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ISLAMIC MEDICAL EDUCATION RESOURCES 04

9605-EVALUATION

Dr Omar Hasan Kasule, Sr. MB ChB, MPH, DrPH (Harvard) Professor of Medicine & Director, Training Center, International Islamic University PO Box 70 Jln Sultan PJ 46700 Telephone 60 3 755 3433 fax 60 3 757 7970 Seminar on ‘Building Leaders of the Community,’ Madrasah Wak Tanjomg al islamiah, Singapore  31 May-1 June 1996

Abstract

This paper presents evaluation as an essential function for the organization and the individual to learn from previous experiences and improve future performance. The paper presents the basis for evaluation in Islam, techniques and uses of evaluation. Case studies from the seerah are used to explain the main concepts discussed.

 

KEY WORDS/CONCEPTSı: evaluation, reinforcement, objectives of evaluation, benefits of evaluation, types of evaluation, project evaluation, self-evaluation, evaluation of individual workers, limitations of evaluation

 

1.0 OBJECTIVES OF EVALUATION

 

Evaluation has the following specific objectives: (a) assessing whether objectives were achieved (b) assessing efficiency of execution (c) assessing effectiveness of projects (d) Learning from experience

 

2.0  BENEFITS/USES OF EVALUATION

 

Evaluation has the following benefits: (a) identifying success and reinforcement (b) Helping the management see areas of weakness so that corrective measures can be taken to improve (c) Reassure workers that they are moving well (d) Reassure stake-holders that the organization is being run well (e) Gain confidence of supporters and donors

 

3.0 BASIS FOR EVALUATION IN THE QUR'AN AND SUNNAH:

 

The Qur’an gives us the basis for evaluation when it emphasizes accountability for all actions small or big (1,2). It also talks about reward and punishment. The law of causality applies here. There will be no results without effort. Good effort will show good results on evaluation. Bad effort will show poor results on evaluation. Credit for good work goes to those who did the work and it is wrong for anyone else to claim it (3). In Muslim history the nascent Muslim community in Madina learned many lessons from the setback at Uhud that made future efforts better (4).

 

4.0 TYPES OF EVALUATION:

 

Evaluation processes can be classified according to what is What is evaluated (process or the end-results), who undertakes the evaluation (internal or external) and when the evaluation is carried out (during or at the end of the project).

 

5.0 PROJECT EVALUATION

 

Project evaluation starts with making a research design. The design could be experimental or quasi experimental.

 

Data collection could take any of the following forms: direct observation, Questionnaire, Interview, Records review, and Performance/knowledge tests. It is important to judge by what you can see and not infer because biases and mistakes are likely (5)

 

The following criteria are used to judge project success: keeping the schedule, finishing within budget, meeting all project objectives, and meeting stakeholder expectations

 

The results of the evaluation are presented in a project final report which should consist of the following headings: objectives, project schedule, review of project process, problems encountered and how they were resolved, and recommendations for future projects.

 

6.0 SELF EVALUATION

 

Self-evaluation is very difficult but yet very important (6,7). Only the most mature, most self-confident, and most sincere people are capable of looking at themselves in mirror and deal objectively with their performance, negative or positive.

 

Ask yourself the following questions: What have you done well?, What could you have done better?, What further training do you need?, What can you do to improve the project processes?

 

7.0 EVALUATION OF INDIVIDUAL WORKERS

 

Managers are called upon to evaluate those working under them. The purposes of evaluation are:  determining rewards, improving future performance, identifying high potential employees, and identify problems & addressing them 

 

Workers benefit from evaluation in the following ways: knowing their progress, identifying areas of improvement, and rewards for good performance

 

Managers benefit from evaluation in knowing worker abilities and putting them in the right places or giving them the right jobs.

 

Methods of evaluation may be formal or informal. Informal evaluation is less stressful to both the manager and the worker.

 

Preparation for evaluation involves reviewing goals of the organization or the project, reviewing performance criteria/targets, and getting all the needed background data to make sure the evaluation is objective.

