( they are disputing ). Muslim 2:572-573, Chapter 441, Hadith #2630

 

BATTLES IN FITNA CONDEMNED:

"Narrated Said bin Jubair Abdullah bin Umar came to us and we hoped that he would narrate to us a good Hadith. But before we asked him, a man got up and said to him, " O Abu Abdur Rahman! Narrate to us about the battles during the time of the afflictions, as Allah says:-And fight them until there is no more afflictions ( i.e. no more worshiping of others besides Allah." 2:193 Ibn Umar said ( to the man ), " Do you know what is meant by afflictions? Let your mother bereave you! Muhammad ( may peace be upon him ) used to fight against the pagans, for a Muslim was put to trial in his religion ( The pagans will either kill him or chain him as a captive ). His fighting was not like your fighting which is carried on for the sake of ruling"

 

ALI AVOIDS CONFLICT WITH UTHMAN:

Narrated Ibn Al-Hanafiya: If Ali had spoken anything bad about Uthman then he would have mentioned the day when some persons came to him and complained about the Zakat officials of Uthman. Ali then said to me, "Go to Uthman and say to him, 'This document contains the regulations of pending the Sadaqa of Allah's Apostle, so order your Zakat officials to act accordingly." I took the document to Uthman. Uthman said, "Take it away, for we are not in need of it." I returned to Ali with it and informed him of that. He said, "Put it whence you took it.". Bukhari 4:220-221, hadith # 343

 

CONFLICT AMONG MUSLIMS FOR WORLDLY REASONS

Narrated Abei Al-Minhal: When Ibn Ziyad and Marwan were in Sha'm and Ibn Az-Zubair took over the authority in Mecca and Qurra' (the Kharijites) revolted in Basra, I went out with my father to Abu Barza Al-Aslami till we entered upon him in his house while he was sitting in the shade of a room built of cane. So we sat with him and my father started talking to him saying, "O Abu Barza! Don't you see in what dilemma the people has fallen?" The first thing heard him saying "I seek reward from Allah for myself because of being angry and scornful at the Quraish tribe. O you Arabs! You know very well that you were in misery and were few in number and misguided, and that Allah has brought you out of all that with Islam and with Muhammad till He brought you to this state (of prosperity and happiness) which you see now; and it is this worldly wealth and pleasures which has caused mischief to appear among you. The one who is in Sha'm (i.e., Marwan), by Allah, is not fighting except for the sake of worldly gain: and those who are among you, by Allah, are not fighting except for the sake of worldly gain; and that one who is in Mecca (i.e., Ibn Az-Zubair) by Allah, is not fighting except for the sake of worldly gain.". Bukhari 9:176-177, hadith # 228

 

GOING TO THE DESERT TO AVOID FITNA:

"narrated Salama bin Al-Akwa that he visited Al-Hajjaj ( bin Yusuf ). Al Hajjaj said, " On son of Al Akwa! You have turned on your heels ( i.e. deserted Islam ) by staying ( in the desert ) with the bedouins." Salama replied, No, but Allah's Apostle ( may peace be upon him ) allowed me to stay with the bedouin in the desert." Narrated Yazid bin Abi Ubaid: When Uthman bin Affan was killed ( martyred ) Salama bin Al Akua went out to a place called Ar Rabadha and married there and begot children, and he stayed there till a few nights before his death when he came to Medina". Bukhari 9:163, hadith # 209

 

TOLERATE DIFFERENCES; DISPUTES ARE A SOURCE OF WEAKNESS:

"Narrated Abdullah: I heard a man reciting a verse (of the Holy Qur'an ) but I had heard the Prophet ( may peace be upon him ) reciting it differently. So, I caught hold of the the man by the hand and took him to Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him ) who said, " Both of you are right. " Shuba, the subnarrator said, "I think he said to them, " Don't differ, for the nations before you differed and perished ( because of their differences). Bukhari 3:350, hadith # 593

 

PROPHET SETTLED DISPUTE OF PEOPLE ABOUT DIFFERENT READINGS OF THE QUR'AN:

