39.1.1 DEFINITION AND FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT
Management is a process, a series of actions and activities or operations that lead to some end. Management
can be looked at as a rational scientific process or as a process of human interaction. Scientific management pre-supposes
ability to select, train, motivate and supervise workers by rational, scientific, and measurable criteria. A human relations
approach aims at making the worker psychologically and emotionally satisfied so that he may be productive. The human approach
to management will in the end produce the best results. Management should not be looked at as a complicated matter. It can
be simple and straight-forward. It is true to say that management of people is just plain common sense. The core function
of management is problem-solving. Other functions include: decision-making, planning, organizing, controlling, evaluating,
communication, negotiation, and coordination.
39.1.2 THE MANAGER
A manager gets others to produce and not to produce himself. Thus a manager must know how to get good
performance out of others. A good manager can manage anything with sufficient resources. Management need not be specialized.
The same general principles that are used in one organization can be used in another one with some modifications. This is
because management is basically dealing with people and not the technology or the environment. Whoever knows how to manage
people can manage them wherever they are. A good manager is realistic, has good and effective communication skills, is persistent,
is firm but flexible, and is motivated, as well as being motivating for others. A good manager has the following attributes:
realism, good communication, persistence, and motivation.
39.1 3 MANAGEMENT IN THE ORGANIZATION
Span of control refers to the number of people or projects that a manager can personally supervise.
Span of control can be extended by more delegation and better control. The manager
should not try to be personally everywhere all the time. Organizational communication can be improved by using all lines of
communication. Vertical communication is between superiors and subordinates and can be up-down or down-up. Horizontal communication
is between peers. Diagonal communication cuts across the vertical hierarchical system and across administrative subdivisions.
Multiple channels should be used: oral, written etc. The following methods can be used in an organization: counselling, grievance
procedures, attitude surveys, ombudsmen, open door policy, suggestions box, periodic meetings, written material, and social
gatherings. The organizational grapevine can be positive or negative. Important information especially about attitudes or
fears can only come from the grapevine. It however also conveys wrong or misleading rumors. You must learn to deal with rumors
effectively. Listen to them because some of the information may be true. Provide correct information formally and informally
to counteract the rumors. A manager requires the following resources in order to produce results: people, money, physical
assets, time, and information. People are the most important and most valued resource. With good people the other resources
can be generated.
39.1.4 MANAGEMENT: STYLES and PROBLEMS
Management styles can be classified based on exercise of power or activity. In the exercise of power
managers can be divided into the following categories: exploitative authoritative, benevolent authoritative, consultative
and participative, laisser-faire or hands-off. Managers can be classified according to activities as follows: directing, coaching,
supporting, supporting, and delegating. Management by objectives (MBO) is a process of setting goals, delegation, and reviewing
achievements in the light of the set objectives. The causes of management failure are poor human skills, limited resources,
poor MIS, ignorance of stakeholders, political infighting, bureaucratic interference, moving goal posts, and challenge to
39.1.5 MANAGEMENT IN QUR’AN and SUNNAT
The Qur’an enjoins recruitment of capable workers who have strength and honesty. Specialization
necessary. The worker should not be compelled to work beyond capability. Omar used to check on his workers. The prophet used
delegation in many instances.