28.5.1 WAGE EMPLOYMENT, ijarah
Ijarah is employment in return for wages. Living on earnings of one's labor is honor. Earning a living
from a despised job is better than begging. Agreed wages should be paid in full. Early payment of wages is required. If the
employer invests unclaimed wages, he will have to pay the employee the profits earned. Non-payment of wages is a serious crime.
It is allowed to take a salary for teaching fiqh and hadith if the teacher is in need. It is however not permissible to pay
a person to read Qur’an as a donation to a deceased. Payment for ruqya is allowed. Any earnings from astrology is haram.
28.5.2 LEASING/RENTING, i'arah
Iarat is when you lend someone an animal to benefit from the milk and he returns the animal after that.
It is not permissible to rent a house to someone who will use it for ma’asiyat.
28.5.3 MODERN FORMS OF TRADE
Stocks bought in a company are an infusion of capital. The buyer of the stock benefits when the company
profits thus raising the value of the stock. The stock can also fall in value if the company performs poorly. Stocks can be
sold and bought from others at any time. Stock transactions involve al element of speculation but unlike riba transactions
they do not guarantee any profit, both profit and loss are likely. The consensus of scholars is that stock transactions are
permitted unless the company involved is trading in forbidden goods or is undertaking prohibited activities.
This is a highly speculative activity involving buying and selling commodities like oil and crops that
are not yet produced. There are special exchanges where commodity contracts can be sold or bought with loss or profit.
Currency exchange is allowed of no delay in involved. Exchange of the same amount of currency must
be done at once. Gold can be sold for silver in any way you like. A dinar can be exchanged for a dinar if the transaction
is carried out on the spot. Gold cannot be sold for silver on credit.
Freedom of exchange of halaal goods and services within the country is highly desirable because it
produces an efficient economic system. Free trade at the international level may not serve national or ummatic interests in
some cases and care must be taken.
28.5.4 PUBLIC DEBT
Government expenditure can by design or unpredictably exceed the revenues necessitating borrowing to
cover the deficit. The citizens, including those not yet born, will be responsible for paying this debt in the form of taxes.
28.5.5 LOST AND FOUND
The lost, al luqtat, is announced for one year then it is placed in the property of the finder. Hiding
a lost item is prohibited. The finder’s fee is called al ja’ala.