 

The following tips for evaluation of an individual worker are needed: giving advance warning, explaining the purpose of evaluation, sticking to facts, listening to the employee, avoiding direct criticism, giving feedback, pinpoint areas of improvement, and concluding on a positive note

 

8.0 LIMITATIONS OF EVALUATION

 

Evaluation is post action. It answers the question whether the objectives of the plan are achieved.

 

Evaluation is too late to be of use to the current project. Its findings are however useful for future projects that are of a similar nature (8).

 

Evaluation tends to be affected a lot by the activities towards the end of the project. A project that has been performing badly may get a good evaluation when it ends well; all is well that ends well. A project that was performing well throughout its life may get a bad evaluation when it fails towards the end (9).

 

Evaluation is judgment by what you see. The inner intentions and motivation can never be known.

 

There are a few cases when evaluation is unfair. The outward results may not reflect all the intentions, sincerity, and commitment of the worker. There is little that can be done to alleviate this unfairness because the factors involved cannot measured objectively by humans.

 

TEXT

(1) EVERY ACTION HOWEVER SMALL WILL BE ACCOUNTED FOR:

Then shall anyone who has done an atom's weight of good, see it! And anyone who has done an atom's weight of evil, shall see it.

Qur'an 99:7-8

 

(2) EVERYONE IS PERSONALLY ACCOUNTABLE:

Namely, that no bearer of burdens can bear the burden of another. That man can have nothing but what he strives for. That ( the fruit of ) his striving will soon come in sight. Then will he be rewarded with a reward complete. Qur'an 53:38-41

 

(3) CONDEMNING THOSE WHO CLAIM CREDIT FOR THINGS THEY DID NOT DO

Think not that those who exult in what they have brought about, and love to be praised for what they have not done think  not that they can escape the Penalty. For them is a Penalty Grievous indeed.

Qur'an 3:188

 

(4) EVALUATION OF UHUD:

Allah did indeed fulfill his promise to you when you with his permission were about to annihilate your enemy until you flinched and fell to disputing about the order and disobeyed it after he brought you in sight ( of the Booty ) which you covet. among you are some that hanker after this world and some that desire the hereafter. Then did he divert you from your foes in order to test you. But he forgave you for Allah is full of grace to those who believe.

Qur'an 3:152

 

(5) JUDGE BY WHAT YOU SEE; THE INSIDE IN UNKNOWN:

"Narrated Umar bin al Khattab : People were ( sometimes ) judged by the revealing of a Divine Inspiration during the lifetime of Allah's Apostle but now there is no longer any more ( new revelation ). Now we judge you by the deeds you practice publicly, so we will trust and favor the one who does good deeds in front of us, and we will not call him to account about what he is really doing in secret, for Allah will judge him for that; but we will not trust or believe the one who presents to us with an evil deed even if he claims that his intentions were good"

Bukhari 3:491, hadith # 809

 

(6) SELF EVALUATION:

" Hadrat Thabit Ibn Jajjaj ( Rad ) says that Umar ( Rad ) said, " Weigh your own selves before you are yourself weighed ( by Allah, concerning your deeds ) If you do so today, then tomorrow, on the Day of Judgment, you will have an easy reckoning. So prepare yourself for the Great Reckoning well in advance before comes the Day whereon you shall be mustered nothing hidden by you shall be hidden Hayat 2:701

 

(7) SELF EVALUATION:

"Hadrat Anas Ibn Malik ( Rad ) says that one day he was accompanying Umar ( Rad ) and he entered into a garden. There was a small parapet in between us the two and he heard him saying, O the Commander of the Faithfuls! Fear Allah or Allah will surely punish you" ( This he said to his own self. )

Hayat 2: 701

 

(8) EVALUATION TOO LATE FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION

"Ali bin Abi Talib said, " The world is going backwards and the Hereafter is coming forwards, and each of the two has its own children; so you should be the children of the Hereafter, and do not be the children of this world, for today there is  action ( good or bad deeds ) but no accounts, and tomorrow there will be accounts, but ( there will be ) no deeds to be done"

Bukhari 8:285

 