"Narrated Umar Ibn al Khattab: I heard Hisham bin Al-Hakim reciting Surat al-Furqan during the life time of Allah's Apostle ( may peace be upon him ). I listened to his recitation and noticed that he recited it in several different ways which Allah's Apostle ( may peace be upon him ) had not taught me. So I was about to jump over him during his prayer but I waited till he finished his prayer whereupon I put, either his upper garment or my upper garment around his neck and seized him by it and asked him, " Who has taught you this Sura?" He replied, " Allah's Apostle ( may peace be upon him ) has taught it to me." I said ( to him ), " You have told a lie! By Allah, Allah's Apostle ( may peace be upon him ) has taught me this Sura which I have heard you reciting." So I dragged him to Allah's Apostle ( may peace be upon him ). I said, " O Allah's Apostle! I have heard  this man reciting Sura al Furqan in a way which you have not taught me, and you did teach me Sura al Furqan. On that Allah's Apostle ( May peace be upon him ) said, " O Umar, release him! Recite, O Hisham." So Hisham recited before him in the way as I had heard him reciting. Allah's Apostle ( may peace be upon him ) said, " It has been revealed like this." Then Allah's Apostle ( may peace be upon him ) said, " Recite, O Umar. So I recited it.  The Prophet ( may peace be upon him ) said, " It has been revealed like this." And then he added, " This Qur'an has been revealed to be recited in seven different ways, so recite it which ever way is easier for you".. Bukhari 3;355, hadith # 601

 

AVOIDANCE/INVOLVEMENT IN CONFLICTS:

 "Narrated Abu Wail: Abu Musa and Abu Masud went to Ammar when Ali had sent him to Kufa to exhort them to fight ( on Ali's side ). They said to him, " Since you have become a Muslim, we have never seen you doing a deed more criticisable to us than your haste in this matter." Ammar said, " Since you ( both ) became Muslims, I have never seen you doing a deed more criticisable to me than your keeping away from this matter." Then Abu Masud provided Ammar and Abu Musa with two piece outfits to wear, and one of them went to the mosque of Kufa". Bukhari 9:172, hadith # 222

 

SETTLING DISPUTES BY MUTUAL FORGIVENESS

Narrated Abu Ad-Darda : While I was sitting with the Prophet, Abu Bakr came, lifting up one corner of his garment uncovering his knee, The Prophet said, " Your companion has had a quarrel." Abu Bakr greeted ( the Prophet ) and said, " O Allah's Apostle! There was some thing ( i.e. quarrel ) between me and the Son of Al-Khattab. I talked to him harshly and then regretted that, and requested him to forgive me, but he refused. This is why I have come to you. " The Prophet said thrice, " O Abu Bakr! May Allah forgive you." In the meanwhile, Umar regretted ( his refusal of Abu Bakr's excuse ) and went to Abu Bakr's house and asked if Abu Bakr was there. They replied in the negative. So he came to the Prophet and greeted him, but signs of displeasure appeared on the face of the Prophet till Abu Bakr puttied ( Umar ), so he knelt and said twice, " O Allah's Apostle ! By Allah ! I was more unjust to him ( than he to me ). The Prophet said, " Allah sent me ( as a Prophet ) to you ( people ) but you said ( to me ), you are telling a lie, while Abu Bakr said, He has said the truth, and consoled me with himself and his money." He then said twice, Won't you then give up harming my companion ? " After that nobody harmed Abu Bakr. Bukhari 5:8 ( hadith # 13 )

 

SETTLING A DISPUTE BY DIVERTING ATTENTION

'Umar ibn al Khattab had a servant charged with taking care of his horse. After the Campaign of Banu al Mustaliq was over, this servant crowded out one of the al Khazraj tribesmen from the proximity of the well. As they quarreled together the man from Khazraj called on al Ansar for help; the other called for help from al Muhajirun. 'Abdullah ibn Ubayy, who had accompanied the Muslim forces on this expedition in order to secure some booty, arose when he heard the call and, venting his old hatred of al Muhajirun as well as of Muhammad, said to al Ansar: "Indeed, al Muhajirun have not only crowded us here but even in our own homes. The case of our hospitality to them has been nothing short of the common saying, 'Feed your beast and one day it will devour you.' Surely when we return to Madinah, the stronger party shall force the evacuation of the weaker. Such is the fate that you have incurred with your own hands. You have allowed the Muslims to occupy your lands; you have willingly shared your wealth and crops with them. By God, if you could only deny them these privileges, they would have to leave you alone and seek somebody else's help." The news of this speech of 'Abdullah ibn Ubayy was soon reported to the Prophet of God. Muhammad, satisfied that operations against the enemy had all been completed, was visit­ing with 'Umar ibn al Khattab at the time. When the latter heard the report, 'Umar suggested that Bilal be sent out to kill him instantly. With his usual foresight, patience, experience, and sense of leadership, the Prophet declined 'Umar's suggestion, saying: "O 'Umar, what would the people think if they heard that Muhammad had begun to kill his own companions?" . Nonetheless, the Prophet calculated that unless he took some resolute action, the situation might worsen. He therefore com­manded his people to start off on their return to Madinah despite the inappropriateness of the hour. Ibn Ubayy in turn heard what had been reported to the Prophet, and he ran to him to deny the report and to explain that he had never entertained such ideas. This action did not affect Muhammad's resolution to command the return. He traveled with his people continuously throughout the whole day and night and most of the second morning until they could bear the desert sun no longer. As soon as the people dismounted or sat down, they were so exhausted that they fell asleep. Their exhaustion caused them to forget the affair of Ibn Ubayy; and after they had rested, they hurried to Madinah carrying the captives and booty from Banu al Mustaliq. One of those captives was Juwayriyyah, daughter of al Harith ibn Abu Dirar, the leader of the van­quished tribe. Life of Muhammad pp 328-329

