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ISLAMIC MEDICAL EDUCATION RESOURCES 04

23.2 CARDIO-RESPIRATORY SYSTEM, qalb & jihaaz al tanaffus

By Professor Omar Hasan Kasule Sr.

23.2.1 UPPER RESPIRATORY DISORDERS

A person with URTI can be excused from leading salat because of difficulty in recitation of the Qur’an. Infectious patients should not pray in the mosque and should restrict their social interactions.

 

23.2.2 LOWER RESPIRATORY DISORDERS

Dypnoeic patients should limit their physical movements in salat and hajj. Repetitive cough may make recitation in salat difficult. Hemoptysis does not void wudhu and fasting. Patients with pneumonia or pneumonitis will experience pain on recitation and prostration. Patients on respiratory support cannot recite Qur’an during salat.

 

23.2.3 VASCULAR DISORDERS

Orthostatic hypotension is avoided by shortening the recitation to avoid standing for a long time, prolonged sitting between prostrations, frequent periods of rest and sitting down during rites of hajj like tawaaf.  Syncope necessitates delay of salat, hajj rites, and judicial proceedings. Caution must be taken because physical exertion in salat, hajj and coitus may trigger a coronary attack or rupture of an aneurysm. Patients with intermittent claudification, varicose veins, phlebitis, and thrombophlebitis should make tayammum and avoid very water for wudhu and must be cautious in salat movements or sitting down for tashahhud. In DVT, movements of the lower limb in salat and hajj are limited for fear or dislodging an embolus. Prior prolonged sitting predisposes to embolus formation.

 

23.2.4 DISEASES OF THE HEART

Benefits of surgical correction of congenital heart disease are weighed against the risk of surgery in small children. In cases of mitral stenosis, mitral incompetence, and restrictive pericarditis, physical exertion in salat and hajj can lead to more severe decompensation.

 

23.2.5 CIRCULAATORY DISORDERS

Patients in CCF may be too weak to pray. Standing up for prolonged periods in salat may worsen the lower leg edema and compromise venous return even further. The muscle movements of salat may however have a beneficial effect in venous return. Fasting in CCF is not recommended. Hajj is better postponed in CCF because the patient may not be able to withstand the extra physical exertion involved. In states of shock the physical movements of salat and hajj are not possible and Fasting is not allowed because of the need to replace body fluids.

(c) Professor Omar Hasan Kasule Sr. 2004