(9) THE LAST ACTIONS DETERMINE HOW GOOD JOB IS

"Narrated Sahl As-Sadi: The Prophet looked at a man fighting against the pagans and he was one of the most competent persons fighting on behalf of the Muslims. The Prophet said, " Let him who wants to look at a man from the dwellers of the ( Hell ) fire, look at this ( man )" Another man followed him and kept on following him till he ( the fighter ) was injured and seeking of die quickly he placed the blade tip of his sword between his breasts and leaned over it till it passed through his shoulders ( i.w. committed suicide)." The Prophet added, " A person may do deeds that seem to the people as  the deeds of the people of Paradise while in fact, he is from the dwellers of the ( Hell ) fire; and similarly a person may do deeds that seem to the people as deeds of the people of the ( Hell ) fire while in fact, he from the dwellers of Paradise. Verily the ( results of ) deeds done, depend upon the last actions"

Bukhari 8:330-331, hadith # 506

 

CASE STUDY #1: GHAZWAT UHUD

According to Harun b. Ishaq--Mus'ab b. al‑Miqdam--Isra'll; and lalso) Ibn Waki'--his father--Isra'll--Abu Ishaq--al‑Bara': When it was the day of Uhud and the Messenger of God met the polytheists, he stationed certain men as archers and put them un­der the command of 'Abd Allah b. Jubayr, with the order, "If you see us victorious over them, do not leave your position, and if you see them victorious over us, do not come to our assistance." When battle was joined, the polytheists were put to flight, and I saw the women tucking up their skirts in flight and exposing their anklets. A cry went up of "Booty, booty!" 'Abd Allah said, "Not so fast! Do you not know the orders the Messenger of God gave you?" They refused to listen to him, however, and left. When they reached the others, God turned away their faces and seventy of the Muslims were killed.

Tabari 7:113

 

 

CASE STUDY #2: EVALUATION OF THE JISR DEBACLE

Rustam asked, "Which of the Persians is the strongest in fighting the Arabs in your opinion?" They answered, "Bahman Jadhuyah." Therefore he dispatched him along with elephants. He also sent back al‑Jalinus with him and said to him, "Send al‑Jalinus ahead. If he returns to the like of his defeat, then cut off his head." Bahman Jadhuyah advanced, having with him the Great Standard (dirafsh kabiyan) the standard of Kisra, which was made of tiger skins to a length of eighty cubits by a width of twelve cubits. Abu 'Ubayd advanced to stop at al‑Marwahah, where the tower and the bend in the river are. Bahman Jadhuyah sent a message to him, "Either you cross over to us, and we will allow you to cross, or else you let us cross over to you." The men said, "Do not cross, O Abu 'Ubayd! We will prevent you from crossing." They also told him, "Say to them that they should cross over." Among the harshest of the people against him regarding that was Salit. But Abu 'Ubayd was unyield­ing and left aside the [wise] opinion, saying, "They will not risk death more than we. Rather, we will cross over to them." Thus, they crossed over to the enemy, who were in a narrow site with regard to both pursuit and flight. They fought for a day, Abu 'Ubayd having with him between six and ten [thousand men] until, when it was the day's end and a man from among the Thaqif considered the victory to be slow [in com­ing], he drew the men [closer] together. The two sides struck each other with swords. Abu 'Ubayd struck the elephant, while the ele­phant hit Abu 'Ubayd. The swords had worked quickly among the Persians of whom six thousand were struck down in the melee. Only defeat remained and was expected [by them]. But when Abu 'Ubayd was hit and the elephant stood upon him, the Muslims fled and then continued in flight. The Persians rode down on them. A man from the Thaqif, getting to the bridge first, cut it. The troops tben reached it, while the swords were taking them from behind and fell into the Euphrates. They struck down four thousand of the Muslims on that day between those drowned and killed. Al‑Mu­thanna protected the troops, as did 'Asim, al‑Kalaj al‑Dabbi, and Madh'ur, until they repaired the bridge and brought the men across. Then they [themselves] crossed in their traces. They stayed at al­-Marwahah, while al‑Muthanna lay wounded, and also al‑Kalaj, Madh'uri and 'Asim, who were the protectors of the troops along with al‑Muthanna. Many of the men fled, taking their own way, and so disgraced themselves and felt ashamed of what had happened to them. [News of] it reached 'Umar from certain of those who had sought refuge in Medina. He said, "Worshippers of God! O God, every Muslim is absolved of his oath to me. I am the party of every Muslim May God have mercy on Abu 'Ubayd; if he had crossed and then taken refuge on the riverside or had he retreated to us, not trying to defy death, we would have been his party [of supporters]."