 

OMAR SETTLED DISPUTE ABOUT INHERITANCE OF PROPHET'S PROPERTY:

Narrated Malik bin Aus: While. I was at home, the sun rose high and it got hot. Suddenly the messenger of Umar bin Al-Khattab came to me and said, "The chief of the believers has sent for you." So, I went along with him till I entered the place where Umar was sitting on a bedstead made of date palm leaves and covered with no mattress, and he was leaning over a leather pillow. I greeted him and sat down. He said, "O Malik! Some persons of your people who have families came to me and I have ordered that a gift should be given to them, so take it and distribute it among them." I said, "O chief of the believers! I wish that you order someone else to do it." He said, "O man! Take it." While I was sitting there with him, his doorman Yarfa' came saying, "Uthman, Abdur Rahman bin Auf, Az-Zubair and Sa'd bin Abi Waqqas. are asking your permission (to see you); may I admit them?" Umar said, "Yes", So they were admitted and they came in, greeted him, and sat down. After a while Yarfa came again and said, "May I admit Ali and Abbas?" Umar said, "yes." So, they were admitted and they came in and greeted (him) and sat down. Then Abbas said, "O chief of the believers! Judge between me and this (i.e. Ali). They had a dispute regarding the property of Bani An-Nadir which Allah had given to His Apostle as Fai'. The group (i.e. Uthman and his companions) said, "O chief of the believers! Judge between them and relieve both of them from each other." Umar said, "Be patient! I beseech you by Allah by Whose Permission the Heaven and the Earth exist, do you know that Allah's Apostle said, 'Our (i.e. prophets') property will not be inherited, and whatever we leave, is Sadaqa (to be used for charity),' and Allah's Apostle meant himself (by saying "we")?" The group said, "He said so." Umar then ned to Ali and Abbas and said, "I beseech you by Allah, do you know that Allah's Apostle said so?," They replied,  "He said so."  Umar then said, "So, I will talk to you about this matter. Allah bestowed on His Apostle with a special favor of something  this Fai'(booty) which He gave to nobody." Umar then recited the Holy Verses: - "What Allah bestowed as (Fai) Booty on his Apostle (Muhammad) from them‑‑‑for this you made no expedition with either cavalry or camelry: But Allah gives power to His Apostles over whomever He will And Allah is able to do all things." (59:6). Umar added, "So, this property was especially given to Allah's Apostle, but, by Allah, neither did he take possession of it and leave you, nor did he favor himself with it to your exclusion, but he gave it to all of you and distributed it amongst you till this property remained out of it. Allah's Apostle used to spend the yearly expenses of his family out of this property, and used to keep the rest of its revenue to be spent on Allah's Cause. Allah's Apostle kept on doing this during all his lifetime I ask you by Allah, do you know this?" They replied in the affirmative. Umar then said to Ali and Abbas. "I ask you by Allah, do you know this?" Umar added, "When Allah had taken His Prophet unto Him, Abu Bakr said, I am the successor of Allah's Apostle, so, Abu Bakr took over that property and managed it in the same way as Allah's Apostle used to do, and Allah knows that he was true, pious, and rightly guided, and he was a follower of what was right. Then Allah took Abu Bakr unto Him and I became Abu Bakr's successor, and I kept that property in my possession for the first two years of my Caliphate, managing in the same way as Allah's Apostle used to do and as Abu Bakr used to do, Allah knows that I have been true, pious, rightly guided, and a follower of what is right. Now you both (i.e. Ali and Abbas) came to talk to me, bearing the claim and presenting the same case;  you, Abbas, came to me asking for your share from your nephew's property, and this man, i.e. Ali, came to me asking for his wife's share from her father's property. I told you both that Allah's Apostle said, "Our (prophets') properties are not to, be inherited, but what we leave is Sadaqa (to be used for charity)." When I thought it right that I should hand over this property to you, I said to you, "I am ready to hand over this property to you if, you wish, on the condition that you would take Allah's Pledge and Convention that you would manage it in the same way as Allah's Apostle used to, and as Abu Bakr used to do, and as I have done, since I was incharge of it." So, both of you said (to me), "Hand it over to us," and on that condition I handed it over to you. So, I ask you by Allah, did I hand it over to them on this condition?" The group said, "Yes." Then Umar faced Ali and as saying, "I ask you by Allah, did I hand it over to you on this condition?" They said, "Yes." He said, "Do you want now to give a different decision? By Allah, by Whose Leave both the Heaven and the Earth exist, I will never give any decision other than that (I have already given). And if you are unable to manage it, then return it to me, and I will do the job on your behalf." Bukhari 4:209-213, hadith # 326

