39.3 PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTATION, takhtiit wa tanfiidh al mashariie
By Professor Omar Hasan Kasule Sr.
39.3.1 ACTION/TACTICAL PLANNING
An action plan implements portion of the strategic plan. It covers 1-2 years.Planning may be bottom-up (decentralisation) or top-down (centralisation) depending on the circumstances.
Its 2 components are determination of objectives / expression of intention (niyyat) and formulation of actions to achieve
objectives. The planning process must follow systematic and rational stages: environmental analysis, stating vision and mission,
niyyat and commitment, setting goals and objectives, collecting and analyzing information, making assumptions/forecasts about
missing information, searching for opportunities, considering all alternative solutions, deciding on the best alternative,
formulating action plans, communicating, setting up control mechanisms, execution of the plan, follow-up and follow-through,
and evaluation using goals as criteria. Plans must be reviewed regularly. The time scheduling should allow float time to absorb
delays. A good plan must make allowance for the human factor because humans are not perfect. Each action plan must include
contingencies in case the main plan does not work or faces unforeseen obstacles. A good action plan Detailed planning for
each task: who is responsible?, methodology, timing, place, human resources, non-human resources, expected result, and criteria
39.3.2 PROJECT PLANNING & APPRAISAL
A project is a group of activities carried out with clearly defined time and cost to reach specific
objectives. The stages of a project are conception, feasibility study, project planning, implementation, termination, and
evaluation. The advantages of project planning are: reducing risk, clarifying objectives, setting standards for performance,
setting up structures for implementation, and setting up a control system. Each project must have a project director and a
project team. A project director must be appointed very early in the life of the project and should participate in the planning
process. The project Team is set up and the project is explained to them. Stakeholders must be identified for each stage of
the project. Key stages and milestones of the project must be identified. Human and financial resources must be budgeted.
The plan must be updated continuously during implementation.
What is planned must be put into action. Actions must be consistent with words (Qur'an ). Tasks once
started must be completed. The components of Implementation are inputs, transformation, and outputs (products or services).
The implementation strategy must be built in the action plan. An equilibrium is needed between effectiveness (achieving targets)
and efficiency (doing things right at minimum cost). The requirements for successful implementation are vision, good planning,
follow-up, follow-through, proper knowledge and skills, clear well written goals, clear priorities, a clear plan of action,
and emphasis on quality. Implementation fails due to unclear vision, too big goals, unpleasant tasks, Indecision, lack of
confidence, Poor planning, inadequate time, and Distractions. The stages of implementation are planning, mobilization of resources,
definition of tasks, assignment of tasks, and assuring completion. All concerned must be in the information loop. Implementors
must manage multiple priorities, budget time, benefiting deadline crises, accept some degree of risk, and have contingency
plans for unforeseen situations. Successful implementation requires pro-activity, simplicity, intuition from experience, incremental
approach, keeping records, human skills, delegation, good communication, and negotiation. The terminal stages of the project
are as important as the start and must be planned carefully.