 

WORKSHOP DISCUSSIONS

 

WORKSHOP DISCUSSION #1: EVALUATION OF GHAZWAT UHUD

                        Answer the following questions about uhud:

                        (a) What went wrong?

                        (b) How was it identified?

                        (c) When was it identified?

                        (d) What was the corrective action taken?

                        (e) How could the results of this evaluation benefit planning of similar events in the future?

 

WORKSHOP DISCUSSION #2: EVALUATION OF THE DEBACLE AT THE BRIDGE

                        Answer the following questions about the Jisr debacle:

                        (a) What went wrong?

                        (b) How was it identified?

                        (c) When was it identified?,

                        (d) What was the corrective action taken?

                        (e) How could the results of this evaluation benefit planning of similar events in the future?

 

WORKSHOP DISCUSSION #3: EVALUATION OF YOUR ORGANIZATION

 Think of a successful program or project in your organization that you know well or were intimately involved with and make an evaluation using the following criteria:

 

                        (a) What went wrong?

                        (b) How was it identified?

                        (c) When was it identified?

                        (d) What was the corrective action taken?

                        (e) How could the results of this evaluation benefit planning of similar events in the future?

 

WORKSHOP DISCUSSION #4: EVALUATION OF A CRITICAL INCIDENT

Think of a critical incidence you know or have read about and answer the following questions:

(a) What happened?

(b) What were the consequences?

(c) Why did it happen?

(d) Could it have been anticipated?

(e) What early signals were ignored?

(f) When was the problem first recognized?

(g) Who should have reacted?

(h) Why did he/she not react as needed?

(I) What did we learn from the incident?

 

WORKSHOP DISCUSSION #5: STAKEHOLDER EVALUATION

Think of a project you read or know about and answer the following questions:

(a) Who are the stakeholders?

(b) Did stakeholders change during the project?

(c) Did the project fulfill expectations?

(d) Did the project address needs?

(e) Did the project satisfy benefits?

(f) Did the project produce results needed?

 

WORKSHOP DISCUSSION #6: PROJECT LIFE CYCLE

Answer the following questions about a project you know or read about. For each criterion indicate yes or no

(a) Feasibility study present

(b) Timetables realistic

(c) Responsibility and authority clear

(d) Objectives clarified

(e) Milestones fixed

(f) Tasks identified and allocated

(g) Resources estimated correctly

(h) Documented control system

(I) Lines of communication

(j) Monitoring cost

(k) Termination

 

WORKSHOP DISCUSSION #7: PROJECT TEAM

Answer the following questions about a project team that you know or read about. For each criterion indicate satisfactory/unsatisfactory

(a) Team working together

(b) Conflict resolution

(c) Team leadership

(d) Team motivation

 

WORKSHOP DISCUSSION #8: PROJECT SUCCESS

Think of a project that you know or read about and indicate (satisfactory/unsatisfactory) for each of the following factors of success

(a) Project base

(b) Planning

(c) Organization

(d) Control

(e) Monitoring

(f) Tracking

(g) Stakeholders

(h) Project leader

(I) Team performance

 

WORKSHOP DISCUSSION #9: PROCESS FACTORS

Think of a project that you know or read about and indicate (satisfactory/unsatisfactory) for each of the following process factors

(a) Setting objectives

(b) Support of senior management

(c) Stakeholder consultation

(d) Project team

(e) Project plans

(f) Control system

(g) Tasking/work breakdown

(h) Stakeholder approval

(I) Monitoring

(j) Communication

© Professor  Omar Hasan Kasule May 1996