 

PROPHET RESOLVED DISPUTE AMONG CLANS OVER WHO WOULD PLACE THE BLACK STONE

Ibn Humayd‑Salamah‑Muhammad b. Ishaq‑certain narrators of traditions (Hadiths): A man of Quraysh who was among these demolishing it thrust a crowbar between two stones to prise one of them up. When the stone moved, the whole of Mecca shook, and then (they knew that) they had reached the foundations. The clans then gathered stones to rebuild the Kaabah. Each clan gathered them separately and built separately, and when the building reached the place where the Black Stone was to be put they began to dispute about it, since every clan wished to lift the Stone to its place to the exclusion of the other clans. They started to split up into factions, to form alliances, and to make agreements among themselves in preparation for battle. The Banu Abd al-Dar brought a bowl full of blood and made a compact with the Banu Adi b. Ka'b to support one another to the death. They thrust their hands into this bowl of blood, and were called "the bloodlickers" (la'aqat al-dam) on account of this. The Quraysh remained in this state for four or five days, and then they gathered in the mosque to consult together and to reach an equitable agreement. Some narrators assert that Abu Umayyah b. al-Mughirah, who at that time was the oldest member of Quraysh, said, "Men of Quraysh, make the first man who comes in at the door of this mosque the arbiter of your differences so that he may judge on the matter." The first man to come in was the Messenger of God, and when they saw him they said, "This is the trustworthy one (al-amin) with whom we are satisfied. This is Muhammad." He came up to them, and they told him about the matter, and he said, "Bring me a cloak." They brought him one, and he took the Black Stone and placed it on it with his own hands. Then he said, "Let each clan take one side of the cloak, and then lift it up all together." They did so, and when they had brought it to its place he put it in position with his own hands. Then they built on top of it before the revelation first came to him, Quraysh used to call the Messenger of God "the trustworthy one." Tabari 6:58-59

 

PEACE BETWEEN HASAN AND MUAWIYAH:

Narrated Al-Hasan (Al-Basri): By Allah, Al-Hasan bin Ali led large battalions like mountains against Mu'awiya. Amr bin Al'As said (to Mu'awiya), "I surely see battalions which will not turn back before killing their opponents." Mu'awiya who was really the best of the two men said to him, "O Amr! If these killed those and those killed these, who would be left with me for the jobs of the public, who would be left with me for their women, who would be left with me for their children?" Then. Mu'awiya sent two Quraishi men from the tribe of Abd-i-Shams called Abdur Rahman bin Sumura and Abdullah bin Amir bin Kuraiz to Al-Hasan saying to them, "Go to this man (i.e. Al-Hasan) and negotiate peace with him and talk and appeal to him." So, they went to Al-Hasan and talked and appealed to him to accept peace. Al-Hasan said, "We, the offspring of Abdul Muttalib, have got wealth and people have indulged in killing and corruption (and money only will appease them)." They said to Al-Hasan,"Mu'awiya offers you so and so, and appeals to you and entreats you to accept peace." Al-Hasan said to them, "But who will be responsible for what you have said?" They said, "We will be responsible for it." So, whatever Al-Hasan asked they said, "We will be responsible for it for you." So, AlHasan concluded a peace treaty with Mu'awiya. Al-Hasan (Al-Basri) said: I heard Abu Bakr saying, I saw Allah's Apostle on the pulpit and Al-Hasan bin Ali was by his side. The Prophet was looking once at the people and once at Al-Hasan bin Ali saying, "This son of mine is a Saiyid (i.e. a noble) and may Allah make peace between two big groups of Muslims through him." Bukhari 3:541-542

Professor  Omar Hasan Kasule July 1996